Dictionary Of The English Language "Str"
Entries are from pre-1900 editions of Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
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Strabism
n.
(Med.) Strabismus.
Strabismometer
n.
(Med.) An instrument for measuring the amount of strabismus.
Strabismus
n.
(Med.) An affection of one or both eyes, in which the optic axes can not be directed to the same object, — a defect due either to undue contraction or to undue relaxation of one or more of the muscles which move the eyeball; squinting; cross-eye.
Strabotomy
n.
(Surg.) The operation for the removal of squinting by the division of such muscles as distort the eyeball.
Straddle
v. i.
• To part the legs wide; to stand or to walk with the legs far apart.
• To stand with the ends staggered; — said of the spokes of a wagon wheel where they join the hub.
v. t.
• To place one leg on one side and the other on the other side of; to stand or sit astride of; as, to straddle a fence or a horse.
n.
• The act of standing, sitting, or walking, with the feet far apart.
• The position, or the distance between the feet, of one who straddles; as, a wide straddle.
• A stock option giving the holder the double privilege of a "put" and a "call," i. e., securing to the buyer of the option the right either to demand of the seller at a certain price, within a certain time, certain securities, or to require him to take at the same price, and within the same time, the same securities.
Straddling
a.
• Applied to spokes when they are arranged alternately in two circles in the hub. See Straddle, v. i., and Straddle, v. t., 3.
Stradometrical
a.
• Of, or relating to, the measuring of streets or roads.
Straggle
v. i.
• To wander from the direct course or way; to rove; to stray; to wander from the line of march or desert the line of battle; as, when troops are on the march, the men should not straggle.
• To wander at large; to roam idly about; to ramble.
• To escape or stretch beyond proper limits, as the branches of a plant; to spread widely apart; to shoot too far or widely in growth.
• To be dispersed or separated; to occur at intervals.
n.
• The act of straggling.
Straggler
n.
• One who straggles, or departs from the direct or proper course, or from the company to which he belongs; one who falls behind the rest; one who rambles without any settled direction.
• A roving vagabond.
• Something that shoots, or spreads out, beyond the rest, or too far; an exuberant growth.
• Something that stands alone or by itself.
Straggling
a. & n.
• from Straggle, v.
Stragglingly
adv.
• In a straggling manner.
Stragulum
n.
(Zool.) The mantle, or pallium, of a bird.
Straight
a.
• A variant of Strait, a.
a.
• Right, in a mathematical sense; passing from one point to another by the nearest course; direct; not deviating or crooked; as, a straight line or course; a straight piece of timber.
(Bot.) Approximately straight; not much curved; as, straight ribs are such as pass from the base of a leaf to the apex, with a small curve.
(Card Playing) Composed of cards which constitute a regular sequence, as the ace, king, queen, jack, and ten-spot; as, a straight hand; a straight flush.
• Conforming to justice and rectitude; not deviating from truth or fairness; upright; as, straight dealing.
• Unmixed; undiluted; as, to take liquor straight.
• Making no exceptions or deviations in one's support of the organization and candidates of a political party; as, a straight Republican; a straight Democrat; also, containing the names of all the regularly nominated candidates of a party and no others; as, a straight ballot.
adv.
• In a straight manner; directly; rightly; forthwith; immediately; as, the arrow went straight to the mark.
n.
(Poker) A hand of five cards in consecutive order as to value; a sequence. When they are of one suit, it is calles straight flush.
v. t.
• To straighten.
Straightedge
n.
• A board, or piece of wood or metal, having one edge perfectly straight, — used to ascertain whether a line is straight or a surface even, and for drawing straight lines.
Straighten
v. t.
• To make straight; to reduce from a crooked to a straight form.
• To make right or correct; to reduce to order; as, to straighten one's affairs; to straighten an account.
v. t.
• A variant of Straiten.
Straightener
n.
• One who, or that which, straightens.
Straightforth
adv.
• Straightway.
Straightforward
a.
• Proceeding in a straight course or manner; not deviating; honest; frank.
adv.
• In a straightforward manner.
Straighthorn
n.
(Paleon.) An orthoceras.
Straightly
adv.
• In a right line; not crookedly.
adv.
• A variant of Straitly. See 1st Straight.
Straightness
n.
• The quality, condition, or state, of being straight; as, the straightness of a path.
n.
• A variant of Straitness.
Straightway
adv.
• Immediately; without loss of time; without delay.
Straightways
adv.
• Straightway.
Straik
n.
• A strake.
Strain
n.
• Race; stock; generation; descent; family.
• Hereditary character, quality, or disposition.
• Rank; a sort.
v. t.
• To draw with force; to extend with great effort; to stretch; as, to strain a rope; to strain the shrouds of a ship; to strain the cords of a musical instrument.
(Mech.) To act upon, in any way, so as to cause change of form or volume, as forces on a beam to bend it.
• To exert to the utmost; to ply vigorously.
• To stretch beyond its proper limit; to do violence to, in the matter of intent or meaning; as, to strain the law in order to convict an accused person.
• To injure by drawing, stretching, or the exertion of force; as, the gale strained the timbers of the ship.
• To injure in the muscles or joints by causing to make too strong an effort; to harm by overexertion; to sprain; as, to strain a horse by overloading; to strain the wrist; to strain a muscle.
• To squeeze; to press closely.
• To make uneasy or unnatural; to produce with apparent effort; to force; to constrain.
• To urge with importunity; to press; as, to strain a petition or invitation.
• To press, or cause to pass, through a strainer, as through a screen, a cloth, or some porous substance; to purify, or separate from extraneous or solid matter, by filtration; to filter; as, to strain milk through cloth.
v. i.
• To make violent efforts.
• To percolate; to be filtered; as, water straining through a sandy soil.
n.
• The act of straining, or the state of being strained.
• A violent effort; an excessive and hurtful exertion or tension, as of the muscles; as, he lifted the weight with a strain the strain upon a ship's rigging in a gale; also, the hurt or injury resulting; a sprain.
(Mech. Physics) A change of form or dimensions of a solid or liquid mass, produced by a stress.
(Mus.) A portion of music divided off by a double bar; a complete musical period or sentence; a movement, or any rounded subdivision of a movement.
• Any sustained note or movement; a song; a distinct portion of an ode or other poem; also, the pervading note, or burden, of a song, poem, oration, book, etc.; theme; motive; manner; style; also, a course of action or conduct; as, he spoke in a noble strain; there was a strain of woe in his story; a strain of trickery appears in his career.
• Turn; tendency; inborn disposition. Cf. 1st Strain.
Strainable
a.
• Capable of being strained.
• Violent in action.
Strainably
adv.
• Violently.
Strained
a.
• Subjected to great or excessive tension; wrenched; weakened; as, strained relations between old friends.
• Done or produced with straining or excessive effort; as, his wit was strained.
Strainer
n.
• One who strains.
• That through which any liquid is passed for purification or to separate it from solid matter; anything, as a screen or a cloth, used to strain a liquid; a device of the character of a sieve or of a filter; specifically, an openwork or perforated screen, as for the end of the suctionpipe of a pump, to prevent large solid bodies from entering with a liquid.
Straining
a. & n.
• from Strain.
Straint
n.
• Overexertion; excessive tension; strain.
Strait
a.
• A variant of Straight.
a.
• Narrow; not broad.
• Tight; close; closely fitting.
• Close; intimate; near; familiar.
• Strict; scrupulous; rigorous.
• Difficult; distressful; straited.
• Parsimonious; niggargly; mean.
adv.
• Strictly; rigorously.
n.
• A narrow pass or passage.
(Geog.) A (comparatively) narrow passageway connecting two large bodies of water; — often in the plural; as, the strait, or straits, of Gibraltar; the straits of Magellan; the strait, or straits, of Mackinaw.
• A neck of land; an isthmus.
• Fig.: A condition of narrowness or restriction; doubt; distress; difficulty; poverty; perplexity; — sometimes in the plural; as, reduced to great straits.
v. t.
• To put to difficulties.
Straiten
v. t.
• To make strait; to make narrow; hence, to contract; to confine.
• To make tense, or tight; to tighten.
• To restrict; to distress or embarrass in respect of means or conditions of life; — used chiefly in the past participle; — as, a man straitened in his circumstances.
Straitly
adv.
• In a strait manner; narrowly; strictly; rigorously.
• Closely; intimately.
Straitness
n.
• The quality or condition of being strait; especially, a pinched condition or situation caused by poverty; as, the straitnessof their circumstances.
Strake
• imp. of Strike.
n.
• A streak.
• An iron band by which the fellies of a wheel are secured to each other, being not continuous, as the tire is, but made up of separate pieces.
(Shipbuilding) One breadth of planks or plates forming a continuous range on the bottom or sides of a vessel, reaching from the stem to the stern; a streak.
(Mining) A trough for washing broken ore, gravel, or sand; a launder.
Strale
n.
• Pupil of the eye.
Stram
v. t.
• To spring or recoil with violence.
v. t.
• To dash down; to beat.
Stramash
v. t.
• To strike, beat, or bang; to break; to destroy.
n.
• A turmoil; a broil; a fray; a fight.
Stramazoun
n.
• A direct descending blow with the edge of a sword.
Stramineous
a.
• Strawy; consisting of straw.
• Chaffy; like straw; straw-colored.
Stramonium
n.
(Bot.) A poisonous plant (Datura Stramonium); stinkweed. See Datura, and Jamestown weed.
Stramony
n.
(Bot.) Stramonium.
Strand
n.
• One of the twists, or strings, as of fibers, wires, etc., of which a rope is composed.
v. t.
• To break a strand of (a rope).
n.
• The shore, especially the beach of a sea, ocean, or large lake; rarely, the margin of a navigable river.
v. t.
• To drive on a strand; hence, to run aground; as, to strand a ship.
v. i.
• To drift, or be driven, on shore to run aground; as, the ship stranded at high water.
Strang
a.
• Strong.
Strange
a.
• Belonging to another country; foreign.
• Of or pertaining to others; not one's own; not pertaining to one's self; not domestic.
• Not before known, heard, or seen; new.
• Not according to the common way; novel; odd; unusual; irregular; extraordinary; unnatural; queer.
• Reserved; distant in deportment.
• Backward; slow.
• Not familiar; unaccustomed; inexperienced.
adv.
• Strangely.
v. t.
• To alienate; to estrange.
v. i.
• To be estranged or alienated.
• To wonder; to be astonished.
Strangely
adv.
• As something foreign, or not one's own; in a manner adapted to something foreign and strange.
• In the manner of one who does not know another; distantly; reservedly; coldly.
• In a strange manner; in a manner or degree to excite surprise or wonder; wonderfully.
Strangeness
n.
• The state or quality of being strange (in any sense of the adjective).
Stranger
n.
• One who is strange, foreign, or unknown.
• One who comes from a foreign land; a foreigner.
• One whose home is at a distance from the place where he is, but in the same country.
• One who is unknown or unacquainted; as, the gentleman is a stranger to me; hence, one not admitted to communication, fellowship, or acquaintance.
• One not belonging to the family or household; a guest; a visitor.
(Law) One not privy or party an act, contract, or title; a mere intruder or intermeddler; one who interferes without right; as, actual possession of land gives a good title against a stranger having no title; as to strangers, a mortgage is considered merely as a pledge; a mere stranger to the levy.
v. t.
• To estrange; to alienate.
Strangle
v. t.
• To compress the windpipe of (a person or animal) until death results from stoppage of respiration; to choke to death by compressing the throat, as with the hand or a rope.
• To stifle, choke, or suffocate in any manner.
• To hinder from appearance; to stifle; to suppress.
v. i.
• To be strangled, or suffocated.
Strangleable
a.
• Capable of being strangled.
Strangler
n.
• One who, or that which, strangles.
Strangles
n.
• A disease in horses and swine, in which the upper part of the throat, or groups of lymphatic glands elsewhere, swells.
Strangulate
a.
(Bot.) Strangulated.
Strangulated
a.
(Med.) Having the circulation stopped by compression; attended with arrest or obstruction of circulation, caused by constriction or compression; as, a strangulated hernia.
(Bot.) Contracted at irregular intervals, if tied with a ligature; constricted.
Strangulation
n.
• The act of strangling, or the state of being strangled.
(Med.) Inordinate compression or constriction of a tube or part, as of the throat; especially, such as causes a suspension of breathing, of the passage of contents, or of the circulation, as in cases of hernia.
Strangurious
a.
(Med.) Of or pertaining to strangury.
Strangury
n.
(Med.) A painful discharge of urine, drop by drop, produced by spasmodic muscular contraction.
(Bot.) A swelling or other disease in a plant, occasioned by a ligature fastened tightly about it.
Strany
n.
(Zool.) The guillemot.
Strap
n.
• A long, narrow, pliable strip of leather, cloth, or the like; specifically, a strip of thick leather used in flogging.
• Something made of such a strip, or of a part of one, or a combination of two or more for a particular use; as, a boot strap, shawl strap, stirrup strap.
• A piece of leather, or strip of wood covered with a suitable material, for sharpening a razor; a strop.
• A narrow strip of anything, as of iron or brass.
(Carp. & Mach.) A band, plate, or loop of metal for clasping and holding timbers or parts of a machine. (b) (Naut.) A piece of rope or metal passing around a block and used for fastening it to anything.
(Bot.) The flat part of the corolla in ligulate florets, as those of the white circle in the daisy.
• The leaf, exclusive of its sheath, in some grasses.
• A shoulder strap. See under Shoulder.
v. t.
• To beat or chastise with a strap.
• To fasten or bind with a strap.
• To sharpen by rubbing on a strap, or strop; as, to strap a razor.
Strappado
n.
• A military punishment formerly practiced, which consisted in drawing an offender to the top of a beam and letting him fall to the length of the rope, by which means a limb was often dislocated.
v. t.
• To punish or torture by the strappado.
Strapper
n.
• One who uses strap.
• A person or thing of uncommon size.
Strapping
a.
• Tall; strong; lusty; large; as, a strapping fellow.
Strapple
v. t.
• To hold or bind with, or as with, a strap; to entangle.
Strapwork
n.
(Arch.) A kind of ornament consisting of a narrow fillet or band folded, crossed, and interlaced.
Strass
n.
(Chem.) A brilliant glass, used in the manufacture of artificial paste gems, which consists essentially of a complex borosilicate of lead and potassium. Cf. Glass.
Strata
n.
• pl. of Stratum.
Stratagem
n.
• An artifice or trick in war for deceiving the enemy; hence, in general, artifice; deceptive device; secret plot; evil machination.
Stratagemical
a.
• Containing stratagem; as, a stratagemical epistle.
Stratarithmetry
n.
(Mil.) The art of drawing up an army, or any given number of men, in any geometrical figure, or of estimating or expressing the number of men in such a figure.
Strategetics
n.
• Strategy.
Strategics
n.
• Strategy.
Strategist
n.
• One skilled in strategy, or the science of directing great military movements.
Strategus
n.
(Gr. Antiq.) The leader or commander of an army; a general.
Strategy
n.
• The science of military command, or the science of projecting campaigns and directing great military movements; generalship.
• The use of stratagem or artifice.
Strath
n.
• A valley of considerable size, through which a river runs; a valley bottom; — often used in composition with the name of the river; as, Strath Spey, Strathdon, Strathmore.
Strathspey
n.
• A lively Scottish dance, resembling the reel, but slower; also, the tune.
Straticulate
a.
(Min.) Characterized by the presence of thin parallel strata, or layers, as in an agate.
Stratification
n.
• The act or process of laying in strata, or the state of being laid in the form of strata, or layers.
(Physiol.) The deposition of material in successive layers in the growth of a cell wall, thus giving rise to a stratified appearance.
Stratified
a.
• Having its substance arranged in strata, or layers; as, stratified rock.
Stratiform
a.
• Having the form of strata.
Stratify
v. t.
• To form or deposit in strata, or layers, as substances in the earth; to arrange in strata.
Stratigraphy
n.
• That branch of geology which treats of the arrangement and succession of strata.
Stratocracy
n.
• A military government; government by military chiefs and an army.
Stratography
n.
• A description of an army, or of what belongs to an army.
Stratonic
a.
• Of or pertaining to an army.
Stratotic
a.
• Warlike; military.
Stratum
n.
(Geol.) A bed of earth or rock of one kind, formed by natural causes, and consisting usually of a series of layers, which form a rock as it lies between beds of other kinds. Also used figuratively.
• A bed or layer artificially made; a course.
Stratus
n.
(Meteor.) A form of clouds in which they are arranged in a horizontal band or layer. See Cloud.
Straught
• imp. & p. p. of Stretch.
v. t.
• To stretch; to make straight.
Straw
v. t.
• To spread or scatter. See Strew, and Strow.
n.
• A stalk or stem of certain species of grain, pulse, etc., especially of wheat, rye, oats, barley, more rarely of buckwheat, beans, and pease.
• The gathered and thrashed stalks of certain species of grain, etc.; as, a bundle, or a load, of rye straw.
• Anything proverbially worthless; the least possible thing; a mere trifle.
Strawberry
n.
(Bot.) A fragrant edible berry, of a delicious taste and commonly of a red color, the fruit of a plant of the genus Fragaria, of which there are many varieties. Also, the plant bearing the fruit. The common American strawberry is Fragaria virginiana; the European, F. vesca. There are also other less common species.
Strawboard
n.
• Pasteboard made of pulp of straw.
Strawed
• imp. & p. p. of Straw.
Strawworm
n.
• A caddice worm.
Strawy
a.
• Of or pertaining to straw; made of, or resembling, straw.
Stray
v. i.
• To wander, as from a direct course; to deviate, or go out of the way.
• To wander from company, or from the proper limits; to rove at large; to roam; to go astray.
• Figuratively, to wander from the path of duty or rectitude; to err.
v. t.
• To cause to stray.
a.
• Having gone astray; strayed; wandering; as, a strayhorse or sheep.
n.
• Any domestic animal that has an inclosure, or its proper place and company, and wanders at large, or is lost; an estray. Used also figuratively.
• The act of wandering or going astray.
Strayer
n.
• One who strays; a wanderer.
Stre
n.
• Straw.
Streak
v. t.
• To stretch; to extend; hence, to lay out, as a dead body.
n.
• A line or long mark of a different color from the ground; a stripe; a vein.
(Shipbuilding) A strake.
(Min.) The fine powder or mark yielded by a mineral when scratched or rubbed against a harder surface, the color of which is sometimes a distinguishing character.
• The rung or round of a ladder.
v. t.
• To form streaks or stripes in or on; to stripe; to variegate with lines of a different color, or of different colors.
• With it as an object: To run swiftly.
Streaked
a.
• Marked or variegated with stripes.
• Uncomfortable; out of sorts.
Streaky
a.
• Same as Streaked, 1.
Stream
n.
• A current water or other fluid; a liquid flowing continuously in a line or course, either on the earth, as a river, brook, etc., or from a vessel, reservoir, or fountain; specifically, any course of running water; as, many streams are blended in the Mississippi; gas and steam came from the earth in streams; a stream of molten lead from a furnace; a stream of lava from a volcano.
• A beam or ray of light.
• Anything issuing or moving with continued succession of parts; as, a stream of words; a stream of sand.
• A continued current or course; as, a stream of weather.
• Current; drift; tendency; series of tending or moving causes; as, the stream of opinions or manners.
v. i.
• To issue or flow in a stream; to flow freely or in a current, as a fluid or whatever is likened to fluids; as, tears streamed from her eyes.
• To pour out, or emit, a stream or streams.
• To issue in a stream of light; to radiate.
• To extend; to stretch out with a wavy motion; to float in the wind; as, a flag streams in the wind.
v. t.
• To send forth in a current or stream; to cause to flow; to pour; as, his eyes streamed tears.
• To mark with colors or embroidery in long tracts.
• To unfurl.
Streamer
n.
• An ensign, flag, or pennant, which floats in the wind; specifically, a long, narrow, ribbonlike flag.
• A stream or column of light shooting upward from the horizon, constituting one of the forms of the aurora borealis.
(Mining) A searcher for stream tin.
Streamful
a.
• Abounding in streams, or in water.
Streaminess
n.
• The state of being streamy; a trailing.
Streaming
a.
• Sending forth streams.
n.
• The act or operation of that which streams; the act of that which sends forth, or which runs in, streams.
(Mining) The reduction of stream tin; also, the search for stream tin.
Streamless
a.
• Destitute of streams, or of a stream, as a region of country, or a dry channel.
Streamlet
n.
• A small stream; a rivulet; a rill.
Streamy
a.
• Abounding with streams, or with running water; streamful.
• Resembling a stream; issuing in a stream.
Stree
n.
• Straw.
Streek
v. t.
• To stretch; also, to lay out, as a dead body. See Streak.
Streel
v. i.
• To trail along; to saunter or be drawn along, carelessly, swaying in a kind of zigzag motion.
Streen
n.
• See Strene.
Street
n.
• Originally, a paved way or road; a public highway; now commonly, a thoroughfare in a city or village, bordered by dwellings or business houses.
Streetwalker
n.
• A common prostitute who walks the streets to find customers.
Streetward
n.
• An officer, or ward, having the care of the streets.
a.
• Facing toward the street.
Streight
a., n., & adv.
• See 2nd Strait.
Streighten
v. t.
• See Straiten.
Strein
v. t.
• To strain.
Streit
a.
• Drawn.
a.
• Close; narrow; strict. See Strait.
Streite
adv.
• Narrowly; strictly; straitly.
Strelitz
n.sing. & pl.
• A soldier of the ancient Muscovite guard or Russian standing army; also, the guard itself.
Strelitzia
n.
(Bot.) A genus of plants related to the banana, found at the Cape of Good Hope. They have rigid glaucous distichous leaves, and peculiar richly colored flowers.
Strene
n.
• Race; offspring; stock; breed; strain.
Strength
n.
• The quality or state of being strong; ability to do or to bear; capacity for exertion or endurance, whether physical, intellectual, or moral; force; vigor; power; as, strength of body or of the arm; strength of mind, of memory, or of judgment.
• Power to resist force; solidity or toughness; the quality of bodies by which they endure the application of force without breaking or yielding; — in this sense opposed to frangibility; as, the strength of a bone, of a beam, of a wall, a rope, and the like.
• Power of resisting attacks; impregnability.
• That quality which tends to secure results; effective power in an institution or enactment; security; validity; legal or moral force; logical conclusiveness; as, the strength of social or legal obligations; the strength of law; the strength of public opinion; strength of evidence; strength of argument.
• One who, or that which, is regarded as embodying or affording force, strength, or firmness; that on which confidence or reliance is based; support; security.
• Force as measured; amount, numbers, or power of any body, as of an army, a navy, and the like; as, what is the strength of the enemy by land, or by sea?
• Vigor or style; force of expression; nervous diction; — said of literary work.
• Intensity; — said of light or color.
• Intensity or degree of the distinguishing and essential element; spirit; virtue; excellence; — said of liquors, solutions, etc.; as, the strength of wine or of acids.
• A strong place; a stronghold.
v. t.
• To strengthen.
Strengthen
v. t.
• To make strong or stronger; to add strength to; as, to strengthen a limb, a bridge, an army; to strengthen an obligation; to strengthen authority.
• To animate; to encourage; to fix in resolution.
v. i.
• To grow strong or stronger.
Strengthener
n.
• One who, or that which, gives or adds strength.
Strengthening
a.
• That strengthens; giving or increasing strength.
Strengthful
a.
• Abounding in strength; full of strength; strong.
Strengthing
n.
• A stronghold.
Strengthless
a.
• Destitute of strength.
Strengthner
n.
• See Strengthener.
Strengthy
a.
• Having strength; strong.
Strenuity
n.
• Strenuousness; activity.
Strenuous
a.
• Eagerly pressing or urgent; zealous; ardent; earnest; bold; valiant; intrepid; as, a strenuous advocate for national rights; a strenuous reformer; a strenuous defender of his country.
Strepent
a.
• Noisy; loud.
Streperous
a.
• Loud; boisterous.
Strepitores
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of birds, including the clamatorial and picarian birds, which do not have well developed singing organs.
Strepsiptera
n. pl.
(Zool.) A group of small insects having the anterior wings rudimentary, and in the form of short and slender twisted appendages, while the posterior ones are large and membranous. They are parasitic in the larval state on bees, wasps, and the like; — called also Rhipiptera. See Illust. under Rhipipter.
Strepsipterous
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to Strepsiptera.
Strepsorhina
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Lemuroidea.
Strepsorhine
a.
(Zool.) Having twisted nostrils; — said of the lemurs.
n.
(Zool.) One of the Strepsorhina; a lemur. See Illust. under Monkey.
Streptobacteria
n. pl.
(Biol.) A so-called variety of bacterium, consisting in reality of several bacteria linked together in the form of a chain.
Streptococcus
n.
(Biol.) A long or short chain of micrococci, more or less curved.
Streptoneura
n. pl.
(Zool.) An extensive division of gastropod Mollusca in which the loop or visceral nerves is twisted, and the sexes separate. It is nearly to equivalent to Prosobranchiata.
Streptothrix
n.
(Biol.) A genus of bacilli occurring of the form of long, smooth and apparently branched threads, either straight or twisted.
Stress
n.
• Distress.
• Pressure, strain; — used chiefly of immaterial things; except in mechanics; hence, urgency; importance; weight; significance.
(Mech. & Physics) The force, or combination of forces, which produces a strain; force exerted in any direction or manner between contiguous bodies, or parts of bodies, and taking specific names according to its direction, or mode of action, as thrust or pressure, pull or tension, shear or tangential stress.
(Pron.) Force of utterance expended upon words or syllables. Stress is in English the chief element in accent and is one of the most important in emphasis. See Guide to pronunciation, §§ 31-35.
(Scots Law) Distress; the act of distraining; also, the thing distrained.
v. t.
• To press; to urge; to distress; to put to difficulties.
• To subject to stress, pressure, or strain.
Stressful
a.
• Having much stress.
Stretch
v. t.
• To reach out; to extend; to put forth.
• To draw out to the full length; to cause to extend in a straight line; as, to stretch a cord or rope.
• To cause to extend in breadth; to spread; to expand; as, to stretch cloth; to stretch the wings.
• To make tense; to tighten; to distend forcibly.
• To draw or pull out to greater length; to strain; as, to stretch a tendon or muscle.
• To exaggerate; to extend too far; as, to stretch the truth; to stretch one's credit.
v. i.
• To be extended; to be drawn out in length or in breadth, or both; to spread; to reach; as, the iron road stretches across the continent; the lake stretches over fifty square miles.
• To extend or spread one's self, or one's limbs; as, the lazy man yawns and stretches.
• To be extended, or to bear extension, without breaking, as elastic or ductile substances.
• To strain the truth; to exaggerate; as, a man apt to stretch in his report of facts.
(Naut.) To sail by the wind under press of canvas; as, the ship stretched to the eastward.
n.
• Act of stretching, or state of being stretched; reach; effort; struggle; strain; as, a stretch of the limbs; a stretch of the imagination.
• A continuous line or surface; a continuous space of time; as, grassy stretches of land.
• The extent to which anything may be stretched.
(Naut.) The reach or extent of a vessel's progress on one tack; a tack or board.
• Course; direction; as, the stretch of seams of coal.
Stretcher
n.
• One who, or that which, stretches.
(Masonry) A brick or stone laid with its longer dimension in the line of direction of the wall.
(Arch.) A piece of timber used in building.
(Naut.) A narrow crosspiece of the bottom of a boat against which a rower braces his feet.
• A crosspiece placed between the sides of a boat to keep them apart when hoisted up and griped.
• A litter, or frame, for carrying disabled, wounded, or dead persons.
• An overstretching of the truth; a lie.
• One of the rods in an umbrella, attached at one end to one of the ribs, and at the other to the tube sliding upon the handle.
• An instrument for stretching boots or gloves.
• The frame upon which canvas is stretched for a painting.
Stretching
a. & n.
• from Stretch, v.
Stretto
n.
(Mus.) The crowding of answer upon subject near the end of a fugue.
• In an opera or oratorio, a coda, or winding up, in an accelerated time.
Strew
v. t.
• To scatter; to spread by scattering; to cast or to throw loosely apart; — used of solids, separated or separable into parts or particles; as, to strew seed in beds; to strew sand on or over a floor; to strew flowers over a grave.
• To cover more or less thickly by scattering something over or upon; to cover, or lie upon, by having been scattered; as, they strewed the ground with leaves; leaves strewed the ground.
• To spread abroad; to disseminate.
Strewing
n.
• The act of scattering or spreading.
• Anything that is, or may be, strewed; — used chiefly in the plural.
Strewment
n.
• Anything scattered, as flowers for decoration.
Strewn
• p. p. of Strew.
Stria
n.
• A minute groove, or channel; a threadlike line, as of color; a narrow structural band or line; a striation; as, the striae, or groovings, produced on a rock by a glacier passing over it; the striae on the surface of a shell; a stria of nervous matter in the brain.
(Arch.) A fillet between the flutes of columns, pilasters, or the like.
Striate
v. t.
• To mark with striaae.
Striation
n.
• The quality or condition of being striated.
• A stria; as, the striations on a shell.
Striatum
n.
(Anat.) The corpus striatum.
Striature
n.
• A stria.
Strich
n.
(Zool.) An owl.
Strick
n.
• A bunch of hackled flax prepared for drawing into slivers.
Stricken
p. p. & a.
• Struck; smitten; wounded; as, the stricken deer.
• Worn out; far gone; advanced. See Strike, v. t., 21.
• Whole; entire; — said of the hour as marked by the striking of a clock.
Strickle
n.
• An instrument to strike grain to a level with the measure; a strike.
• An instrument for whetting scythes; a rifle.
(Founding) An instrument used for smoothing the surface of a core.
(Carp. & Mason.) A templet; a pattern.
• An instrument used in dressing flax.
Strickler
n.
• See Strickle.
Strickless
n.
• See Strickle.
Strict
a.
• Strained; drawn close; tight; as, a strict embrace; a strict ligature.
• Tense; not relaxed; as, a strict fiber.
• Exact; accurate; precise; rigorously nice; as, to keep strict watch; to pay strict attention.
• Governed or governing by exact rules; observing exact rules; severe; rigorous; as, very strict in observing the Sabbath.
• Rigidly; interpreted; exactly limited; confined; restricted; as, to understand words in a strict sense.
(Bot.) Upright, or straight and narrow; — said of the shape of the plants or their flower clusters.
Striction
n.
• The act of constricting, or the state of being constricted.
Strictly
adv.
• In a strict manner; closely; precisely.
Strictness
n.
• Quality or state of being strict.
Stricture
n.
• Strictness.
• A stroke; a glance; a touch.
• A touch of adverse criticism; censure.
(Med.) A localized morbid contraction of any passage of the body. Cf. Organic stricture, and Spasmodic stricture, under Organic, and Spasmodic.
Strictured
a.
(Med.) Affected with a stricture; as, a strictured duct.
Strid
n.
• A narrow passage between precipitous rocks or banks, which looks as if it might be crossed at a stride.
Stride
v. t.
• To walk with long steps, especially in a measured or pompous manner.
• To stand with the legs wide apart; to straddle.
v. t.
• To pass over at a step; to step over.
• To straddle; to bestride.
n.
• The act of stridding; a long step; the space measured by a long step; as, a masculine stride.
Strident
a.
• Characterized by harshness; grating; shrill.
Stridor
n.
• A harsh, shrill, or creaking noise.
Stridulate
v. t.
• To make a shrill, creaking noise
(Zool.) to make a shrill or musical sound, such as is made by the males of many insects.
Stridulation
n.
• The act of stridulating.
(Zool.) The act of making shrill sounds or musical notes by rubbing together certain hard parts, as is done by the males of many insects, especially by Orthoptera, such as crickets, grasshoppers, and locusts.
• The noise itself.
Stridulator
n.
• That which stridulates.
Stridulatory
a.
• Stridulous; able to stridulate; used in stridulating; adapted for stridulation.
Stridulous
a.
• Making a shrill, creaking sound.
Strife
n.
• The act of striving; earnest endeavor.
• Exertion or contention for superiority; contest of emulation, either by intellectual or physical efforts.
• Altercation; violent contention; fight; battle.
• That which is contended against; occasion of contest.
Strifeful
a.
• Contentious; discordant.
Strigate
a.
(Zool.) Having transverse bands of color.
Striges
n. pl.
(Zool.) The tribe of birds which comprises the owls.
Strigil
n.
(Gr. & Rom. Antiq.) An instrument of metal, ivory, etc., used for scraping the skin at the bath.
Strigillose
a.
(Bot.) Set with stiff, slender bristles.
Strigine
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to owls; owl-like.
Strigment
n.
• Scraping; that which is scraped off.
Strigose
a.
(Bot.) Set with stiff, straight bristles; hispid; as, a strigose leaf.
Strigous
a.
(Bot.) Strigose.
Strike
v. t.
• To touch or hit with some force, either with the hand or with an instrument; to smite; to give a blow to, either with the hand or with any instrument or missile.
• To come in collision with; to strike against; as, a bullet struck him; the wave struck the boat amidships; the ship struck a reef.
• To give, as a blow; to impel, as with a blow; to give a force to; to dash; to cast.
• To stamp or impress with a stroke; to coin; as, to strike coin from metal: to strike dollars at the mint.
• To thrust in; to cause to enter or penetrate; to set in the earth; as, a tree strikes its roots deep.
• To punish; to afflict; to smite.
• To cause to sound by one or more beats; to indicate or notify by audible strokes; as, the clock strikes twelve; the drums strike up a march.
• To lower; to let or take down; to remove; as, to strike sail; to strike a flag or an ensign, as in token of surrender; to strike a yard or a topmast in a gale; to strike a tent; to strike the centering of an arch.
• To make a sudden impression upon, as by a blow; to affect sensibly with some strong emotion; as, to strike the mind, with surprise; to strike one with wonder, alarm, dread, or horror.
• To affect in some particular manner by a sudden impression or impulse; as, the plan proposed strikes me favorably; to strike one dead or blind.
• To cause or produce by a stroke, or suddenly, as by a stroke; as, to strike a light.
• To cause to ignite; as, to strike a match.
• To make and ratify; as, to strike a bargain.
• To take forcibly or fraudulently; as, to strike money.
• To level, as a measure of grain, salt, or the like, by scraping off with a straight instrument what is above the level of the top.
(Masonry) To cut off, as a mortar joint, even with the face of the wall, or inward at a slight angle.
• To hit upon, or light upon, suddenly; as, my eye struck a strange word; they soon struck the trail.
• To borrow money of; to make a demand upon; as, he struck a friend for five dollars.
• To lade into a cooler, as a liquor.
• To stroke or pass lightly; to wave.
• To advance; to cause to go forward; — used only in past participle.
v. i.
• To move; to advance; to proceed; to take a course; as, to strike into the fields.
• To deliver a quick blow or thrust; to give blows.
• To hit; to collide; to dush; to clash; as, a hammer strikes against the bell of a clock.
• To sound by percussion, with blows, or as with blows; to be struck; as, the clock strikes.
• To make an attack; to aim a blow.
• To touch; to act by appulse.
• To run upon a rock or bank; to be stranded; as, the ship struck in the night.
• To pass with a quick or strong effect; to dart; to penetrate.
• To break forth; to commence suddenly; — with into; as, to strike into reputation; to strike into a run.
• To lower a flag, or colors, in token of respect, or to signify a surrender of a ship to an enemy.
• To quit work in order to compel an increase, or prevent a reduction, of wages.
• To become attached to something; — said of the spat of oysters.
• To steal money.
n.
• The act of striking.
• An instrument with a straight edge for leveling a measure of grain, salt, and the like, scraping off what is above the level of the top; a strickle.
• A bushel; four pecks.
• An old measure of four bushels.
• Fullness of measure; hence, excellence of quality.
• An iron pale or standard in a gate or fence.
• The act of quitting work; specifically, such an act by a body of workmen, done as a means of enforcing compliance with demands made on their employer.
(Iron Working) A puddler's stirrer.
(Geol.) The horizontal direction of the outcropping edges of tilted rocks; or, the direction of a horizontal line supposed to be drawn on the surface of a tilted stratum. It is at right angles to the dip.
• The extortion of money, or the attempt to extort money, by threat of injury; blackmailing.
Striker
n.
• One who, or that which, strikes; specifically, a blacksmith's helper who wieds the sledge.
• A harpoon; also, a harpooner.
• A wencher; a lewd man.
• A workman who is on a strike.
• A blackmailer in politics; also, one whose political influence can be bought.
Striking
• a. & n. from Strike, v.
a.
• Affecting with strong emotions; surprising; forcible; impressive; very noticeable; as, a striking representation or image; a striking resemblance.
Strikle
n.
• See Strickle.
String
n.
• A small cord, a line, a twine, or a slender strip of leather, or other substance, used for binding together, fastening, or tying things; a cord, larger than a thread and smaller than a rope; as, a shoe string; a bonnet string; a silken string.
• A thread or cord on which a number of objects or parts are strung or arranged in close and orderly succession; hence, a line or series of things arranged on a thread, or as if so arranged; a succession; a concatenation; a chain; as, a string of shells or beads; a string of dried apples; a string of houses; a string of arguments.
• A strip, as of leather, by which the covers of a book are held together.
• The cord of a musical instrument, as of a piano, harp, or violin; specifically (pl.), the stringed instruments of an orchestra, in distinction from the wind instruments; as, the strings took up the theme.
• The line or cord of a bow.
• A fiber, as of a plant; a little, fibrous root.
• A nerve or tendon of an animal body.
(Shipbuilding) An inside range of ceiling planks, corresponding to the sheer strake on the outside and bolted to it.
(Bot.) The tough fibrous substance that unites the valves of the pericap of leguminous plants, and which is readily pulled off; as, the strings of beans.
(Mining) A small, filamentous ramification of a metallic vein.
(Arch.) Same as Stringcourse.
(Billiards) The points made in a game.
v. t.
• To furnish with strings; as, to string a violin.
• To put in tune the strings of, as a stringed instrument, in order to play upon it.
• To put on a string; to file; as, to string beads.
• To make tense; to strengthen.
• To deprive of strings; to strip the strings from; as, to string beans. See String, n., 9.
Stringboard
n.
• Same as Stringpiece.
Stringcource
n.
(Arch.) A horizontal band in a building, forming a part of the design, whether molded, projecting, or carved, or in any way distinguished from the rest of the work.
Stringed
a.
• Having strings; as, a stringed instrument.
• Produced by strings.
Stringency
n.
• The quality or state of being stringent.
Stringendo
a.
(Mus.) Urging or hastening the time, as to a climax.
Stringent
a.
• Binding strongly; making strict requirements; restrictive; rigid; severe; as, stringent rules.
Stringer
n.
• One who strings; one who makes or provides strings, especially for bows.
• A libertine; a wencher.
(Railroad) A longitudinal sleeper.
(Shipbuilding) A streak of planking carried round the inside of a vessel on the under side of the beams.
(Carp.) A long horizontal timber to connect uprights in a frame, or to support a floor or the like.
Stringhalt
n.
(Far.) An habitual sudden twitching of the hinder leg of a horse, or an involuntary or convulsive contraction of the muscles that raise the hock.
Stringiness
n.
• Quality of being stringy.
Stringless
a.
• Having no strings.
Stringpiece
n.
(Arch.) A long piece of timber, forming a margin or edge of any piece of construction; esp.:
• One of the longitudinal pieces, supporting the treads and rises of a flight or run of stairs.
Stringy
a.
• Consisting of strings, or small threads; fibrous; filamentous; as, a stringy root.
• Capable of being drawn into a string, as a glutinous substance; ropy; viscid; gluely.
Strip
v. t.
• To deprive; to bereave; to make destitute; to plunder; especially, to deprive of a covering; to skin; to peel; as, to strip a man of his possession, his rights, his privileges, his reputation; to strip one of his clothes; to strip a beast of his skin; to strip a tree of its bark.
• To divest of clothing; to uncover.
(Naut.) To dismantle; as, to strip a ship of rigging, spars, etc.
(Agric.) To pare off the surface of, as land, in strips.
• To deprive of all milk; to milk dry; to draw the last milk from; hence, to milk with a peculiar movement of the hand on the teats at the last of a milking; as, to strip a cow.
• To pass; to get clear of; to outstrip.
• To pull or tear off, as a covering; to remove; to wrest away; as, to strip the skin from a beast; to strip the bark from a tree; to strip the clothes from a man's back; to strip away all disguisses.
(Mach.) To tear off (the thread) from a bolt or nut; as, the thread is stripped.
• To tear off the thread from (a bolt or nut); as, the bolt is stripped.
• To remove the metal coating from (a plated article), as by acids or electrolytic action.
(Carding) To remove fiber, flock, or lint from; — said of the teeth of a card when it becomes partly clogged.
• To pick the cured leaves from the stalks of (tobacco) and tie them into "hands"; to remove the midrib from (tobacco leaves).
v. i.
• To take off, or become divested of, clothes or covering; to undress.
(Mach.) To fail in the thread; to lose the thread, as a bolt, screw, or nut. See Strip, v. t., 8.
n.
• A narrow piece, or one comparatively long; as, a strip of cloth; a strip of land.
(Mining) A trough for washing ore.
(Gunnery) The issuing of a projectile from a rifled gun without acquiring the spiral motion.
Stripe
n.
• A line, or long, narrow division of anything of a different color or structure from the ground; hence, any linear variation of color or structure; as, a stripe, or streak, of red on a green ground; a raised stripe.
(Weaving) A pattern produced by arranging the warp threads in sets of alternating colors, or in sets presenting some other contrast of appearance.
• A strip, or long, narrow piece attached to something of a different color; as, a red or blue stripe sewed upon a garment.
• A stroke or blow made with a whip, rod, scourge, or the like, such as usually leaves a mark.
• A long, narrow discoloration of the skin made by the blow of a lash, rod, or the like.
• Color indicating a party or faction; hence, distinguishing characteristic; sign; likeness; sort; as, persons of the same political stripe.
(Mil.) The chevron on the coat of a noncommissioned officer.
v. t.
• To make stripes upon; to form with lines of different colors or textures; to variegate with stripes.
• To strike; to lash.
Striped
a.
• Having stripes of different colors; streaked.
Stripling
n.
• A youth in the state of adolescence, or just passing from boyhood to manhood; a lad.
Stripper
n.
• One who, or that which, strips; specifically, a machine for stripping cards.
Strippet
n.
• A small stream.
Stripping
n.
• The act of one who strips.
• The last milk drawn from a cow at a milking.
Strisores
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of passerine birds including the humming birds, swifts, and goatsuckers. It is now generally considered an artificial group.
Strive
v. i.
• To make efforts; to use exertions; to endeavor with earnestness; to labor hard.
• To struggle in opposition; to be in contention or dispute; to contend; to contest; — followed by against or with before the person or thing opposed; as, strive against temptation; strive for the truth.
• To vie; to compete; to be a rival.
n.
• An effort; a striving.
• Strife; contention.
Strived
p. p.
• Striven.
Striven
• p. p. of Strive.
Striver
n.
• One who strives.
Striving
a. & n.
• from Strive.
Strix
n.
(Arch.) One of the flutings of a column.
Stroam
v. i.
• To wander about idly and vacantly.
• To take long strides in walking.
Strobila
n.
(Zool.) A form of the larva of certain Discophora in a state of development succeeding the scyphistoma. The body of the strobila becomes elongated, and subdivides transversely into a series of lobate segments which eventually become ephyrae, or young medusae.
• A mature tapeworm.
Strobilaceous
a.
(Bot.) Of or pertaining to a strobile or cone.
• Producing strobiles.
Strobilation
n.
(Zool.) The act or phenomenon of spontaneously dividing transversely, as do certain species of annelids and helminths; transverse fission. See Illust. under Syllidian.
Strobile
n.
(Bot.) A scaly multiple fruit resulting from the ripening of an ament in certain plants, as the hop or pine; a cone. See Cone, n., 3.
(Biol.) An individual asexually producing sexual individuals differing from itself also in other respects, as the tapeworm, — one of the forms that occur in metagenesis.
(Zool.) Same as Strobila.
Strobiliform
a.
• Shaped like a strobile.
Strobiline
a.
• Of or pertaining to a strobile; strobilaceous; strobiliform; as, strobiline fruits.
Stroboscope
n.
• An instrument for studying or observing the successive phases of a periodic or varying motion by means of light which is periodically interrupted.
• An optical toy similar to the phenakistoscope. See Phenakistoscope.
Strockle
n.
(Glass Manuf.) A shovel with a turned-up edge, for frit, sand, etc.
Strode
n.
• See Strude.
• imp. of Stride.
Stroke
imp.
• Struck.
n.
• The act of striking; a blow; a hit; a knock; esp., a violent or hostile attack made with the arm or hand, or with an instrument or weapon.
• The result of effect of a striking; injury or affliction; soreness.
• The striking of the clock to tell the hour.
• A gentle, caressing touch or movement upon something; a stroking.
• A mark or dash in writing or printing; a line; the touch of a pen or pencil; as, an up stroke; a firm stroke.
• Hence, by extension, an addition or amandment to a written composition; a touch; as, to give some finishing strokes to an essay.
• A sudden attack of disease; especially, a fatal attack; a severe disaster; any affliction or calamity, especially a sudden one; as, a stroke of apoplexy; the stroke of death.
• A throb or beat, as of the heart.
• One of a series of beats or movements against a resisting medium, by means of which movement through or upon it is accomplished; as, the stroke of a bird's wing in flying, or an oar in rowing, of a skater, swimmer, etc.
(Rowing) The rate of succession of stroke; as, a quick stroke.
• The oar nearest the stern of a boat, by which the other oars are guided; — called also stroke oar.
• The rower who pulls the stroke oar; the strokesman.
• A powerful or sudden effort by which something is done, produced, or accomplished; also, something done or accomplished by such an effort; as, a stroke of genius; a stroke of business; a master stroke of policy.
(Mach.) The movement, in either direction, of the piston plunger, piston rod, crosshead, etc., as of a steam engine or a pump, in which these parts have a reciprocating motion; as, the forward stroke of a piston; also, the entire distance passed through, as by a piston, in such a movement; as, the piston is at half stroke.
• Power; influence.
• Appetite.
v. t.
• To strike.
• To rib gently in one direction; especially, to pass the hand gently over by way of expressing kindness or tenderness; to caress; to soothe.
• To make smooth by rubbing.
(Masonry) To give a finely fluted surface to.
• To row the stroke oar of; as, to stroke a boat.
Stroker
n.
• One who strokes; also, one who pretends to cure by stroking.
Strokesman
n.
(Rowing) The man who rows the aftermost oar, and whose stroke is to be followed by the rest.
Stroking
n.
• The act of rubbing gently with the hand, or of smoothing; a stroke.
(Needlework) The act of laying small gathers in cloth in regular order.
• See Stripping, 2.
Stroll
v. i.
• To wander on foot; to ramble idly or leisurely; to rove.
n.
• A wandering on foot; an idle and leisurely walk; a ramble.
Stroller
n.
• One who strolls; a vagrant.
Stroma
n.
(Anat.) The connective tissue or supporting framework of an organ; as, the stroma of the kidney.
• The spongy, colorless framework of a red blood corpuscle or other cell.
(Bot.) A layer or mass of cellular tissue, especially that part of the thallus of certain fungi which incloses the perithecia.
Stromatic
a.
• Miscellaneous; composed of different kinds.
Stromatology
n.
(Geol.) The history of the formation of stratified rocks.
Stromb
n.
(Zool.) Any marine univalve mollusk of the genus Strombus and allied genera. See Conch, and Strombus.
Strombite
n.
(Paleon.) A fossil shell of the genus Strombus.
Stromboid
a.
(Zool.) Of, pertaining to, or like, Strombus.
Strombuliform
a.
(Geol.) Formed or shaped like a top.
(Bot.) Coiled into the shape of a screw or a helix.
Strombus
n.
(Zool.) A genus of marine gastropods in which the shell has the outer lip dilated into a broad wing. It includes many large and handsome species commonly called conch shells, or conchs. See Conch.
Stromeyerite
n.
(Min.) A steel-gray mineral of metallic luster. It is a sulphide of silver and copper.
Strond
n.
• Strand; beach.
Strong
a.
• Having active physical power, or great physical power to act; having a power of exerting great bodily force; vigorous.
• Having passive physical power; having ability to bear or endure; firm; hale; sound; robust; as, a strong constitution; strong health.
• Solid; tough; not easily broken or injured; able to withstand violence; able to sustain attacks; not easily subdued or taken; as, a strong beam; a strong rock; a strong fortress or town.
• Having great military or naval force; powerful; as, a strong army or fleet; a nation strong at sea.
• Having great wealth, means, or resources; as, a strong house, or company of merchants.
• Reaching a certain degree or limit in respect to strength or numbers; as, an army ten thousand strong.
• Moving with rapidity or force; violent; forcible; impetuous; as, a strong current of water or wind; the wind was strong from the northeast; a strong tide.
• Adapted to make a deep or effectual impression on the mind or imagination; striking or superior of the kind; powerful; forcible; cogent; as, a strong argument; strong reasons; strong evidence; a strong example; strong language.
• Ardent; eager; zealous; earnestly engaged; as, a strong partisan; a strong Whig or Tory.
• Having virtues of great efficacy; or, having a particular quality in a great degree; as, a strong powder or tincture; a strong decoction; strong tea or coffee.
• Full of spirit; containing a large proportion of alcohol; intoxicating; as, strong liquors.
• Affecting any sense powerfully; as, strong light, colors, etc.; a strong flavor of onions; a strong scent.
• Solid; nourishing; as, strong meat.
• Well established; firm; not easily overthrown or altered; as, a strong custom; a strong belief.
• Violent; vehement; earnest; ardent.
• Having great force, vigor, power, or the like, as the mind, intellect, or any faculty; as, a man of a strong mind, memory, judgment, or imagination.
• Vigorous; effective; forcible; powerful.
(Stock Exchange) Tending to higher prices; rising; as, a strong market.
(Gram.) Pertaining to, or designating, a verb which forms its preterit (imperfect) by a variation in the root vowel, and the past participle (usually) by the addition of -en (with or without a change of the root vowel); as in the verbs strive, strove, striven; break, broke, broken; drink, drank, drunk. Opposed to weak, or regular. See Weak.
• Applied to forms in Anglo-Saxon, etc., which retain the old declensional endings. In the Teutonic languages the vowel stems have held the original endings most firmly, and are called strong; the stems in -n are called weak other constant stems conform, or are irregular.
Stronghand
n.
• Violence; force; power.
Stronghold
n.
• A fastness; a fort or fortress; fortfield place; a place of security.
Strongish
a.
• Somewhat strong.
Strongly
adv.
• In a strong manner; so as to be strong in action or in resistance; with strength; with great force; forcibly; powerfully; firmly; vehemently; as, a town strongly fortified; he objected strongly.
Strongylid
a. & n.
(Zool.) Strongyloid.
Strongyloid
a.
(Zool.) Like, or pertaining to, Strongylus, a genus of parasitic nematode worms of which many species infest domestic animals. Some of the species, especially those living in the kidneys, lungs, and bronchial tubes, are often very injurious.
n.
• A strongyloid worm.
Strontia
n.
(Chem.) An earth of a white color resembling lime in appearance, and baryta in many of its properties. It is an oxide of the metal strontium.
Strontian
n.
(Min.) Strontia.
Strontianite
n.
(Min.) Strontium carbonate, a mineral of a white, greenish, or yellowish color, usually occurring in fibrous massive forms, but sometimes in prismatic crystals.
Strontic
a.
(Chem.) Of or pertaining to strontium; containing, or designating the compounds of, strontium.
Strontitic
a.
• Strontic.
Strontium
n.
(Chem.) A metallic element of the calcium group, always naturally occurring combined, as in the minerals strontianite, celestite, etc. It is isolated as a yellowish metal, somewhat malleable but harder than calcium. It is chiefly employed (as in the nitrate) to color pyrotechnic flames red. Symbol Sr. Atomic weight 87.3.
• A radioactive isotope of strontium produced by certain nuclear reactions, and constituting one of the prominent harmful components of radioactive fallout from nuclear explosions; also called radiostrontium. It has a half-life of 28 years.
Strook
• imp. of Strike.
n.
• A stroke.
Stroot
v. t.
• To swell out; to strut.
Strop
n.
• A strap; specifically, same as Strap, 3.
v. t.
• To draw over, or rub upon, a strop with a view to sharpen; as, to strop a razor.
n.
(Naut.) A piece of rope spliced into a circular wreath, and put round a block for hanging it.
Strophanthus
n.
(Bot.) A genus of tropical apocynaceous shrubs having singularly twisted flowers. One species (Strophanthus hispidus) is used medicinally as a cardiac sedative and stimulant.
Strophe
n.
• In Greek choruses and dances, the movement of the chorus while turning from the right to the left of the orchestra; hence, the strain, or part of the choral ode, sung during this movement. Also sometimes used of a stanza of modern verse. See the Note under Antistrophe.
Strophic
a.
• Pertaining to, containing, or consisting of, strophes.
Strophiole
n.
(Bot.) A crestlike excrescence about the hilum of certain seeds; a caruncle.
Strophulus
n.
(Med.) See Red-gum, 1.
Stroud
n.
• A kind of coarse blanket or garment used by the North American Indians.
Strouding
n.
• Material for strouds; a kind of coarse cloth used in trade with the North American Indians.
Strout
v. i.
• To swell; to puff out; to project.
v. t.
• To cause to project or swell out; to enlarge affectedly; to strut.
Strove
• imp. of Strive.
Strow
v. t.
• Same as Strew.
Strowl
v. i.
• To stroll.
Strown
• p. p. of Strow.
Stroy
v. i.
• To destroy.
Struck
• imp. & p. p. of Strike.
Strucken
• p. p. of Strike.
Structural
a.
• Of or pertaining to structure; affecting structure; as, a structural error.
(Biol.) Of or pertaining to organit structure; as, a structural element or cell; the structural peculiarities of an animal or a plant.
Structure
n.
• The act of building; the practice of erecting buildings; construction.
• Manner of building; form; make; construction.
• Arrangement of parts, of organs, or of constituent particles, in a substance or body; as, the structure of a rock or a mineral; the structure of a sentence.
(Biol.) Manner of organization; the arrangement of the different tissues or parts of animal and vegetable organisms; as, organic structure, or the structure of animals and plants; cellular structure.
• That which is built; a building; esp., a building of some size or magnificence; an edifice.
Structured
a.
(Biol.) Having a definite organic structure; showing differentiation of parts.
Structureless
a.
• Without a definite structure, or arrangement of parts; without organization; devoid of cells; homogeneous; as, a structureless membrane.
Structurist
n.
• One who forms structures; a builder; a constructor.
Strude
n.
• A stock of breeding mares.
Struggle
v. i.
• To strive, or to make efforts, with a twisting, or with contortions of the body.
• To use great efforts; to labor hard; to strive; to contend forcibly; as, to struggle to save one's life; to struggle with the waves; to struggle with adversity.
• To labor in pain or anguish; to be in agony; to labor in any kind of difficulty or distress.
n.
• A violent effort or efforts with contortions of the body; agony; distress.
• Great labor; forcible effort to obtain an object, or to avert an evil.
• Contest; contention; strife.
Struggler
n.
• One who struggles.
Strull
n.
• A bar so placed as to resist weight.
Strum
v. t. & i.
• To play on an instrument of music, or as on an instrument, in an unskillful or noisy way; to thrum; as, to strum a piano.
Struma
n.
(Med.) Scrofula.
(Bot.) A cushionlike swelling on any organ; especially, that at the base of the capsule in many mosses.
Strumatic
a.
• Scrofulous; strumous.
Strumose
a.
(Med.) Strumous.
(Bot.) Having a struma.
Strumous
a.
(Med.) Scrofulous; having struma.
Strumousness
n.
• The state of being strumous.
Strumpet
n.
• A prostitute; a harlot.
a.
• Of or pertaining to a strumpet; characteristic of a strumpet.
v. t.
• To debauch.
• To dishonor with the reputation of being a strumpet; hence, to belie; to slander.
Strumstrum
n.
• A rude musical instrument somewhat like a cittern.
Strung
• imp. & p. p. of String.
Strunt
n.
• Spirituous liquor.
Struntian
n.
• A kind of worsted braid, about an inch broad.
Struse
n.
(Naut.) A Russian river craft used for transporting freight.
Strut
v. t.
• To swell; to bulge out.
• To walk with a lofty, proud gait, and erect head; to walk with affected dignity.
n.
• The act of strutting; a pompous step or walk.
(Arch.) In general, any piece of a frame which resists thrust or pressure in the direction of its own length. See Brace, and Illust. of Frame, and Roof.
(Engin.) Any part of a machine or structure, of which the principal function is to hold things apart; a brace subjected to compressive stress; — the opposite of stay, and tie.
v. t.
• To hold apart. Cf. Strut, n., 3.
a.
• Protuberant.
Struthian
a.
(Zool.) Struthious.
Struthio
n.
(Zool.) A genus of birds including the African ostriches.
Struthioidea
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Struthiones.
Struthiones
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division, or order, of birds, including only the African ostriches.
• In a wider sense, an extensive group of birds including the ostriches, cassowaries, emus, moas, and allied birds incapable of flight. In this sense it is equivalent to Ratitae, or Dromaeognathae.
Struthionine
a.
(Zool.) Struthious.
Struthious
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Struthiones, or Ostrich tribe.
Strutter
n.
• One who struts.
Strutting
a. & n.
• from Strut, v.
Struvite
n.
(Min.) A crystalline mineral found in guano. It is a hydrous phosphate of magnesia and ammonia.
Strychnia
n.
(Chem.) Strychnine.
Strychnic
a.
• Of or pertaining to strychnine; produced by strychnine; as, strychnic compounds; strychnic poisoning
(Chem.) used to designate an acid, called also igasuric acid.
Strychnine
n.
(Chem.) A very poisonous alkaloid resembling brucine, obtained from various species of plants, especially from species of Loganiaceae, as from the seeds of the St. Ignatius bean (Strychnos Ignatia) and from nux vomica. It is obtained as a white crystalline substance, having a very bitter acrid taste, and is employed in medicine (chiefly in the form of the sulphate) as a powerful neurotic stimulant. Called also strychnia, and formerly strychnina.
Strychnos
n.
(Bot.) A genus of tropical trees and shrubs of the order Loganiaceae. See Nux vomica.
Stryphnic
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, a complex nitrogenous acid, obtained by the action of acetic acid and potassium nitrite on uric acid, as a yellow crystalline substance, with a bitter, astringent taste.
Stub
n.
• The stump of a tree; that part of a tree or plant which remains fixed in the earth when the stem is cut down; — applied especially to the stump of a small tree, or shrub.
• A log; a block; a blockhead.
• The short blunt part of anything after larger part has been broken off or used up; hence, anything short and thick; as, the stub of a pencil, candle, or cigar.
• A part of a leaf in a check book, after a check is torn out, on which the number, amount, and destination of the check are usually recorded.
• A pen with a short, blunt nib.
• A stub nail; an old horseshoe nail; also, stub iron.
v. t.
• To grub up by the roots; to extirpate; as, to stub up edible roots.
• To remove stubs from; as, to stub land.
• To strike as the toes, against a stub, stone, or other fixed object.
Stubbed
a.
• Reduced to a stub; short and thick, like something truncated; blunt; obtuse.
• Abounding in stubs; stubby.
• Not nice or delicate; hardy; rugged.
Stubbedness
n.
• The quality or state of being stubbed.
Stubbiness
n.
• The state of being stubby.
Stubble
n.
• The stumps of wheat, rye, barley, oats, or buckwheat, left in the ground; the part of the stalk left by the scythe or sickle.
Stubbled
a.
• Covered with stubble.
• Stubbed; as, stubbled legs.
Stubbly
a.
• Covered with stubble; stubbled.
Stubborn
a.
• Firm as a stub or stump; stiff; unbending; unyielding; persistent; hence, unreasonably obstinate in will or opinion; not yielding to reason or persuasion; refractory; harsh; — said of persons and things; as, stubborn wills; stubborn ore; a stubborn oak; as stubborn as a mule.
Stubby
a.
• Abounding with stubs.
• Short and thick; short and strong, as bristles.
Stucco
n.
• Plaster of any kind used as a coating for walls, especially, a fine plaster, composed of lime or gypsum with sand and pounded marble, used for internal decorations and fine work.
• Work made of stucco; stuccowork.
v. t.
• To overlay or decorate with stucco, or fine plaster.
Stuccoer
n.
• One who stuccoes.
Stuccowork
n.
• Work done in stucco.
Stuck
• imp. & p. p. of Stick.
n.
• A thrust.
Stuckle
n.
• A number of sheaves set together in the field; a stook.
Stud
n.
• A collection of breeding horses and mares, or the place where they are kept; also, a number of horses kept for a racing, riding, etc.
n.
• A stem; a trunk.
(Arch.) An upright scanting, esp. one of the small uprights in the framing for lath and plaster partitions, and furring, and upon which the laths are nailed.
• A kind of nail with a large head, used chiefly for ornament; an ornamental knob; a boss.
• An ornamental button of various forms, worn in a shirt front, collar, wristband, or the like, not sewed in place, but inserted through a buttonhole or eyelet, and transferable.
(Mach.) A short rod or pin, fixed in and projecting from something, and sometimes forming a journal.
• A stud bolt.
• An iron brace across the shorter diameter of the link of a chain cable.
v. t.
• To adorn with shining studs, or knobs.
• To set with detached ornaments or prominent objects; to set thickly, as with studs.
Studbook
n.
• A genealogical register of a particular breed or stud of horses, esp. thoroughbreds.
Studdery
n.
• A stud, or collection of breeding horses and mares; also, a place for keeping a stud.
Studding
n.
• Material for studs, or joists; studs, or joists, collectively; studs.
Student
n.
• A person engaged in study; one who is devoted to learning; a learner; a pupil; a scholar; especially, one who attends a school, or who seeks knowledge from professional teachers or from books; as, the students of an academy, a college, or a university; a medical student; a hard student.
• One who studies or examines in any manner; an attentive and systematic observer; as, a student of human nature, or of physical nature.
Studentry
n.
• A body of students.
Studentship
n.
• The state of being a student.
Studfish
n.
(Zool.) Any one of several species of small American minnows of the genus Fundulus, as F. catenatus.
Studied
a.
• Closely examined; read with diligence and attention; made the subject of study; well considered; as, a studied lesson.
• Well versed in any branch of learning; qualified by study; learned; as, a man well studied in geometry.
• Premeditated; planned; designed; as, a studied insult.
• Intent; inclined.
Studiedly
adv.
• In a studied manner.
Studier
n.
• A student.
Studio
n.
• The working room of an artist.
Studious
a.
• Given to study; devoted to the acquisition of knowledge from books; as, a studious scholar.
• Given to thought, or to the examination of subjects by contemplation; contemplative.
• Earnest in endeavors; aiming sedulously; attentive; observant; diligent; — usually followed by an infinitive or by of; as, be studious to please; studious to find new friends and allies.
• Planned with study; deliberate; studied.
• Favorable to study; suitable for thought and contemplation; as, the studious shade.
Study
n.
• A setting of the mind or thoughts upon a subject; hence, application of mind to books, arts, or science, or to any subject, for the purpose of acquiring knowledge.
• Mental occupation; absorbed or thoughtful attention; meditation; contemplation.
• Any particular branch of learning that is studied; any object of attentive consideration.
• A building or apartment devoted to study or to literary work.
(Fine Arts) A representation or rendering of any object or scene intended, not for exhibition as an original work of art, but for the information, instruction, or assistance of the maker; as, a study of heads or of hands for a figure picture.
(Mus.) A piece for special practice. See Etude.
v. i.
• To fix the mind closely upon a subject; to dwell upon anything in thought; to muse; to ponder.
• To apply the mind to books or learning.
• To endeavor diligently; to be zealous.
v. t.
• To apply the mind to; to read and examine for the purpose of learning and understanding; as, to study law or theology; to study languages.
• To consider attentively; to examine closely; as, to study the work of nature.
• To form or arrange by previous thought; to con over, as in committing to memory; as, to study a speech.
• To make an object of study; to aim at sedulously; to devote one's thoughts to; as, to study the welfare of others; to study variety in composition.
Stufa
n.
• A jet of steam issuing from a fissure in the earth.
Stuff
n.
• Material which is to be worked up in any process of manufacture.
• The fundamental material of which anything is made up; elemental part; essence.
• Woven material not made into garments; fabric of any kind; specifically, any one of various fabrics of wool or worsted; sometimes, worsted fiber.
• Furniture; goods; domestic vessels or utensils.
• A medicine or mixture; a potion.
• Refuse or worthless matter; hence, also, foolish or irrational language; nonsense; trash.
(Naut.) A melted mass of turpentine, tallow, etc., with which the masts, sides, and bottom of a ship are smeared for lubrication.
• Paper stock ground ready for use.
v. t.
• To fill by crowding something into; to cram with something; to load to excess; as, to stuff a bedtick.
• To thrust or crowd; to press; to pack.
• To fill by being pressed or packed into.
(Cookery) To fill with a seasoning composition of bread, meat, condiments, etc.; as, to stuff a turkey.
• To obstruct, as any of the organs; to affect with some obstruction in the organs of sense or respiration.
• To fill the skin of, for the purpose of preserving as a specimen; — said of birds or other animals.
• To form or fashion by packing with the necessary material.
• To crowd with facts; to cram the mind of; sometimes, to crowd or fill with false or idle tales or fancies.
• To put fraudulent votes into (a ballot box).
v. i.
• To feed gluttonously; to cram.
Stuffer
n.
• One who, or that which, stuffs.
Stuffiness
n.
• The quality of being stuffy.
Stuffing
n.
• That which is used for filling anything; as, the stuffing of a saddle or cushion.
(Cookery) Any seasoning preparation used to stuff meat; especially, a composition of bread, condiments, spices, etc.; forcemeat; dressing.
• A mixture of oil and tallow used in softening and dressing leather.
Stuffy
a.
• Stout; mettlesome; resolute.
• Angry and obstinate; sulky.
• Ill-ventilated; close.
Stuke
n.
• Stucco.
Stull
n.
• A framework of timber covered with boards to support rubbish; also, a framework of boards to protect miners from falling stones.
Stulm
n.
• A shaft or gallery to drain a mine.
Stulp
n.
• A short, stout post used for any purpose, a to mark a boundary.
Stultification
n.
• The act of stultifying, or the state of being stultified.
Stultifier
n.
• One who stultifies.
Stultify
v. t.
• To make foolish; to make a fool of; as, to stultify one by imposition; to stultify one's self by silly reasoning or conduct.
• To regard as a fool, or as foolish.
(Law) To allege or prove to be of unsound mind, so that the performance of some act may be avoided.
Stultiloquence
n.
• Silly talk; babbling.
Stultiloquent
a.
• Given to, or characterized by, silly talk; babbling.
Stultiloquy
n.
• Foolish talk; silly discource; babbling.
Stulty
a.
• Foolish; silly.
Stum
n.
• Unfermented grape juice or wine, often used to raise fermentation in dead or vapid wines; must.
• Wine revived by new fermentation, reulting from the admixture of must.
v. t.
• To renew, as wine, by mixing must with it and raising a new fermentation.
Stumble
v. i.
• To trip in walking or in moving in any way with the legs; to strike the foot so as to fall, or to endanger a fall; to stagger because of a false step.
• To walk in an unsteady or clumsy manner.
• To fall into a crime or an error; to err.
• To strike or happen (upon a person or thing) without design; to fall or light by chance; — with on, upon, or against.
v. t.
• To cause to stumble or trip.
• Fig.: To mislead; to confound; to perplex; to cause to err or to fall.
n.
• A trip in walking or running.
• A blunder; a failure; a fall from rectitude.
Stumbler
n.
• One who stumbles.
Stumblingly
adv.
• In a stumbling manner.
Stump
n.
• The part of a tree or plant remaining in the earth after the stem or trunk is cut off; the stub.
• The part of a limb or other body remaining after a part is amputated or destroyed; a fixed or rooted remnant; a stub; as, the stump of a leg, a finger, a tooth, or a broom.
• The legs; as, to stir one's stumps.
(Cricket) One of the three pointed rods stuck in the ground to form a wicket and support the bails.
• A short, thick roll of leather or paper, cut to a point, or any similar implement, used to rub down the lines of a crayon or pencil drawing, in shading it, or for shading drawings by producing tints and gradations from crayon, etc., in powder.
• A pin in a tumbler lock which forms an obstruction to throwing the bolt, except when the gates of the tumblers are properly arranged, as by the key; a fence; also, a pin or projection in a lock to form a guide for a movable piece.
v. t.
• To cut off a part of; to reduce to a stump; to lop.
• To strike, as the toes, against a stone or something fixed; to stub.
• To challenge; also, to nonplus.
• To travel over, delivering speeches for electioneering purposes; as, to stump a State, or a district. See To go on the stump, under Stump, n.
(Cricket) To put (a batsman) out of play by knocking off the bail, or knocking down the stumps of the wicket he is defending while he is off his allotted ground; — sometimes with out.
• To bowl down the stumps of, as, of a wicket.
v. i.
• To walk clumsily, as if on stumps.
Stumpage
n.
• Timber in standing trees, — often sold without the land at a fixed price per tree or per stump, the stumps being counted when the land is cleared.
• A tax on the amount of timber cut, regulated by the price of lumber.
Stumper
n.
• One who stumps.
• A boastful person.
• A puzzling or incredible story.
Stumpiness
n.
• The state of being stumpy.
Stumpy
a.
• Full of stumps; hard; strong.
• Short and thick; stubby.
Stun
v. t.
• To make senseless or dizzy by violence; to render senseless by a blow, as on the head.
• To dull or deaden the sensibility of; to overcome; especially, to overpower one's sense of hearing.
• To astonish; to overpower; to bewilder.
n.
• The condition of being stunned.
Stung
• imp. & p. p. of Sting.
Stunk
• imp. & p. p. of Stink.
Stunner
n.
• One who, or that which, stuns.
• Something striking or amazing in quality; something of extraordinary excellence.
Stunning
a.
• Overpowering consciousness; overpowering the senses; especially, overpowering the sense of hearing; confounding with noise.
• Striking or overpowering with astonishment, especially on account of excellence; as, stunning poetry.
Stunsail
n.
(Naut.) A contraction of Studding sail.
Stunt
v. t.
• To hinder from growing to the natural size; to prevent the growth of; to stint, to dwarf; as, to stunt a child; to stunt a plant.
n.
• A check in growth; also, that which has been checked in growth; a stunted animal or thing.
• Specifically: A whale two years old, which, having been weaned, is lean, and yields but little blubber.
Stunted
a.
• Dwarfed.
Stuntness
n.
• Stuntedness; brevity.
Stupa
n.
• A mound or monument commemorative of Buddha.
n.
(Med.) See 1st Stupe.
Stupe
n.
(Med.) Cloth or flax dipped in warm water or medicaments and applied to a hurt or sore.
v. t.
• To foment with a stupe.
n.
• A stupid person.
Stupefacient
a.
• Producing stupefaction; stupefactive.
n.
(Med.) Anything promoting stupefaction; a narcotic.
Stupefaction
n.
• The act of stupefying, or the state of being stupefied.
Stupefactive
a. & n.
• Same as Stupefacient.
Stupefied
a.
• Having been made stupid.
Stupefiedness
n.
• Quality of being stupid.
Stupefier
n.
• One who, or that which, stupefies; a stupefying agent.
Stupefy
v. t.
• To make stupid; to make dull; to blunt the faculty of perception or understanding in; to deprive of sensibility; to make torpid.
• To deprive of material mobility.
Stupendous
a.
• Astonishing; wonderful; amazing; especially, astonishing in magnitude or elevation; as, a stupendous pile.
Stupeous
a.
• Resembling tow; having long, loose scales, or matted filaments, like tow; stupose.
Stupid
a.
• Very dull; insensible; senseless; wanting in understanding; heavy; sluggish; in a state of stupor; — said of persons.
• Resulting from, or evincing, stupidity; formed without skill or genius; dull; heavy; — said of things.
Stupidity
n.
• The quality or state of being stupid; extreme dullness of perception or understanding; insensibility; sluggishness.
• Stupor; astonishment; stupefaction.
Stupify
v. t.
• See Stupefy.
Stupor
n.
• Great diminution or suspension of sensibility; suppression of sense or feeling; lethargy.
• Intellectual insensibility; moral stupidity; heedlessness or inattention to one's interests.
Stupose
a.
(Bot.) Composed of, or having, tufted or matted filaments like tow; stupeous.
Stuprate
v. t.
• To ravish; to debauch.
Stupration
n.
• Violation of chastity by force; rape.
Stuprum
n.
• Stupration.
Sturb
v. t.
• To disturb.
Sturdily
adv.
• In a sturdy manner.
Sturdiness
n.
• Quality of being sturdy.
Sturdy
a.
• Foolishly obstinate or resolute; stubborn; unrelenting; unfeeling; stern.
• Resolute, in a good sense; or firm, unyielding quality; as, a man of sturdy piety or patriotism.
• Characterized by physical strength or force; strong; lusty; violent; as, a sturdy lout.
• Stiff; stout; strong; as, a sturdy oak.
n.
(Vet.) A disease in sheep and cattle, marked by great nervousness, or by dullness and stupor.
Sturgeon
n.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of large cartilaginous ganoid fishes belonging to Acipenser and allied genera of the family Acipenseridae. They run up rivers to spawn, and are common on the coasts and in the large rivers and lakes of North America, Europe, and Asia. Caviare is prepared from the roe, and isinglass from the air bladder.
Sturiones
n. pl.
(Zool.) An order of fishes including the sturgeons.
Sturionian
n.
(Zool.) One of the family of fishes of which the sturgeon is the type.
Sturk
n.
• See Stirk.
Sturnoid
a.
(Zool.) Like or pertaining to the starlings.
Sturt
v. t.
• To vex; to annoy; to startle.
n.
• Disturbance; annoyance; care.
(Mining) A bargain in tribute mining by which the tributor profits.
Sturtion
n.
• A corruption of Nasturtion.
Stut
v. i.
• To stutter.
Stutter
v. t. & i.
• To hesitate or stumble in uttering words; to speak with spasmodic repetition or pauses; to stammer.
n.
• The act of stuttering; a stammer. See Stammer, and Stuttering.
• One who stutters; a stammerer.
Stutterer
n.
• One who stutters; a stammerer.
Stuttering
n.
• The act of one who stutters; — restricted by some physiologists to defective speech due to inability to form the proper sounds, the breathing being normal, as distinguished from stammering.
a.
• Apt to stutter; hesitating; stammering.
Sty
n.
• A pen or inclosure for swine.
• A place of bestial debauchery.
v. t.
• To shut up in, or as in, a sty.
v. i.
• To soar; to ascend; to mount. See Stirrup.
n.
(Med.) An inflamed swelling or boil on the edge of the eyelid.
Styan
n.
• See Sty, a boil.
Styca
n.
• An anglo-Saxon copper coin of the lowest value, being worth half a farthing.
Stycerin
n.
(Chem.) A triacid alcohol, related to glycerin, and obtained from certain styryl derivatives as a yellow, gummy, amorphous substance; — called also phenyl glycerin.
Stye
n.
• See Sty, a boil.
Stygial
a.
• Stygian.
Stygian
a.
• Of or pertaining to the river Styx; hence, hellish; infernal. See Styx.
Stylagalmaic
a.
(Arch.) Performing the office of columns; as, Atlantes and Caryatides are stylagalmaic figures or images.
Stylar
a.
• See Stilar.
Stylaster
n.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of delicate, usually pink, calcareous hydroid corals of the genus Stylaster.
Style
n.
• An instrument used by the ancients in writing on tablets covered with wax, having one of its ends sharp, and the other blunt, and somewhat expanded, for the purpose of making erasures by smoothing the wax.
• Hence, anything resembling the ancient style in shape or use.
• A pen; an author's pen.
• A sharp-pointed tool used in engraving; a graver.
• A kind of blunt-pointed surgical instrument.
(Zool.) A long, slender, bristlelike process, as the anal styles of insects.
• The pin, or gnomon, of a dial, the shadow of which indicates the hour. See Gnomon.
(Bot.) The elongated part of a pistil between the ovary and the stigma. See Illust. of Stamen, and of Pistil.
• Mode of expressing thought in language, whether oral or written; especially, such use of language in the expression of thought as exhibits the spirit and faculty of an artist; choice or arrangement of words in discourse; rhetorical expression.
• Mode of presentation, especially in music or any of the fine arts; a characteristic of peculiar mode of developing in idea or accomplishing a result.
• Conformity to a recognized standard; manner which is deemed elegant and appropriate, especially in social demeanor; fashion.
• Mode or phrase by which anything is formally designated; the title; the official designation of any important body; mode of address; as, the style of Majesty.
(Chron.) A mode of reckoning time, with regard to the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
v. t.
• To entitle; to term, name, or call; to denominate.
Stylet
n.
• A small poniard; a stiletto.
(Surg.) An instrument for examining wounds and fistulas, and for passing setons, and the like; a probe, — called also specillum.
• A stiff wire, inserted in catheters or other tubular instruments to maintain their shape and prevent clogging.
(Zool.) Any small, more or less rigid, bristlelike organ; as, the caudal stylets of certain insects; the ventral stylets of certain Infusoria.
Styliferous
a.
(Bot.) Bearing one or more styles.
Styliform
a.
• Having the form of, or resembling, a style, pin, or pen; styloid.
Stylish
a.
• Having style or artistic quality; given to, or fond of, the display of style; highly fashionable; modish; as, a stylish dress, house, manner.
Stylist
n.
• One who is a master or a model of style, especially in writing or speaking; a critic of style.
Stylistic
a.
• Of or pertaining to style in language.
Stylite
n.
(Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect of anchorites in the early church, who lived on the tops of pillars for the exercise of their patience; — called also pillarist and pillar saint.
Stylobate
n.
(Arch.) The uninterrupted and continuous flat band, coping, or pavement upon which the bases of a row of columns are supported. See Sub-base.
Styloglossal
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to styloid process and the tongue.
Stylograph
n.
• A stylographic pen.
Stylographic
a.
• Of or pertaining to stylography; used in stylography; as, stylographic tablets.
• Pertaining to, or used in, stylographic pen; as, stylographic ink.
Stylographical
a.
• Same as Stylographic, 1.
Stylography
n.
• A mode of writing or tracing lines by means of a style on cards or tablets.
Stylohyal
n.
(Anat.) A segment in the hyoidean arch between the epihyal and tympanohyal.
Stylohyoid
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the styloid process and the hyoid bone.
Styloid
a.
• Styliform; as, the styloid process.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the styloid process.
Stylomastoid
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the styloid and mastoid processes of the temporal bone.
Stylomaxillary
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the styloid process and the maxilla.
Stylometer
n.
• An instrument for measuring columns.
Stylommata
n. pl.
• Same as Stylommatophora.
Stylommatophora
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of Pulmonata in which the eyes are situated at the tips of the tentacles. It includes the common land snails and slugs. See Illust. under Snail.
Stylommatophorous
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to Stylommatophora.
Stylopodium
n.
(Bot.) An expansion at the base of the style, as in umbelliferous plants.
Stylops
n.
(Zool.) A genus of minute insects parasitic, in their larval state, on bees and wasps. It is the typical genus of the group Strepsiptera, formerly considered a distinct order, but now generally referred to the Coleoptera. See Strepsiptera.
Stylus
n.
• An instrument for writing. See Style, n., 1.
• That needle-shaped part at the tip of the playing arm of phonograph which sits in the groove of a phonograph record while it is turning, to detect the undulations in the phonograph groove and convert them into vibrations which are transmitted to a system (since 1920 electronic) which converts the signal into sound; also called needle. The stylus is frequently composed of metal or diamond.
• The needle-like device used to cut the grooves which record the sound on the original disc during recording of a phonograph record.
• A pen-shaped pointing device used to specify the cursor position on a graphics tablet.
Styphnate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of styphnic acid.
Styphnic
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, a yellow crystalline astringent acid, (NO2)3.C6H.(OH)2, obtained by the action of nitric acid on resorcin. Styphnic acid resembles picric acid, but is not bitter. It acts like a strong dibasic acid, having a series of well defined salts.
Styptic
a.
• Producing contraction; stopping bleeding; having the quality of restraining hemorrhage when applied to the bleeding part; astringent.
n.
(Med.) A styptic medicine.
Styptical
a.
• Styptic; astringent.
Stypticity
n.
• The quality or state of being styptic; astringency.
Styracin
n.
(Chem.) A white crystalline tasteless substance extracted from gum storax, and consisting of a salt of cinnamic acid with cinnamic alcohol.
Styrax
n.
(Bot.) A genus of shrubs and trees, mostly American or Asiatic, abounding in resinous and aromatic substances. Styrax officinalis yields storax, and S. Benzoin yields benzoin.
• Same as Storax.
Styrol
n.
(Chem.) See Styrolene.
Styrolene
n.
(Chem.) An unsaturated hydrocarbon, C8H8, obtained by the distillation of storax, by the decomposition of cinnamic acid, and by the condensation of acetylene, as a fragrant, aromatic, mobile liquid; — called also phenyl ethylene, vinyl benzene, styrol, styrene, and cinnamene.
Styrone
n.
(Chem.) A white crystalline substance having a sweet taste and a hyacinthlike odor, obtained by the decomposition of styracin; — properly called cinnamic, or styryl, alcohol.
Styryl
n.
(Chem.) A hypothetical radical found in certain derivatives of styrolene and cinnamic acid; — called also cinnyl, or cinnamyl.
Stythe
n.
(Mining) Choke damp.
Stythy
n. & v.
• See Stithy.
Styx
n.
(Class. Myth.) The principal river of the lower world, which had to be crossed in passing to the regions of the dead.
Suability
n.
(Law) Liability to be sued; the state of being subjected by law to civil process.
Suable
a.
(Law) Capable of being sued; subject by law to be called to answer in court.
Suade
v. t.
• To persuade.
Suadible
a.
• Suasible.
Suage
v. t.
• To assuage.
Suant
a.
• Spread equally over the surface; uniform; even.
Suasible
a.
• Capable of being persuaded; easily persuaded.
Suasion
n.
• The act of persuading; persuasion; as, moral suasion.
Suasive
a.
• Having power to persuade; persuasive; suasory.
Suasory
a.
• Tending to persuade; suasive.
Suave
a.
• Sweet; pleasant; delightful; gracious or agreeable in manner; bland.
Suavify
v. t.
• To make affable or suave.
Suaviloquent
a.
• Sweetly speaking; using agreeable speech.
Suaviloquy
n.
• Sweetness of speech.
Suavity
n.
• Sweetness to the taste.
• The quality of being sweet or pleasing to the mind; agreeableness; softness; pleasantness; gentleness; urbanity; as, suavity of manners; suavity of language, conversation, or address.
Sub
n.
• A subordinate; a subaltern.
Subacid
a.
• Moderately acid or sour; as, some plants have subacid juices.
n.
• A substance moderately acid.
Subacrid
a.
• Moderalely acrid or harsh.
Subacromial
a.
(Anat.) Situated beneath the acromial process of the scapula.
Subact
v. t.
• To reduce; to subdue.
Subaction
n.
• The act of reducing to any state, as of mixing two bodies combletely.
Subacute
a.
• Moderalely acute.
Subaduncate
a.
(Zool.) Somewhat hooked or curved.
Subadvocate
n.
• An under or subordinate advocate.
Subaerial
a.
• Beneath the sky; in the open air; specifically (Geol.), taking place on the earth's surface, as opposed to subaqueous.
Subagency
n.
• A subordinate agency.
Subagent
n.
(Law) A person employed by an agent to transact the whole, or a part, of the business intrusted to the latter.
Subagitation
n.
• Unlawful sexual intercourse.
Subaid
v. t.
• To aid secretly; to assist in a private manner, or indirectly.
Subalmoner
n.
• An under almoner.
Subalpine
a.
(Bot. & Zool.) Inhabiting the somewhat high slopes and summits of mountains, but considerably below the snow line.
Subaltern
a.
• Ranked or ranged below; subordinate; inferior; specifically (Mil.), ranking as a junior officer; being below the rank of captain; as, a subaltern officer.
(Logic) Asserting only a part of what is asserted in a related proposition.
n.
• A person holding a subordinate position; specifically, a commissioned military officer below the rank of captain.
(Logic) A subaltern proposition.
Subalternant
n.
(Logic) A universal proposition. See Subaltern, 2.
Subalternate
a.
• Succeeding by turns; successive.
• Subordinate; subaltern; inferior.
n.
(Logic) A particular proposition, as opposed to a universal one. See Subaltern, 2.
Subalternating
a.
• Subalternate; successive.
Subalternation
n.
• The state of being subalternate; succession of turns; subordination.
Subangular
a.
• Slightly angular.
Subapennine
a.
• Under, or at the foot of, the Apennine mountains; — applied, in geology, to a series of Tertiary strata of the older Pliocene period.
Subapical
a.
• Being under the apex; of or pertaining to the part just below the apex.
Subaquaneous
a.
• Subaqueous.
Subarctic
a.
• Approximately arctic; belonging to a region just without the arctic circle.
Subarration
n.
• The ancient custom of betrothing by the bestowal, on the part of the man, of marriage gifts or tokens, as money, rings, or other presents, upon the woman.
Subarytenoid
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the arytenoid cartilage of the larynx.
Subash
n.
• A province; a government, as of a viceroy; also, a subahdar.
Subashdar
n.
• A viceroy; a governor of a subah; also, a native captain in the British native army.
Subastral
a.
• Beneath the stars or heavens; terrestrial.
Subastringent
a.
• Somewhat astringent.
Subatom
n.
(Chem.) A hypothetical component of a chemical atom, on the theory that the elements themselves are complex substances; — called also atomicule.
Subaud
v. t.
• To understand or supply in an ellipsis.
Subaudition
n.
• The act of understanding, or supplying, something not expressed; also, that which is so understood or supplied.
Subaxillary
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the axilla, or armpit.
(Bot.) Placed under the axil, or angle formed by the branch of a plant with the stem, or a leaf with the branch.
Subbasal
a.
(Zool.) Near the base.
Subbeadle
n.
• An under beadle.
Subbrachial
a.
• Of or pertaining to the subbrachians.
Subbrachiales
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of soft-finned fishes in which the ventral fins are situated beneath the pectorial fins, or nearly so.
Subbrachian
n.
(Zool.) One of the Subbrachiales.
Subbreed
n.
(Zool.) A race or strain differing in certain characters from the parent breed; an incipient breed.
Subbronchial
a.
(Anat.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the bronchi; as, the subbronchial air sacs of birds.
Subcaliber
a.
• Smaller than the caliber of a firearm.
Subcarboniferous
a.
(Geol.) Of or pertaining to the lowest division of the Carboniferous formations underlying the proper coal measures. It was a marine formation characterized in general by beds of limestone.
n.
• The Subcarboniferous period or formation.
Subcarbureted
a.
(Chem.) United with, or containing, carbon in less than the normal proportion.
Subcartilaginous
a.
(Anat.) Situated under or beneath a cartilage or cartilages.
• Partially cartilaginous.
Subcaudal
a.
(Anat.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the tail; as, the subcaudal, or chevron, bones.
Subcelestial
a.
• Being beneath the heavens; as, subcelestial glories.
Subcentral
a.
• Under the center.
• Nearly central; not quite central.
Subchanter
n.
(Eccl.) An underchanter; a precentor's deputy in a cathedral; a succentor.
Subcircular
a.
• Nearly circular.
Subclass
n.
• One of the natural groups, more important than an order, into which some classes are divided; as, the angiospermous subclass of exogens.
Subclavian
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the clavicle, or collar bone; as, the subclavian arteries.
Subcolumnar
a.
(Geol.) Having an imperfect or interrupted columnar structure.
Subcommittee
n.
• An under committee; a part or division of a committee.
Subcompressed
a.
• Not fully compressed; partially or somewhat compressed.
Subconcave
a.
• Slightly concave.
Subconformable
a.
• Partially conformable.
Subconical
a.
• Slightly conical.
Subconjunctival
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the conjunctiva.
Subconscious
a.
• Occurring without the possibility or the fact of an attendant consciousness; — said of states of the soul.
• Partially conscious; feebly conscious.
Subconstellation
n.
(Astron.) A subordinate constellation.
Subcontract
n.
• A contract under, or subordinate to, a previous contract.
Subcontracted
a.
• Contracted after a former contract.
• Betrothed for the second time.
Subcontractor
n.
• One who takes a portion of a contract, as for work, from the principal contractor.
Subcontrary
a.
• Contrary in an inferior degree.
(Geom.) Having, or being in, a contrary order; — said of a section of an oblique cone having a circular base made by a plane not parallel to the base, but so inclined to the axis that the section is a circle; applied also to two similar triangles when so placed as to have a common angle at the vertex, the opposite sides not being parallel.
(Logic) Denoting the relation of opposition between the particular affirmative and particular negative. Of these both may be true and only one can be false.
n.
(Logic) A subcontrary proposition; a proposition inferior or contrary in a lower degree.
Subcoracoid
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the coracoid process of the scapula; as, the subcoracoid dislocation of the humerus.
Subcordate
a.
• Somewhat cordate; somewhat like a heart in shape.
Subcorneous
a.
(Anat.) Situated under a horny part or layer.
• Partially horny.
Subcostal
a.
(Anat. & Zool.) Situated below the costas, or ribs; as, the subcostal muscles.
n.
(Anat.) A subcostal muscle.
(Zool.) One of the principal nervures of the wings of an insect. It is situated next beneath or behind the costal. See Nervure.
Subcranial
a.
(Anat.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the cranium; facial.
Subcrustaceous
a.
• Occurring beneath a crust or scab; as, a subcrustaceous cicatrization.
Subcrystalline
a.
• Imperfectly crystallized.
Subcutaneous
a.
• Situated under the skin; hypodermic.
Subcuticular
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the cuticle, or scarfskin.
Subdeacon
n.
(Eccl.) One belonging to an order in the Roman Catholic Church, next interior to the order of deacons; also, a member of a minor order in the Greek Church.
Subdean
n.
• An under dean; the deputy or substitute of a dean.
Subdeanery
n.
• Office or rank of subdean.
Subdecanal
a.
• Of or pertaining to a subdean or subdeanery.
Subdecuple
a.
• Containing one part of ten.
Subdelegate
n.
• A subordinate delegate, or one with inferior powers.
v. t.
• To appoint to act as subdelegate, or as a subordinate; to depete.
Subdented
a.
• Indented beneath.
Subdepartment
n.
• A subordinate department; a bureau. See the Note under Bureau.
Subdeposit
n.
• That which is deposited beneath something else.
Subderisorious
a.
• Ridiculing with moderation.
Subderivative
n.
• A word derived from a derivative, and not directly from the root; as, "friendliness" is a subderivative, being derived from "friendly", which is in turn a derivative from "friend."
Subdiaconate
a.
• Of or pertaining to a subdeacon, or to the office or rank of a subdeacon.
n.
• The office or rank of a subdeacon.
Subdial
a.
• Of or pertaining to the open air; being under the open sky.
Subdialect
n.
• A subordinate dialect.
Subdichotomy
n.
• A subordinate, or inferior, division into parts; a subdivision.
Subdilated
a.
• Partially dilated.
Subdititious
a.
• Put secretly in the place of something else; foisted in.
Subdiversify
v. t.
• To diversify aggain what is already diversified.
Subdivide
v. t.
• To divide the parts of (anything) into more parts; to part into smaller divisions; to divide again, as what has already been divided.
v. i.
• To be, or to become, subdivided.
Subdivine
a.
• Partaking of divinity; divine in a partial or lower degree.
Subdivisible
a.
• Susceptible of subdivision.
Subdivision
n.
• The act of subdividing, or separating a part into smaller parts.
• A part of a thing made by subdividing.
Subdolous
a.
• Sly; crafty; cunning; artful.
Subdominant
n.
(Mus.) The fourth tone above, or fifth below, the tonic; — so called as being under the dominant.
Subduable
a.
• Able to be subdued.
Subdual
n.
• Act of subduing.
Subduction
n.
• The act of subducting or taking away.
• Arithmetical subtraction.
Subdue
v. t.
• To bring under; to conquer by force or the exertion of superior power, and bring into permanent subjection; to reduce under dominion; to vanquish.
• To overpower so as to disable from further resistance; to crush.
• To destroy the force of; to overcome; as, medicines subdue a fever.
• To render submissive; to bring under command; to reduce to mildness or obedience; to tame; as, to subdue a stubborn child; to subdue the temper or passions.
• To overcome, as by persuasion or other mild means; as, to subdue opposition by argument or entreaties.
• To reduce to tenderness; to melt; to soften; as, to subdue ferocity by tears.
• To make mellow; to break, as land; also, to destroy, as weeds.
• To reduce the intensity or degree of; to tone down; to soften; as, to subdue the brilliancy of colors.
Subdued
a.
• Conquered; overpowered; crushed; submissive; mild.
• Not glaring in color; soft in tone.
Subduement
n.
• Subdual.
Subduer
n.
• One who, or that which, subdues; a conqueror.
Subdulcid
a.
• Somewhat sweet; sweetish.
Subduple
a.
(Math.) Indicating one part of two; in the ratio of one to two.
Subduplicate
a.
(Math.) Expressed by the square root; — said of ratios.
Subdural
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the dura mater, or between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane.
Subeditor
n.
• An assistant editor, as of a periodical or journal.
Subelongate
a.
• Not fully elongated; somewhat elongated.
Subendocardial
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the endocardium.
Subendymal
a.
• Situated under the endyma.
Subepidermal
a.
• Situated immediately below the epidermis.
Subepiglottic
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the epiglottis.
Subepithelial
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the epithelium.
Subequal
a.
• Nearly equal.
Suberate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of suberic acid.
Subereous
a.
• Of or pertaining to cork; of the nature of cork; suberose.
Suberic
a.
(Chem.) Of or pertaining to cork; specifically, designating an acid, CH.(COH), homologous with oxalic acid, and obtained from cork and certain fatty oils, as a white crystalline substance.
Suberin
n.
(Bot.) A material found in the cell walls of cork. It is a modification of lignin.
Suberite
n.
(Zool.) Any sponge of the genus Suberites and allied genera. These sponges have a fine and compact texture, and contain minute siliceous spicules.
Suberone
n.
(Chem.) The hypothetical ketone of suberic acid.
• A colorless liquid, analogous suberone proper, having a pleasant peppermint odor. It is obtained by the distillation of calcium suberate.
Subesophageal
a.
(Zool.) Situated beneath the esophagus.
Subfamily
n.
(Biol.) One of the subdivisions, of more importance than genus, into which certain families are divided.
Subfibrous
a.
• Somewhat fibrous.
Subfuscous
a.
• Duskish; moderately dark; brownish; tawny.
Subfusk
a.
• Subfuscous.
Subgelatinous
a.
• Imperfectly or partially gelatinous.
Subgeneric
a.
• Of or pertaining to a subgenus.
Subgenus
n.
(Biol.) A subdivision of a genus, comprising one or more species which differ from other species of the genus in some important character or characters; as, the azaleas now constitute a subgenus of Rhododendron.
Subglacial
a.
• Pertaining or belonging to the under side of a glacier; being beneath a glacier; as, subglacial streams.
Subglobose
a.
• Not quite globose.
Subglobular
a.
• Nearly globular.
Subglossal
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the tongue; sublingual.
Subglottic
a.
(Anat.) Situated below the glottis; — applied to that part of the cavity of the larynx below the true vocal cords.
Subglumaceous
a.
• Somewhat glumaceous.
Subgovernor
n.
• A subordinate or assistant governor.
Subgranular
a.
• Somewhat granular.
Subgroup
n.
(Biol.) A subdivision of a group, as of animals.
Subhastation
n.
• A public sale or auction.
Subhepatic
a.
(Anat.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the liver; — applied to the interlobular branches of the portal vein.
Subhornblendic
a.
(Min.) Containing hornblende in a scattered state; of or relating to rocks containing disseminated hornblende.
Subhumerate
v. t.
• To place the shoulders under; to bear.
Subhyaloid
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the hyaliod membrane.
Subhyoidean
a.
(Anat. & Med.) Situated or performed beneath the hyoid bone; as, subhyoidean laryngotomy.
Subibfer
v. t. & i.
• To infer from an inference already made.
Subimago
n.
(Zool.) A stage in the development of certain insects, such as the May flies, intermediate between the pupa and imago. In this stage, the insect is able to fly, but subsequently sheds a skin before becoming mature. Called also pseudimago.
Subincusation
n.
• A slight charge or accusation.
Subindex
n.
(Math.) A number or mark placed opposite the lower part of a letter or symbol to distinguish the symbol; thus, a0, b1, c2, xn, have 0, 1, 2, and n as subindices.
Subindicate
v. t.
• To indicate by signs or hints; to indicate imperfectly.
Subindication
n.
• The act of indicating by signs; a slight indication.
Subindividual
n.
• A division of that which is individual.
Subinduce
v. t.
• To insinuate; to offer indirectly.
Subinfeudation
n.
(Law) The granting of lands by inferior lords to their dependents, to be held by themselves by feudal tenure.
• Subordinate tenancy; undertenancy.
Subingression
n.
• Secret entrance.
Subintestinal
a.
(Anat.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the intestine.
Subinvolution
n.
• Partial or incomplete involution; as, subinvolution of the uterus.
Subitaneous
a.
• Sudden; hasty.
Subitany
a.
• Subitaneous; sudden; hasty.
Subito
adv.
(Mus.) In haste; quickly; rapidly.
Subjacent
a.
• Lying under or below.
• Being in a lower situation, though not directly beneath; as, hills and subjacent valleys.
Subject
a.
• Placed or situated under; lying below, or in a lower situation.
• Placed under the power of another; specifically (International Law), owing allegiance to a particular sovereign or state; as, Jamaica is subject to Great Britain.
• Exposed; liable; prone; disposed; as, a country subject to extreme heat; men subject to temptation.
• Obedient; submissive.
n.
• That which is placed under the authority, dominion, control, or influence of something else.
• Specifically: One who is under the authority of a ruler and is governed by his laws; one who owes allegiance to a sovereign or a sovereign state; as, a subject of Queen Victoria; a British subject; a subject of the United States.
• That which is subjected, or submitted to, any physical operation or process; specifically (Anat.), a dead body used for the purpose of dissection.
• That which is brought under thought or examination; that which is taken up for discussion, or concerning which anything is said or done.
• The person who is treated of; the hero of a piece; the chief character.
(Logic & Gram.) That of which anything is affirmed or predicated; the theme of a proposition or discourse; that which is spoken of; as, the nominative case is the subject of the verb.
• That in which any quality, attribute, or relation, whether spiritual or material, inheres, or to which any of these appertain; substance; substratum.
• Hence, that substance or being which is conscious of its own operations; the mind; the thinking agent or principal; the ego. Cf. Object, n., 2.
(Mus.) The principal theme, or leading thought or phrase, on which a composition or a movement is based.
(Fine Arts) The incident, scene, figure, group, etc., which it is the aim of the artist to represent.
v. t.
• To bring under control, power, or dominion; to make subject; to subordinate; to subdue.
• To expose; to make obnoxious or liable; as, credulity subjects a person to impositions.
• To submit; to make accountable.
• To make subservient.
• To cause to undergo; as, to subject a substance to a white heat; to subject a person to a rigid test.
Subjected
a.
• Subjacent.
• Reduced to subjection; brought under the dominion of another.
• Exposed; liable; subject; obnoxious.
Subjection
n.
• The act of subjecting, or of bringing under the dominion of another; the act of subduing.
• The state of being subject, or under the power, control, and government of another; a state of obedience or submissiveness; as, the safety of life, liberty, and property depends on our subjection to the laws.
Subjectist
n.
(Metaph.) One skilled in subjective philosophy; a subjectivist.
Subjective
a.
• Of or pertaining to a subject.
• Especially, pertaining to, or derived from, one's own consciousness, in distinction from external observation; ralating to the mind, or intellectual world, in distinction from the outward or material excessively occupied with, or brooding over, one's own internal states.
(Lit. & Art) Modified by, or making prominent, the individuality of a writer or an artist; as, a subjective drama or painting; a subjective writer.
Subjectivism
n.
(Metaph.) Any philosophical doctrine which refers all knowledge to, and founds it upon, any subjective states; egoism.
Subjectivist
n.
(Metaph.) One who holds to subjectivism; an egoist.
Subjectivity
n.
• The quality or state of being subjective; character of the subject.
Subjectless
a.
• Having no subject.
Subjectness
n.
• Quality of being subject.
Subjicible
a.
• Capable of being subjected.
Subjoin
v. t.
• To add after something else has been said or written; to ANNEX; as, to subjoin an argument or reason.
Subjoinder
n.
• An additional remark.
Subjugate
v. t.
• To subdue, and bring under the yoke of power or dominion; to conquer by force, and compel to submit to the government or absolute control of another; to vanquish.
Subjugation
n.
• The act of subjugating, or the state of being subjugated.
Subjugator
n.
• One who subjugates; a conqueror.
Subjunction
n.
• Act of subjoining, or state of being subjoined.
• Something subjoined; as, a subjunction to a sentence.
Subjunctive
a.
• Subjoined or added to something before said or written.
n.
(Gram.) The subjunctive mood; also, a verb in the subjunctive mood.
Subkingdom
n.
• One of the several primary divisions of either the animal, or vegetable kingdom, as, in zoology, the Vertebrata, Tunicata, Mollusca, Articulata, Molluscoidea, Echinodermata, Coelentera, and the Protozoa; in botany, the Phanerogamia, and the Cryptogamia.
Sublapsarian
n. & a.
(Eccl. Hist.) Same as Infralapsarian.
Sublapsarianism
n.
• Infralapsarianism.
Sublapsary
a.
• Sublapsarian.
Sublate
v. t.
• To take or carry away; to remove.
Sublation
n.
• The act of taking or carrying away; removal.
Sublative
a.
• Having power, or tending, to take away.
Sublease
n.
(Law) A lease by a tenant or lessee to another person; an underlease.
Sublessee
n.
• A holder of a sublease.
Sublet
v. t.
• To underlet; to lease, as when a lessee leases to another person.
Sublevation
n.
• The act of raising on high; elevation.
• An uprising; an insurrection.
Sublibrarian
n.
• An under or assistant librarian.
Sublieutenant
n.
• An inferior or second lieutenant; in the British service, a commissioned officer of the lowest rank.
Subligation
n.
• The act of binding underneath.
Sublimable
a.
• Capable of being sublimed or sublimated.
Sublimate
v. t.
• To bring by heat into the state of vapor, which, on cooling, returns again to the solid state; as, to sublimate sulphur or camphor.
• To refine and exalt; to heighten; to elevate.
n.
(Chem.) A product obtained by sublimation; hence, also, a purified product so obtained.
a.
• Brought into a state of vapor by heat, and again condensed as a solid.
Sublimated
a.
• Refined by, or as by, sublimation; exalted; purified.
Sublimation
n.
(Chem.) The act or process of subliming, or the state or result of being sublimed.
• The act of heightening or improving; exaltation; elevation; purification.
• That which is sublimed; the product of a purifying process.
Sublimatory
a.
• Used for sublimation; as, sublimatory vessels.
n.
• A vessel used for sublimation.
Sublime
a.
• Lifted up; high in place; exalted aloft; uplifted; lofty.
• Distinguished by lofty or noble traits; eminent; — said of persons.
• Awakening or expressing the emotion of awe, adoration, veneration, heroic resolve, etc.; dignified; grand; solemn; stately; — said of an impressive object in nature, of an action, of a discourse, of a work of art, of a spectacle, etc.; as, sublime scenery; a sublime deed.
• Elevated by joy; elate.
• Lofty of mien; haughty; proud.
n.
• That which is sublime; — with the definite article
• A grand or lofty style in speaking or writing; a style that expresses lofty conceptions.
• That which is grand in nature or art, as distinguished from the merely beautiful.
v. t.
• To raise on high.
(Chem.) To subject to the process of sublimation; to heat, volatilize, and condense in crystals or powder; to distill off, and condense in solid form; hence, also, to purify.
• To exalt; to heighten; to improve; to purify.
• To dignify; to ennoble.
v. i.
(Chem.) To pass off in vapor, with immediate condensation; specifically, to evaporate or volatilize from the solid state without apparent melting; — said of those substances, like arsenic, benzoic acid, etc., which do not exhibit a liquid form on heating, except under increased pressure.
Sublimed
a.
(Chem.) Having been subjected to the process of sublimation; hence, also, purified.
Sublimely
adv.
• In a sublime manner.
Sublimeness
n.
• The quality or state of being sublime; sublimity.
Sublimification
n.
• The act of making sublime, or state of being made sublime.
Sublimity
n.
• The quality or state of being sublime (in any sense of the adjective).
• That which is sublime; as, the sublimities of nature.
Sublineation
n.
• A mark of a line or lines under a word in a sentence, or under another line; underlining.
Sublingua
n.
(Anat.) A process or fold below the tongue in some animals.
Sublingual
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the tongue; as, the sublingual gland.
• Of or pertaining to the sublingual gland; as, sublingual salvia.
Sublition
n.
(Paint.) The act or process of laying the ground in a painting.
Sublittoral
a.
• Under the shore.
Sublobular
a.
(Anat.) Situated under, or at the bases of, the lobules of the liver.
Sublumbar
a.
(Anat.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Sublunary
n.
• Any worldly thing.
Subluxation
n.
(Surg.) An incomplete or partial dislocation.
Submammary
a.
• Situated under the mammae; as, submammary inflammation.
Submarine
a.
• Being, acting, or growing, under water in the sea; as, submarine navigators; submarine plants.
n.
• A submarine plant or animal.
Submarshal
n.
• An under or deputy marshal.
Submaxillary
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the maxilla, or lower jaw; inframaxillary; as, the submaxillary gland.
• Of or pertaining to submaxillary gland; as, submaxillary salvia.
Submedial
a.
• Lying under the middle.
Submedian
a.
(Zool.) Next to the median (on either side); as, the submedian teeth of mollusks.
Submediant
n.
(Mus.) The sixth tone of the scale; the under mediant, or third below the keynote; the superdominant.
Submental
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the chin; as, the submental artery.
Submentum
n.
(Zool.) The basal part of the labium of insects. It bears the mentum.
Submerge
v. t.
• To put under water; to plunge.
• To cover or overflow with water; to inundate; to flood; to drown.
v. i.
• To plunge into water or other fluid; to be buried or covered, as by a fluid; to be merged; hence, to be completely included.
Submergence
n.
• The act of submerging, or the state of being submerged; submersion.
Submerse
a.
(Bot.) Submersed.
Submersed
a.
• Being or growing under water, as the leaves of aquatic plants.
Submersion
n.
• The act of submerging, or putting under water or other fluid, or of causing to be overflowed; the act of plunging under water, or of drowning.
• The state of being put under water or other fluid, or of being overflowed or drowned.
Submetallic
a.
• Imperfectly metallic; as, a submetallic luster.
Subminister
v. t.
• To supply; to afford.
v. i.
• To be subservient; to be useful.
Subministrant
a.
• Subordinate; subservient.
Subministrate
v. t.
• To supply; to afford; to subminister.
Subministration
n.
• The act of subministering.
Submiss
a.
• Submissive; humble; obsequious.
• Gentle; soft; calm; as, submiss voices.
Submission
n.
• The act of submitting; the act of yielding to power or authority; surrender of the person and power to the control or government of another; obedience; compliance.
• The state of being submissive; acknowledgement of inferiority or dependence; humble or suppliant behavior; meekness; resignation.
• Acknowledgement of a fault; confession of error.
(Law) An agreement by which parties engage to submit any matter of controversy between them to the decision of arbitrators.
Submissive
a.
• Inclined or ready to submit; acknowledging one's inferiority; yielding; obedient; humble.
• Showing a readiness to submit; expressing submission; as, a submissive demeanor.
Submissly
adv.
• In a submissive manner; with a submission.
Submissness
n.
• Submissiveness.
Submit
v. t.
• To let down; to lower.
• To put or place under.
• To yield, resign, or surrender to power, will, or authority; — often with the reflexive pronoun.
• To leave or commit to the discretion or judgment of another or others; to refer; as, to submit a controversy to arbitrators; to submit a question to the court; — often followed by a dependent proposition as the object.
v. i.
• To yield one's person to the power of another; to give up resistance; to surrender.
• To yield one's opinion to the opinion of authority of another; to be subject; to acquiesce.
• To be submissive or resigned; to yield without murmuring.
Submitter
n.
• One who submits.
Submonish
v. t.
• To suggest; to prompt.
Submonition
n.
• Suggestion; prompting.
Submucous
a.
(Anat.) Situated under a mucous membrane.
Submultiple
n.
(Math.) A number or quality which is contained in another an exact number of times, or is an aliquot part of it; thus, 7 is the submultiple of 56, being contained in it eight times.
a.
(Math.) Of or pertaining to a submultiple; being a submultiple; as, a submultiple number; submultiple ratio.
Submuscular
a.
• Situated underneath a muscle or muscles.
Subnarcotic
a.
(Med.) Moderately narcotic.
Subnasal
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the nose; as, the subnasal point, or the middle point of the inferior border of the anterior nasal aperture.
Subnascent
a.
• Growing underneath.
Subnect
v. t.
• To tie or fasten beneath; to join beneath.
Subnex
v. t.
• To subjoin; to subnect.
Subnormal
n.
(Geom.) That part of the axis of a curved line which is intercepted between the ordinate and the normal.
Subnotation
n.
• A rescript.
Subnotochordal
a.
(Anat.) Situated on the ventral side of the notochord; as, the subnotochordal rod.
Subnuvolar
a.
• Under the clouds; attended or partly covered or obscured by clouds; somewhat cloudy.
Subobscurely
adv.
• Somewhat obscurely or darkly.
Subobtuse
a.
• Partially obtuse.
Suboccipital
a.
(Anat.) Situated under, or posterior to, the occiput; as, the suboccipital, or first cervical, nerve.
Subocular
a.
(Anat.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the eye.
Subofficer
n.
• An under or subordinate officer.
Subopercular
a.
(Anat.) Situated below the operculum; pertaining to the suboperculum.
n.
• The suboperculum.
Suboperculum
n.
(Anat.) The lower opercular bone in fishes.
Suborder
n.
(Nat. Hist.) A division of an order; a group of genera of a little lower rank than an order and of greater importance than a tribe or family; as, cichoraceous plants form a suborder of Compositae.
Subordinacy
n.
• The quality or state of being subordinate, or subject to control; subordination, as, to bring the imagination to act in subordinacy to reason.
Subordinary
n.
(Her.) One of several heraldic bearings somewhat less common than an ordinary. See Ordinary.
Subordinate
a.
• Placed in a lower order, class, or rank; holding a lower or inferior position.
• Inferior in order, nature, dignity, power, importance, or the like.
n.
• One who stands in order or rank below another; — distinguished from a principal.
v. t.
• To place in a lower order or class; to make or consider as of less value or importance; as, to subordinate one creature to another.
• To make subject; to subject or subdue; as, to subordinate the passions to reason.
Subordination
n.
• The act of subordinating, placing in a lower order, or subjecting.
• The quality or state of being subordinate or inferior to an other; inferiority of rank or dignity; subjection.
• Place of inferior rank.
Subordinative
a.
• Tending to subordinate; expressing subordination; used to introduce a subordinate sentence; as, a subordinative conjunction.
Suborn
v. t.
(Law) To procure or cause to take a false oath amounting to perjury, such oath being actually taken.
• To procure privately, or by collusion; to procure by indirect means; to incite secretly; to instigate.
Subornation
n.
(Law) The act of suborning; the crime of procuring a person to take such a false oath as constitutes perjury.
• The sin or offense of procuring one to do a criminal or bad action, as by bribes or persuasion.
Suborner
n.
• One who suborns or procures another to take, a false oath; one who procures another to do a bad action.
Suboval
a.
• Somewhat oval; nearly oval.
Subovate
a.
• Nearly in the form of an egg, or of the section of an egg, but having the inferior extremity broadest; nearly ovate.
Subovated
a.
• Subovate.
Suboxide
n.
(Chem.) An oxide containing a relatively small amount of oxygen, and less than the normal proportion; as, potassium suboxide, K4O.
Subpeduncular
a.
(Anat.) Situated beneath the peduncle; as, the subpeduncular lobe of the cerebellum.
Subpedunculate
a.
(Bot. & Zool.) Supported on, or growing from, a very short stem; having a short peduncle.
Subpellucid
a.
• Somewhat pellucid; nearly pellucid.
Subpena
n. & v. t.
• See Subpoena.
Subpentangular
a.
• Nearly or approximately pentangular; almost pentangular.
Subpericardial
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the cardiac pericardium.
Subperiosteal
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the periosteum.
Subperitoneal
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the peritoneal membrane.
Subpetiolar
a.
(Bot.) Concealed within the base of the petiole, as the leaf buds of the plane tree.
Subpleural
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the pleural membrane.
Subpodophyllous
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the podophyllous tissue of the horse's foot.
Subpoena
n.
(Law) A writ commanding the attendance in court, as a witness, of the person on whom it is served, under a penalty; the process by which a defendant in equity is commanded to appear and answer the plaintiff's bill.
v. t.
(Law) To serve with a writ of subpoena; to command attendance in court by a legal writ, under a penalty in case of disobedience.
Subpoenal
a.
• Required or done under penalty.
Subpolar
a.
• Situated below the poles.
Subpolygonal
a.
• Approximately polygonal; somewhat or almost polygonal.
Subprehensile
a.
• Somewhat prehensile; prehensile in an inferior degree.
Subprior
n.
(Eccl.) The vicegerent of a prior; a claustral officer who assists the prior.
Subpubic
a.
(Anat.) Situated under, or posterior to, the pubic bones.
Subpulmonary
a.
(Anat.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the lungs.
Subpurchaser
n.
• A purchaser who buys from a purchaser; one who buys at second hand.
Subpyriform
a.
• Somewhat pyriform.
Subquadrate
a.
• Nearly or approximately square; almost square.
Subquadruple
a.
• Containing one part of four; in the ratio of one to four; as, subquadruple proportion.
Subquinquefid
a.
• Almost quinquefid; nearly quinquefid.
Subquintuple
a.
• Having the ratio of one to five; as, subquintuple proportion.
Subreader
n.
(Law) An under reader in the inns of court, who reads the texts of law the reader is to discourse upon.
Subrector
n.
• An assistant restor.
Subreligion
n.
• A secondary religion; a belief or principle held in a quasi religious veneration.
Subreption
n.
• The act of obtaining a favor by surprise, or by unfair representation through suppression or fraudulent concealment of facts.
Subreptitious
a.
• Surreptitious.
Subreptive
a.
• Surreptitious.
Subrigid
a.
• Somewhat rigid or stiff.
Subriguous
a.
• Watered or wet beneath; well-watered.
Subrogate
v. t.
• To put in the place of another; to substitute.
Subrogation
n.
• The act of subrogating.
(Law) The substitution of one person in the place of another as a creditor, the new creditor succeeding to the rights of the former; the mode by which a third person who pays a creditor succeeds to his rights against the debtor.
Subrotund
a.
• Somewhat rotund.
Subsacral
a.
(Anat.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the sacrum.
Subsaline
a.
• Moderately saline or salt.
Subsalt
n.
(Chem.) A basic salt. See the Note under Salt.
Subsannation
n.
• Derision; mockery.
Subscribable
a.
• Capable of being subscribed.
Subscribe
v. t.
• To write underneath, as one's name; to sign (one's name) to a document.
• To sign with one's own hand; to give consent to, as something written, or to bind one's self to the terms of, by writing one's name beneath; as, parties subscribe a covenant or contract; a man subscribes a bond.
• To attest by writing one's name beneath; as, officers subscribe their official acts, and secretaries and clerks subscribe copies or records.
• To promise to give, by writing one's name with the amount; as, each man subscribed ten dollars.
• To sign away; to yield; to surrender.
• To declare over one's signature; to publish.
v. i.
• To sign one's name to a letter or other document.
• To give consent to something written, by signing one's name; hence, to assent; to agree.
• To become surely; — with for.
• To yield; to admit one's self to be inferior or in the wrong.
• To set one's name to a paper in token of promise to give a certain sum.
• To enter one's name for a newspaper, a book, etc.
Subscriber
n.
• One who subscribes; one who contributes to an undertaking by subscribing.
• One who enters his name for a paper, book, map, or the like.
Subscript
a.
• Written below or underneath; as, iota subscript. (See under Iota.) Specifically (Math.), said of marks, figures, or letters (suffixes), written below and usually to the right of other letters to distinguish them; as, a, n, 2, in the symbols Xa, An, Y2. See Suffix, n., 2, and Subindex.
n.
• Anything written below.
Subscription
n.
• The act of subscribing.
• That which is subscribed.
• A paper to which a signature is attached.
• The signature attached to a paper.
• Consent or attestation by underwriting the name.
• Sum subscribed; amount of sums subscribed; as, an individual subscription to a fund.
(Eccl.) The acceptance of articles, or other tests tending to promote uniformity; esp. (Ch. of Eng.), formal assent to the Thirty-nine Articles and the Book of Common Prayer, required before ordination.
• Submission; obedience.
(Pharm.) That part of a prescription which contains the direction to the apothecary.
• A method of purchasing items produced periodically in a series, as newspapers or magazines, in which a certain number of the items are delivered as produced, without need for ordering each item individually; also, the purchase thus executed.
Subscriptive
a.
• Of or pertaining to a subscription, or signature.
Subsecute
v. t.
• To follow closely, or so as to overtake; to pursue.
Subsecutive
a.
• Following in a train or succession.
Subsellium
n.
(Eccl. Arch.) One of the stalls of the lower range where there are two ranges. See Illust. of Stall.
Subsemitone
n.
(Mus.) The sensible or leading note, or sharp seventh, of any key; subtonic.
Subsensible
a.
• Deeper than the reach of the senses.
Subseptuple
a.
• Having the ratio of one to seven.
Subsequent
a.
• Following in time; coming or being after something else at any time, indefinitely; as, subsequent events; subsequent ages or years; a period long subsequent to the foundation of Rome.
• Following in order of place; succeeding; as, a subsequent clause in a treaty.
Subsequently
adv.
• At a later time; afterwards.
Subserous
a.
(Anat.) Situated under a serous membrane.
Subserve
v. t.
• To serve in subordination or instrumentally; to be subservient to; to help forward; to promote.
v. i.
• To be subservient or subordinate; to serve in an inferior capacity.
Subservient
a.
• Fitted or disposed to subserve; useful in an inferior capacity; serving to promote some end; subordinate; hence, servile, truckling.
Subserviently
adv.
• In a subservient manner.
Subsextuple
a.
• Having the ratio of one to six; as, a subsextuple proportion.
Subside
v. i.
• To sink or fall to the bottom; to settle, as lees.
• To tend downward; to become lower; to descend; to sink.
• To fall into a state of quiet; to cease to rage; to be calmed; to settle down; to become tranquil; to abate; as, the sea subsides; the tumults of war will subside; the fever has subsided.
Subsidiarily
adv.
• In a subsidiary manner; so as to assist.
Subsidiary
a.
• Furnishing aid; assisting; auxiliary; helping; tributary; especially, aiding in an inferior position or capacity; as, a subsidiary stream.
• Of or pertaining to a subsidy; constituting a subsidy; being a part of, or of the nature of, a subsidy; as, subsidiary payments to an ally.
n.
• One who, or that which, contributes aid or additional supplies; an assistant; an auxiliary.
Subsidize
v. t.
• To furnish with a subsidy; to purchase the assistance of by the payment of a subsidy; to aid or promote, as a private enterprise, with public money; as, to subsidize a steamship line.
Subsidy
n.
• Support; aid; cooperation; esp., extraordinary aid in money rendered to the sovereign or to a friendly power.
• Specifically: A sum of money paid by one sovereign or nation to another to purchase the cooperation or the neutrality of such sovereign or nation in war.
• A grant from the government, from a municipal corporation, or the like, to a private person or company to assist the establishment or support of an enterprise deemed advantageous to the public; a subvention; as, a subsidy to the owners of a line of ocean steamships.
Subsign
v. t.
• To sign beneath; to subscribe.
Subsilicate
n.
• A basic silicate.
Subsinnation
n.
• The act of writing the name under something, as for attestation.
Subsist
v. i.
• To be; to have existence; to inhere.
• To continue; to retain a certain state.
• To be maintained with food and clothing; to be supported; to live.
v. t.
• To support with provisions; to feed; to maintain; as, to subsist one's family.
Subsistence
n.
• Real being; existence.
• Inherency; as, the subsistence of qualities in bodies.
• That which furnishes support to animal life; means of support; provisions, or that which produces provisions; livelihood; as, a meager subsistence.
(Theol.) Same as Hypostasis, 2.
Subsistency
n.
• Subsistence.
Subsistent
a.
• Having real being; as, a subsistent spirit.
• Inherent; as, qualities subsistent in matter.
Subsizar
n.
• An under sizar; a student of lower rank than a sizar.
Subsoil
n.
• The bed, or stratum, of earth which lies immediately beneath the surface soil.
v. t.
• To turn up the subsoil of.
Subsolary
a.
• Being under the sun; hence, terrestrial; earthly; mundane.
Subspecies
n.
• A group somewhat lessdistinct than speciesusually are, but based on characters more important than those which characterize ordinary varieties; often, a geographical variety or race.
Subsphenoidal
a.
(Anat.) Situated under, or on the ventral side of, the body of the sphenoid bone.
Subspherical
a.
• Nearly spherical; having a figure resembling that of a sphere.
Subspinous
a.
(Anat.) Subvertebral.
(Med.) Situated beneath a spinous process, as that of the scapula; as, subspinous dislocation of the humerus.
Substance
n.
• That which underlies all outward manifestations; substratum; the permanent subject or cause of phenomena, whether material or spiritual; that in which properties inhere; that which is real, in distinction from that which is apparent; the abiding part of any existence, in distinction from any accident; that which constitutes anything what it is; real or existing essence.
• The most important element in any existence; the characteristic and essential components of anything; the main part; essential import; purport.
• Body; matter; material of which a thing is made; hence, substantiality; solidity; firmness; as, the substance of which a garment is made; some textile fabrics have little substance.
• Material possessions; estate; property; resources.
(Theol.) Same as Hypostasis, 2.
v. t.
• To furnish or endow with substance; to supply property to; to make rich.
Substanceless
a.
• Having no substance; unsubstantial.
Substant
a.
• Substantial; firm.
Substantial
a.
• Belonging to substance; actually existing; real; as, substantial life.
• Not seeming or imaginary; not illusive; real; solid; true; veritable.
• Corporeal; material; firm.
• Having good substance; strong; stout; solid; firm; as, substantial cloth; a substantial fence or wall.
• Possessed of goods or an estate; moderately wealthy; responsible; as, a substantial freeholder.
Substantiality
n.
• The quality or state of being substantial; corporiety; materiality.
Substantialize
v. t.
• To make substantial.
Substantially
adv.
• In a substantial manner; in substance; essentially.
Substantialness
n.
• The quality or state of being substantial; as, the substantialness of a wall or column.
Substantials
n. pl.
• Essential parts.
Substantiate
v. t.
• To make to exist; to make real.
• To establish the existence or truth of by proof or competent evidence; to verify; as, to substantiate a charge or allegation; to substantiate a declaration.
Substantiation
n.
• The act of substantiating or proving; evidence; proof.
Substantival
a.
• Of or pertaining to a substantive; of the nature of substantive.
Substantive
a.
• Betokening or expressing existence; as, the substantive verb, that is, the verb to be.
• Depending on itself; independent.
• Enduring; solid; firm; substantial.
• Pertaining to, or constituting, the essential part or principles; as, the law substantive.
n.
(Gram.) A noun or name; the part of speech which designates something that exists, or some object of thought, either material or immaterial; as, the words man, horse, city, goodness, excellence, are substantives.
v. t.
• To substantivize.
Substantively
adv.
• In a substantive manner; in substance; essentially.
(Gram.) As a substantive, name, or noun; as, an adjective may be used substantively.
Substantiveness
n.
• The quality or state of being substantive.
Substantivize
v. t.
• To convert into a substantive; as, to substantivize an adjective.
Substile
n.
(Dialing) See Substyle.
Substituent
n.
(Chem.) Any atom, group, or radical substituted for another, or entering a molecule in place of some other part which is removed.
Substitute
n.
• One who, or that which, is substituted or put in the place of another; one who acts for another; that which stands in lieu of something else
(Mil.) a person who enlists for military service in the place of a conscript or drafted man.
v. t.
• To put in the place of another person or thing; to exchange.
Substituted
a.
• Exchanged; put in the place of another.
(Chem.) Containing substitutions or replacements; having been subjected to the process of substitution, or having some of its parts replaced; as, alcohol is a substituted water; methyl amine is a substituted ammonia.
Substitution
n.
• The act of substituting or putting one person or thing in the place of another; as, the substitution of an agent, attorney, or representative to act for one in his absense; the substitution of bank notes for gold and silver as a circulating medium.
• The state of being substituted for another.
• The office or authority of one acting for another; delegated authority.
(Civil Law) The designation of a person in a will to take a devise or legacy, either on failure of a former devisee or legatee by incapacity or unwillingness to accept, or after him.
(Theol.) The doctrine that Christ suffered vicariously, being substituted for the sinner, and that his sufferings were expiatory.
(Chem.) The act or process of substituting an atom or radical for another atom or radical; metethesis; also, the state of being so substituted. See Metathesis.
Substitutional
a.
• Of or pertaining to substitution; standing in the place of another; substituted.
Substitutionary
a.
• Of or pertaining to substitution; substitutional.
Substitutive
a.
• Tending to afford or furnish a substitute; making substitution; capable of being substituted.
Substract
v. t.
• To subtract; to withdraw.
Substraction
n.
• Subtraction; deduction.
(Law) See Subtraction, 3.
Substractor
n.
• One who subtracts.
• A detractor; a slanderer.
Substrate
n.
• A substratum.
a.
• Having very slight furrows.
v. t.
• To strew or lay under anything.
Substratum
n.
• That which is laid or spread under; that which underlies something, as a layer of earth lying under another; specifically (Agric.), the subsoil.
(Metaph.) The permanent subject of qualities or cause of phenomena; substance.
Substruct
v. t.
• To build beneath something; to lay as the foundation.
Substruction
n.
(Arch.) Underbuilding; the foundation, or any preliminary structure intended to raise the lower floor or basement of a building above the natural level of the ground.
Substructure
n.
(Arch.) Same as Substruction.
• An under structure; a foundation; groundwork.
Substylar
a.
• Pertaining to the substyle.
Substyle
n.
(Dialing) A right line on which the style, or gnomon, of a dial is erected; being the common section of the face of the dial and a plane perpendicular to it passing through the style.
Subsulphate
n.
(Chem.) A sulphate with an excess of the base.
Subsulphide
n.
(Chem.) A nonacid compound consisting of one equivalent of sulphur and more than one equivalent of some other body, as a metal.
Subsultive
a.
• Subsultory.
Subsultory
a.
• Bounding; leaping; moving by sudden leaps or starts.
Subsultus
n.
(Med.) A starting, twitching, or convulsive motion.
Subsumable
a.
• Capable of being subsumed.
Subsume
v. t.
• To take up into or under, as individual under species, species under genus, or particular under universal; to place (any one cognition) under another as belonging to it; to include under something else.
Subsumption
n.
• The act of subsuming, or of including under another.
• That which is subsumed, as the minor clause or premise of a syllogism.
Subsumptive
a.
• Relating to, or containing, a subsumption.
Subtangent
n.
(Geom.) The part of the axis contained between the ordinate and tangent drawn to the same point in a curve.
Subtartarean
a.
• Being or living under Tartarus; infernal.
Subtectacle
n.
• A space under a roof; a tabernacle; a dwelling.
Subtegulaneous
a.
• Under the roof or eaves; within doors.
Subtenant
n.
(Law) One who rents a tenement, or land, etc., of one who is also a tenant; an undertenant.
Subtend
v. t.
• To extend under, or be opposed to; as, the line of a triangle which subtends the right angle; the chord subtends an arc.
Subtense
n.
(Geom.) A line subtending, or stretching across; a chord; as, the subtense of an arc.
Subtepid
a.
• Slightly tepid.
Subterete
a.
• Somewhat terete.
Subterfuge
n.
• That to which one resorts for escape or concealment; an artifice employed to escape censure or the force of an argument, or to justify opinions or conduct; a shift; an evasion.
Subterrane
n.
• A cave or room under ground.
Subterraneal
a.
• Subterranean.
Subterranity
n.
• A place under ground; a subterrany.
Subterrany
a.
• Subterranean.
n.
• A subterranean place.
Subterrene
a.
• Subterraneous.
Subterrestrial
a.
• Subterranean.
Subthalamic
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the optic thalamus.
Subtile
a.
• Thin; not dense or gross; rare; as, subtile air; subtile vapor; a subtile medium.
• Delicately constituted or constructed; nice; fine; delicate; tenuous; finely woven.
• Acute; piercing; searching.
• Characterized by nicety of discrimination; discerning; delicate; refined; subtle.
• Sly; artful; cunning; crafty; subtle; as, a subtile person; a subtile adversary; a subtile scheme.
Subtiliate
v. t.
• To make thin or rare.
Subtilism
n.
• The quality or state of being subtile; subtility; subtlety.
Subtility
n.
• Subtilty.
Subtilization
n.
• The act of making subtile.
(Old Chem.) The operation of making so volatile as to rise in steam or vapor.
• Refinement; subtlety; extreme attenuation.
Subtilize
v. t.
• To make thin or fine; to make less gross or coarse.
• To refine; to spin into niceties; as, to subtilize arguments.
v. i.
• To refine in argument; to make very nice distinctions.
Subtilizer
n.
• One who subtilizes.
Subtilty
n.
• The quality or state of being subtile; thinness; fineness; as, the subtility of air or light.
• Refinement; extreme acuteness; subtlety.
• Cunning; skill; craft.
• Slyness in design; artifice; guile; a cunning design or artifice; a trick; subtlety.
Subtle
a.
• Sly in design; artful; cunning; insinuating; subtile; — applied to persons; as, a subtle foe.
• Cunningly devised; crafty; treacherous; as, a subtle stratagem.
• Characterized by refinement and niceness in drawing distinctions; nicely discriminating; — said of persons; as, a subtle logician; refined; tenuous; sinuous; insinuating; hence, penetrative or pervasive; — said of the mind; its faculties, or its operations; as, a subtle intellect; a subtle imagination; a subtle process of thought; also, difficult of apprehension; elusive.
• Smooth and deceptive.
Subtleness
n.
• The quality or state of being subtle; subtlety.
Subtlety
n.
• The quality or state of being subtle, or sly; cunning; craftiness; artfulness.
• Nice discernment with delicacy of mental action; nicety of discrimination.
• Something that is sly, crafty, or delusive.
Subtly
adv.
• In a subtle manner; slyly; artfully; cunningly.
• Nicely; delicately.
• Deceitfully; delusively.
Subtonic
a.
(Phonetics) Applied to, or distinguishing, a speech element consisting of tone, or proper vocal sound, not pure as in the vowels, but dimmed and otherwise modified by some kind of obstruction in the oral or the nasal passage, and in some cases with a mixture of breath sound; — a term introduced by Dr. James Rush in 1833. See Guide to Pronunciation, §§155, 199-202.
n.
(Phonetics) A subtonic sound or element; a vocal consonant, as b, d, g, n, etc.; a subvocal.
(Mus.) The seventh tone of the scale, or that immediately below the tonic; — called also subsemitone.
Subtorrid
a.
• Nearly torrid.
Subtract
v. t.
• To withdraw, or take away, as a part from the whole; to deduct; as, subtract 5 from 9, and the remainder is 4.
Subtracter
n.
• One who subtracts.
• The subtrahend.
Subtraction
n.
• The act or operation of subtracting or taking away a part.
(Math.) The taking of a lesser number or quantity from a greater of the same kind or denomination; an operation for finding the difference between two numbers or quantities.
(Law) The withdrawing or withholding from a person of some right to which he is entitled by law.
Subtractive
a.
• Tending, or having power, to subtract.
(Math.) Having the negative sign, or sign minus.
Subtrahend
n.
(Math.) The sum or number to be subtracted, or taken from another.
Subtranslucent
a.
• Not perfectly translucent.
Subtransparent
a.
• Not perfectly transparent.
Subtreasurer
n.
• The public officer who has charge of a subtreasury.
Subtreasury
n.
• A subordinate treasury, or place of deposit; as, the United States subtreasury at New York.
Subtriangular
a.
• Nearly, but not perfectly, triangular.
Subtribe
n.
(Bot. & Zool.) A division of a tribe; a group of genera of a little lower rank than a tribe.
Subtrihedral
a.
• Approaching the form of a three-sided pyramid; as, the subtrihedral crown of a tooth.
Subtriple
a.
(Math.) Containing a third, or one part to three.
Subtriplicate
a.
(Math.) Expressed by the cube root; — said especially of ratios.
Subtropical
a.
• Nearly tropical.
Subtrude
v. t.
• To place under; to insert.
Subturriculate
a.
(Zool.) Somewhat turriculate.
Subtutor
n.
• An under tutor.
Subtypical
a.
(Zool.) Deviating somewhat from the type of a species, genus, or other group; slightly aberrant.
Subulicornes
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of insects having slender or subulate antennae. The dragon flies and May flies are examples.
Subuliform
a.
• Subulate.
Subulipalp
n.
(Zool.) One of a group of carabid beetles having slender palpi.
Subumbonal
a.
(Zool.) Beneath or forward of the umbos of a bivalve shell.
Subumbrella
n.
(Zool.) The integument of the under surface of the bell, or disk-shaped body, of a jellyfish.
Subundation
n.
• A flood; a deluge.
Subungual
a.
• Under the nail or hoof.
Suburb
n.
• An outlying part of a city or town; a smaller place immediately adjacent to a city; in the plural, the region which is on the confines of any city or large town; as, a house stands in the suburbs; a garden situated in the suburbs of Paris.
• Hence, the confines; the outer part; the environment.
Suburban
a.
• Of or pertaining to suburbs; inhabiting, or being in, the suburbs of a city.
n.
• One who dwells in the suburbs.
Suburbed
a.
• Having a suburb or suburbs on its outer part.
Suburethral
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the urethra, or under its orifice.
Subvaginal
a.
(Anat.) Situated under or inside a sheath or vaginal membrane; as, the subvaginal, or subdural, spaces about the optic nerve.
Subvariety
n.
• A subordinate variety, or a division of a variety.
Subvene
v. i.
• To come under, as a support or stay; to happen.
Subventaneous
a.
• Produced by the wind.
Subvention
n.
• The act of coming under.
• The act of relieving, as of a burden; support; aid; assistance; help.
• A government aid or bounty.
v. t.
• To subventionize.
Subventionize
v. t.
• To come to the aid of; to subsidize; to support.
Subventitious
a.
• Helping; aiding; supporting.
Subverant
a.
(Her.) Reserved.
Subverse
v. t.
• To subvert.
Subversion
n.
• The act of overturning, or the state of being overturned; entire overthrow; an overthrow from the foundation; utter ruin; destruction; as, the subversion of a government; the subversion of despotic power; the subversion of the constitution.
Subversionary
a.
• Promoting destruction.
Subversive
a.
• Tending to subvert; having a tendency to overthrow and ruin.
Subvert
v. t.
• To overturn from the foundation; to overthrow; to ruin utterly.
• To pervert, as the mind, and turn it from the truth; to corrupt; to confound.
v. i.
• To overthrow anything from the foundation; to be subversive.
Subvertebral
a.
(Anat.) Situated beneath, or on the ventral side of, the vertebral column; situated beneath, or inside of, the endoskeleton; hypaxial; hyposkeletal.
Subverter
n.
• One who, or that which, subverts; an overthrower.
Subvertible
a.
• That may be subverted.
Subvitalized
a.
• Imperfectly vitalized; having naturally but little vital power or energy.
Subvocal
a. & n.
• Same as Subtonic.
Subway
n.
• An underground way or gallery; especially, a passage under a street, in which water mains, gas mains, telegraph wires, etc., are conducted.
Subworker
n.
• A subordinate worker or helper.
Subzigomatic
a.
(Anat.) Situated under the zygoma or zygomatic process.
Subzonal
a.
(Anat.) Situated under a zone, or zona; — applied to a membrane between the zona radiata and the umbilical vesicle in the mammal embryo.
Succade
n.
• A sweetmeat.
(Com.) Sweetmeats, or preserves in sugar, whether fruit, vegetables, or confections.
Succedane
n.
• A succedaneum.
Succedaneous
a.
• Pertaining to, or acting as, a succedaneum; supplying the place of something else; being, or employed as, a substitute for another.
Succedaneum
n.
• One who, or that which, succeeds to the place of another; that which is used for something else; a substitute
(Med.) a remedy used as a substitute for another.
Succeed
v. t.
• To follow in order; to come next after; hence, to take the place of; as, the king's eldest son succeeds his father on the throne; autumn succeeds summer.
• To fall heir to; to inherit.
• To come after; to be subsequent or consequent to; to follow; to pursue.
• To support; to prosper; to promote.
v. i.
• To come in the place of another person, thing, or event; to come next in the usual, natural, or prescribed course of things; to follow; hence, to come next in the possession of anything; — often with to.
• Specifically: To ascend the throne after the removal the death of the occupant.
• To descend, as an estate or an heirloom, in the same family; to devolve.
• To obtain the object desired; to accomplish what is attempted or intended; to have a prosperous issue or termination; to be successful; as, he succeeded in his plans; his plans succeeded.
• To go under cover.
Succeedant
a.
(Her.) Succeeding one another; following.
Succeeder
n.
• A successor.
Succeeding
n.
• The act of one who, or that which, succeeds; also, that which succeeds, or follows after; consequence.
Succentor
n.
(Eccl.) A subchanter.
Success
n.
• Act of succeeding; succession.
• That which comes after; hence, consequence, issue, or result, of an endeavor or undertaking, whether good or bad; the outcome of effort.
• The favorable or prosperous termination of anything attempted; the attainment of a proposed object; prosperous issue.
• That which meets with, or one who accomplishes, favorable results, as a play or a player.
Successary
n.
• Succession.
Successful
a.
• Resulting in success; assuring, or promotive of, success; accomplishing what was proposed; having the desired effect; hence, prosperous; fortunate; happy; as, a successful use of medicine; a successful experiment; a successful enterprise.
Succession
n.
• The act of succeeding, or following after; a following of things in order of time or place, or a series of things so following; sequence; as, a succession of good crops; a succession of disasters.
• A series of persons or things according to some established rule of precedence; as, a succession of kings, or of bishops; a succession of events in chronology.
• An order or series of descendants; lineage; race; descent.
• The power or right of succeeding to the station or title of a father or other predecessor; the right to enter upon the office, rank, position, etc., held ny another; also, the entrance into the office, station, or rank of a predecessor; specifically, the succeeding, or right of succeeding, to a throne.
• The right to enter upon the possession of the property of an ancestor, or one near of kin, or one preceding in an established order.
• The person succeeding to rank or office; a successor or heir.
Successional
a.
• Of or pertaining to a succession; existing in a regular order; consecutive.
Successionist
n.
• A person who insists on the importance of a regular succession of events, offices, etc.; especially (Eccl.), one who insists that apostolic succession alone is valid.
Successive
a.
• Following in order or in uninterrupted course; coming after without interruption or interval; following one after another in a line or series; consecutive; as, the successive revolution of years; the successive kings of Egypt; successive strokes of a hammer.
• Having or giving the right of succeeding to an inheritance; inherited by succession; hereditary; as, a successive title; a successive empire.
Successively
adv.
• In a successive manner.
Successiveness
n.
• The quality or state of being successive.
Successless
a.
• Having no success.
Successor
n.
• One who succeeds or follows; one who takes the place which another has left, and sustains the like part or character; — correlative to predecessor; as, the successor of a deceased king.
Succiduous
a.
• Ready to fall; falling.
Succiferous
a.
• Producing or conveying sap.
Succinamate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of succinamic acid.
Succinamic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, an acid amide derivative of succinic acid, obtained as a white crystalline substance, and forming a series of salts.
Succinate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of succinic acid.
Succinct
a.
• Girded or tucked up; bound; drawn tightly together.
• Compressed into a narrow compass; brief; concise.
Succinic
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, amber; specif., designating a dibasic acid, CH.(COH), first obtained by the dry distillation of amber. It is found in a number of plants, as in lettuce and wormwood, and is also produced artificially as a white crystalline substance having a slightly acid taste.
Succinimide
n.
(Chem.) A white crystalline nitrogenous substance, C2H4.(CO)2.NH, obtained by treating succinic anhydride with ammonia gas. It is a typical imido acid, and forms a series of salts. See Imido acid, under Imido.
Succinite
n.
(Min.) Amber.
• A garnet of an amber color.
Succinous
a.
• Succinic.
Succinurate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of succinuric acid.
Succinuric
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid amide, analogous to succinamic acid, which is obtained as a white crystalline substance by heating urea with succinic anhydride. It is known also in its salts.
Succinyl
n.
(Chem.) A hypothetical radical characteristic of succinic acid and certain of its derivatives.
Succise
a.
(Bot.) Appearing as if a part were cut off at the extremity.
Succision
n.
• The act of cutting down, as of trees; the act of cutting off.
Succor
v. t.
• tiono run to, or run to support; hence, to help or relieve when in difficulty, want, or distress; to assist and deliver from suffering; to relieve; as, to succor a besieged city.
n.
• Aid; help; assistance; esp., assistance that relieves and delivers from difficulty, want, or distress.
• The person or thing that brings relief.
Succorable
a.
• Capable of being succored or assisted; admitting of relief.
Succorer
n.
• One who affords succor; a helper.
Succorless
a.
• Destitute of succor.
Succory
n.
(Bot.) A plant of the genus Cichorium. See Chicory.
Succotash
n.
• Green maize and beans boiled together. The dish is borrowed from the native Indians.
Succoteague
n.
(Zool.) The squeteague.
Succuba
n.
• A female demon or fiend. See Succubus.
Succubine
a.
• Of or pertaining to succuba.
Succubous
a.
(Bot.) Having the leaves so placed that the upper part of each one is covered by the base of the next higher leaf, as in hepatic mosses of the genus Plagiochila.
Succubus
n.
• A demon or fiend; especially, a lascivious spirit supposed to have sexual intercourse with the men by night; a succuba. Cf. Incubus.
(Med.) The nightmare. See Nightmare, 2.
Succula
n.
(Mach.) A bare axis or cylinder with staves or levers in it to turn it round, but without any drum.
Succulent
a.
• Full of juice; juicy.
Succulently
adv.
• In a succulent manner.
Succulous
a.
• Succulent; juicy.
Succumb
v. t.
• To yield; to submit; to give up unresistingly; as, to succumb under calamities; to succumb to disease.
Succumbent
a.
• Submissive; yielding.
Succursal
a.
• Serving to aid or help; serving as a chapel of ease; tributary.
Succus
n.
(Med.) The expressed juice of a plant, for medicinal use.
Succussation
n.
• A trot or trotting.
• A shaking; succussion.
Succussion
n.
• The act of shaking; a shake; esp. (Med.), a shaking of the body to ascertain if there be a liquid in the thorax.
Succussive
a.
• Characterized by a shaking motion, especially an up and down movement, and not merely tremulous oscillation; as, the succussive motion in earthquakes.
Such
a.
• Of that kind; of the like kind; like; resembling; similar; as, we never saw such a day; — followed by that or as introducing the word or proposition which defines the similarity, or the standard of comparison; as, the books are not such that I can recommend them, or, not such as I can recommend; these apples are not such as those we saw yesterday; give your children such precepts as tend to make them better.
• Having the particular quality or character specified.
• The same that; — with as; as, this was the state of the kingdom at such time as the enemy landed.
• Certain; — representing the object as already particularized in terms which are not mentioned.
Suchospondylous
a.
(Zool.) Having dorsal vertebrae with long and divided transverse processes; — applied to certain reptiles.
Suchwise
adv.
• In a such a manner; so.
Suck
v. t.
• To draw, as a liquid, by the action of the mouth and tongue, which tends to produce a vacuum, and causes the liquid to rush in by atmospheric pressure; to draw, or apply force to, by exhausting the air.
• To draw liquid from by the action of the mouth; as, to suck an orange; specifically, to draw milk from (the mother, the breast, etc.) with the mouth; as, the young of an animal sucks the mother, or dam; an infant sucks the breast.
• To draw in, or imbibe, by any process resembles sucking; to inhale; to absorb; as, to suck in air; the roots of plants suck water from the ground.
• To draw or drain.
• To draw in, as a whirlpool; to swallow up.
v. i.
• To draw, or attempt to draw, something by suction, as with the mouth, or through a tube.
• To draw milk from the breast or udder; as, a child, or the young of an animal, is first nourished by sucking.
• To draw in; to imbibe; to partake.
n.
• The act of drawing with the mouth.
• That which is drawn into the mouth by sucking; specifically, mikl drawn from the breast.
• A small draught.
• Juice; succulence.
Suckanhock
n.
• A kind of seawan. See Note under Seawan.
Suckatash
n.
• See Succotash.
Sucken
n.
(Scots Law) The jurisdiction of a mill, or that extent of ground astricted to it, the tenants of which are bound to bring their grain thither to be ground.
Sucker
n.
• One who, or that which, sucks; esp., one of the organs by which certain animals, as the octopus and remora, adhere to other bodies.
• A suckling; a sucking animal.
• The embolus, or bucket, of a pump; also, the valve of a pump basket.
• A pipe through which anything is drawn.
• A small piece of leather, usually round, having a string attached to the center, which, when saturated with water and pressed upon a stone or other body having a smooth surface, adheres, by reason of the atmospheric pressure, with such force as to enable a considerable weight to be thus lifted by the string; — used by children as a plaything.
(Bot.) A shoot from the roots or lower part of the stem of a plant; — so called, perhaps, from diverting nourishment from the body of the plant.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of North American fresh-water cyprinoid fishes of the family Catostomidae; so called because the lips are protrusile. The flesh is coarse, and they are of little value as food. The most common species of the Eastern United States are the northern sucker (Catostomus Commersoni), the white sucker (C. teres), the hog sucker (C. nigricans), and the chub, or sweet sucker (Erimyzon sucetta). Some of the large Western species are called buffalo fish, red horse, black horse, and suckerel.
• The remora.
• The lumpfish.
• The hagfish, or myxine.
• A California food fish (Menticirrus undulatus) closely allied to the kingfish (a); — called also bagre.
• A parasite; a sponger. See def. 6, above.
• A hard drinker; a soaker.
• A greenhorn; one easily gulled.
• A nickname applied to a native of Illinois.
v. t.
• To strip off the suckers or shoots from; to deprive of suckers; as, to sucker maize.
v. i.
• To form suckers; as, corn suckers abundantly.
Sucket
n.
• A sweetmeat; a dainty morsel.
Suckfish
n.
(Zool.) A sucker fish.
Sucking
a.
• Drawing milk from the mother or dam; hence, colloquially, young, inexperienced, as, a sucking infant; a sucking calf.
Suckle
n.
• A teat.
v. t.
• To give suck to; to nurse at the breast.
v. i.
• To nurse; to suck.
Suckler
n.
(Zool.) An animal that suckles its young; a mammal.
Suckling
n.
• A young child or animal nursed at the breast.
• A small kind of yellow clover (Trifolium filiforme) common in Southern Europe.
Sucrate
n.
(Chem.) A compound of sucrose (or of some related carbohydrate) with some base, after the analogy of a salt; as, sodium sucrate.
Sucre
n.
• A silver coin of Ecuador, worth 68 cents.
Sucrose
n.
(Chem.) A common variety of sugar found in the juices of many plants, as the sugar cane, sorghum, sugar maple, beet root, etc. It is extracted as a sweet, white crystalline substance which is valuable as a food product, and, being antiputrescent, is largely used in the preservation of fruit. Called also saccharose, cane sugar, etc. By extension, any one of the class of isomeric substances (as lactose, maltose, etc.) of which sucrose proper is the type.
Suction
n.
• The act or process of sucking; the act of drawing, as fluids, by exhausting the air.
Suctoria
n. pl.
(Zool.) An order of Infusoria having the body armed with somewhat stiff, tubular processes which they use as suckers in obtaining their food. They are usually stalked.
• Same as Rhizocephala.
Suctorial
a.
(Zool.) Adapted for sucking; living by sucking; as, the humming birds are suctorial birds.
(Zool.) Capable of adhering by suction; as, the suctorial fishes.
Suctorian
n.
(Zool.) A cartilaginous fish with a mouth adapted for suction, as the lampery.
(Zool.) One of the Suctoria.
Suctorious
a.
• Suctorial.
Sudamina
n. pl
(Med.) Minute vesicles surrounded by an area of reddened skin, produced by excessive sweating.
Sudarium
n.
(Eccl.) The handkerchief upon which the Savior is said to have impressed his own portrait miraculously, when wiping his face with it, as he passed to the crucifixion.
Sudary
n.
• A napkin or handkerchief.
Sudation
n.
• A sweating.
Sudatorium
n.
• A sudatory.
Sudatory
a.
• Sweating; perspiring.
n.
• A bagnio; a sweating bath; a vapor bath.
Sudden
a.
• Happening without previous notice or with very brief notice; coming unexpectedly, or without the common preparation; immediate; instant; speedy.
• Hastly prepared or employed; quick; rapid.
• Hasty; violent; rash; precipitate.
adv.
• Suddenly; unexpectedly.
n.
• An unexpected occurrence; a surprise.
Suddenty
n.
• Suddenness; a sudden.
Sudoral
a.
• Of or pertaining to sweat; as, sudoral eruptions.
Sudoriferous
a.
(Physiol.) Producing, or secreting, sweat; sudoriparous.
Sudorific
a.
• Causing sweat; as, sudorific herbs.
n.
• A sudorific medicine. Cf. Diaphoretic.
Sudoriparous
a.
(Physiol.) Same as Sudoriferous.
Sudorous
a.
• Consisting of sweat.
Sudra
n.
• The lowest of the four great castes among the Hindoos. See Caste.
Suds
n. pl.
• Water impregnated with soap, esp. when worked up into bubbles and froth.
Sue
v. t.
• To follow up; to chase; to seek after; to endeavor to win; to woo.
(Law) To seek justice or right from, by legal process; to institute process in law against; to bring an action against; to prosecute judicially.
• To proceed with, as an action, and follow it up to its proper termination; to gain by legal process.
(Falconry) To clean, as the beak; — said of a hawk.
(Naut.) To leave high and dry on shore; as, to sue a ship.
v. i.
• To seek by request; to make application; to petition; to entreat; to plead.
(Law) To prosecute; to make legal claim; to seek (for something) in law; as, to sue for damages.
• To woo; to pay addresses as a lover.
(Naut.) To be left high and dry on the shore, as a ship.
Suent
a.
• Uniformly or evenly distributed or spread; even; smooth. See Suant.
Suently
adv.
• Evenly; smoothly.
Suer
n.
• One who sues; a suitor.
Suet
n.
• The fat and fatty tissues of an animal, especially the harder fat about the kidneys and loins in beef and mutton, which, when melted and freed from the membranes, forms tallow.
Suety
a.
• Consisting of, or resembling, suet; as, a suety substance.
Suffer
v. t.
• To feel, or endure, with pain, annoyance, etc.; to submit to with distress or grief; to undergo; as, to suffer pain of body, or grief of mind.
• To endure or undergo without sinking; to support; to sustain; to bear up under.
• To undergo; to be affected by; to sustain; to experience; as, most substances suffer a change when long exposed to air and moisture; to suffer loss or damage.
• To allow; to permit; not to forbid or hinder; to tolerate.
v. i.
• To feel or undergo pain of body or mind; to bear what is inconvenient; as, we suffer from pain, sickness, or sorrow; we suffer with anxiety.
• To undergo punishment; specifically, to undergo the penalty of death.
• To be injured; to sustain loss or damage.
Sufferable
a.
• Able to suffer or endure; patient.
• That may be suffered, tolerated, or permitted; allowable; tolerable.
Sufferance
n.
• The state of suffering; the bearing of pain; endurance.
• Pain endured; misery; suffering; distress.
• Loss; damage; injury.
• Submission under difficult or oppressive circumstances; patience; moderation.
• Negative consent by not forbidding or hindering; toleration; permission; allowance; leave.
• A permission granted by the customs authorities for the shipment of goods.
Sufferer
n.
• One who suffers; one who endures or undergoes suffering; one who sustains inconvenience or loss; as, sufferers by poverty or sickness; men are sufferers by fire or by losses at sea.
• One who permits or allows.
Suffering
n.
• The bearing of pain, inconvenience, or loss; pain endured; distress, loss, or injury incurred; as, sufferings by pain or sorrow; sufferings by want or by wrongs.
a.
• Being in pain or grief; having loss, injury, distress, etc.
Suffice
v. i.
• To be enough, or sufficient; to meet the need (of anything); to be equal to the end proposed; to be adequate.
v. t.
• To satisfy; to content; to be equal to the wants or demands of.
• To furnish; to supply adequately.
Sufficience
n.
• Sufficiently.
Sufficiency
n.
• The quality or state of being sufficient, or adequate to the end proposed; adequacy.
• Qualification for any purpose; ability; capacity.
• Adequate substance or means; competence.
• Supply equal to wants; ample stock or fund.
• Conceit; self-confidence; self-sufficiency.
Sufficient
a.
• Equal to the end proposed; adequate to wants; enough; ample; competent; as, provision sufficient for the family; an army sufficient to defend the country.
• Possessing adequate talents or accomplishments; of competent power or ability; qualified; fit.
• Capable of meeting obligations; responsible.
• Self-sufficient; self-satisfied; content.
Sufficiently
adv.
• To a sufficient degree; to a degree that answers the purpose, or gives content; enough; as, we are sufficiently supplied with food; a man sufficiently qualified for the discharge of his official duties.
Sufficing
a.
• Affording enough; satisfying.
Suffisance
n.
• Sufficiency; plenty; abundance; contentment.
Suffisant
a.
• Sufficient.
Suffix
n.
• A letter, letters, syllable, or syllables added or appended to the end of a word or a root to modify the meaning; a postfix.
(Math.) A subscript mark, number, or letter. See Subscript, a.
v. t.
• To add or annex to the end, as a letter or syllable to a word; to append.
Suffixion
n.
• The act of suffixing, or the state of being suffixed.
Suffixment
n.
• Suffixion.
Sufflaminate
v. t.
• To retard the motion of, as a carriage, by preventing one or more of its wheels from revolving, either by means of a chain or otherwise.
• Hence, to stop; to impede.
Sufflate
v. t.
• To blow up; to inflate; to inspire.
Sufflation
n.
• The act of blowing up or inflating.
Suffocate
a.
• Suffocated; choked.
v. t.
• To choke or kill by stopping respiration; to stifle; to smother.
• To destroy; to extinguish; as, to suffocate fire.
v. i.
• To become choked, stifled, or smothered.
Suffocating
a. & n.
• from Suffocate, v.
Suffocation
n.
• The act of suffocating, or the state of being suffocated; death caused by smothering or choking.
Suffocative
a.
• Tending or able to choke or stifle.
Suffossion
n.
• A digging under; an undermining.
Suffragan
a.
• Assisting; assistant; as, a suffragan bishop.
n.
• An assistant.
(Eccl.) A bishop considered as an assistant, or as subject, to his metropolitan; an assistant bishop.
Suffraganship
n.
• The office of a suffragan.
Suffragant
a. & n.
• Suffragan.
Suffragate
v. i. & t.
• To vote or vote with.
Suffragator
n.
• One who assists or favors by his vote.
Suffrage
n.
• A vote given in deciding a controverted question, or in the choice of a man for an office or trust; the formal expression of an opinion; assent; vote.
• Testimony; attestation; witness; approval.
(Eccl.) A short petition, as those after the creed in matins and evensong.
• A prayer in general, as one offered for the faithful departed.
• Aid; assistance.
• The right to vote; franchise.
v. t.
• To vote for; to elect.
Suffraginous
a.
• Of or pertaining to the hock of a beast.
Suffragist
n.
• One who possesses or exercises the political right of suffrage; a voter.
• One who has certain opinions or desires about the political right of suffrage; as, a woman suffragist.
Suffrago
n.
(Zool.) The heel joint.
Suffrance
n.
• Sufferance.
Suffrutescent
a.
(Bot.) Slightly woody at the base.
Suffruticose
a.
(Bot.) Woody in the lower part of the stem, but with the yearly branches herbaceous, as sage, thyme, hyssop, and the like.
Suffruticous
a.
• Suffruticose.
Suffumigate
v. t.
• To apply fumes or smoke to the parts of, as to the body in medicine; to fumigate in part.
Suffumigation
n.
• The operation of suffumigating.
Suffumige
n.
• A medical fume.
Suffuse
v. t.
• To overspread, as with a fluid or tincture; to fill or cover, as with something fluid; as, eyes suffused with tears; cheeks suffused with blushes.
Suffusion
n.
• The act or process of suffusing, or state of being suffused; an overspreading.
• That with which a thing is suffused.
(Zool.) A blending of one color into another; the spreading of one color over another, as on the feathers of birds.
Sufi
n.
• A title or surname of the king of Persia.
n.
• One of a certain order of religious men in Persia.
Sufism
n.
• A refined mysticism among certain classes of Mohammedans, particularly in Persia, who hold to a kind of pantheism and practice extreme asceticism in their lives.
Sufragette.
n.
• A woman who advocates the right to vote for women; a woman suffragist.
Sug
n.
• A kind of worm or larva.
Sugar
n.
• A sweet white (or brownish yellow) crystalline substance, of a sandy or granular consistency, obtained by crystallizing the evaporated juice of certain plants, as the sugar cane, sorghum, beet root, sugar maple, etc. It is used for seasoning and preserving many kinds of food and drink. Ordinary sugar is essentially sucrose. See the Note below.
• By extension, anything resembling sugar in taste or appearance; as, sugar of lead (lead acetate), a poisonous white crystalline substance having a sweet taste.
• Compliment or flattery used to disguise or render acceptable something obnoxious; honeyed or soothing words.
v. i.
• In making maple sugar, to complete the process of boiling down the sirup till it is thick enough to crystallize; to approach or reach the state of granulation; — with the preposition off.
v. t.
• To impregnate, season, cover, or sprinkle with sugar; to mix sugar with.
• To cover with soft words; to disguise by flattery; to compliment; to sweeten; as, to sugar reproof.
Sugared
a.
• Sweetened.
• Also used figuratively; as, sugared kisses.
Sugariness
n.
• The quality or state of being sugary, or sweet.
Sugaring
n.
• The act of covering or sweetening with sugar; also, the sugar thus used.
• The act or process of making sugar.
Sugarless
a.
• Without sugar; free from sugar.
Sugarplum
n.
• A kind of candy or sweetneat made up in small balls or disks.
Sugary
a.
• Resembling or containing sugar; tasting of sugar; sweet.
• Fond of sugar or sweet things; as, a sugary palate.
Sugescent
a.
• Of or pertaining to sucking.
Suggest
v. t.
• To introduce indirectly to the thoughts; to cause to be thought of, usually by the agency of other objects.
• To propose with difference or modesty; to hint; to intimate; as, to suggest a difficulty.
• To seduce; to prompt to evil; to tempt.
• To inform secretly.
v. i.
• To make suggestions; to tempt.
Suggester
n.
• One who suggests.
Suggestion
n.
• The act of suggesting; presentation of an idea.
• That which is suggested; an intimation; an insinuation; a hint; a different proposal or mention; also, formerly, a secret incitement; temptation.
• Charge; complaint; accusation.
(Law) Information without oath; an entry of a material fact or circumstance on the record for the information of the court, at the death or insolvency of a party.
(Physiol. & Metaph.) The act or power of originating or recalling ideas or relations, distinguished as original and relative; — a term much used by Scottish metaphysicians from Hutcherson to Thomas Brown.
Suggestive
a.
• Containing a suggestion, hint, or intimation.
Suggestment
n.
• Suggestion.
Suggestress
n.
• A woman who suggests.
Suggil
v. t.
• To defame.
Suggillate
v. t.
• To beat livid, or black and blue.
Suggillation
n.
• A livid, or black and blue, mark; a blow; a bruise.
Suicidal
a.
• Partaking of, or of the nature of, the crime or suicide.
Suicide
n.
• The act of taking one's own life voluntary and intentionally; self-murder; specifically (Law), the felonious killing of one's self; the deliberate and intentional destruction of one's own life by a person of years of discretion and of sound mind.
• One guilty of self-murder; a felo-de-se.
• Ruin of one's own interests.
Suicidical
a.
• Suicidal.
Suicidism
n.
• The quality or state of being suicidal, or self-murdering.
Suicism
n.
• Selfishness; egoism.
Suigothus
n. pl.
• The Scandinavian Goths. See the Note under Goths.
Suillage
n.
• A drain or collection of filth.
Suilline
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to a hog or the Hog family (Suidae).
Suine
n.
• A mixture of oleomargarine with lard or other fatty ingredients. It is used as a substitute for butter. See Butterine.
Suing
n.
• The process of soaking through anything.
Suingly
adv.
• In succession; afterwards.
Suint
n.
(Chem.) A peculiar substance obtained from the wool of sheep, consisting largely of potash mixed with fatty and earthy matters. It is used as a source of potash and also for the manufacture of gas.
Suist
n.
• One who seeks for things which gratify merely himself; a selfish person; a selfist.
Suit
n.
• The act of following or pursuing, as game; pursuit.
• The act of suing; the process by which one endeavors to gain an end or an object; an attempt to attain a certain result; pursuit; endeavor.
• The act of wooing in love; the solicitation of a woman in marriage; courtship.
(Law) The attempt to gain an end by legal process; an action or process for the recovery of a right or claim; legal application to a court for justice; prosecution of right before any tribunal; as, a civil suit; a criminal suit; a suit in chancery.
• That which follows as a retinue; a company of attendants or followers; the assembly of persons who attend upon a prince, magistrate, or other person of distinction; — often written suite, and pronounced sw&emac;t.
• Things that follow in a series or succession; the individual objects, collectively considered, which constitute a series, as of rooms, buildings, compositions, etc.; — often written suite, and pronounced sw&emac;t.
• A number of things used together, and generally necessary to be united in order to answer their purpose; a number of things ordinarily classed or used together; a set; as, a suit of curtains; a suit of armor; a suit of clothes.
(Playing Cards) One of the four sets of cards which constitute a pack; — each set consisting of thirteen cards bearing a particular emblem, as hearts, spades, cubs, or diamonds.
• Regular order; succession.
v. t.
• To fit; to adapt; to make proper or suitable; as, to suit the action to the word.
• To be fitted to; to accord with; to become; to befit.
• To dress; to clothe.
• To please; to make content; as, he is well suited with his place; to suit one's taste.
v. i.
• To agree; to accord; to be fitted; to correspond; — usually followed by with or to.
Suitability
n.
• The quality or state of being suitable; suitableness.
Suitable
a.
• Capable of suiting; fitting; accordant; proper; becoming; agreeable; adapted; as, ornaments suitable to one's station; language suitable for the subject.
Suite
n.
• A retinue or company of attendants, as of a distinguished personage; as, the suite of an ambassador. See Suit, n., 5.
• A connected series or succession of objects; a number of things used or clessed together; a set; as, a suite of rooms; a suite of minerals. See Suit, n., 6.
(Mus.) One of the old musical forms, before the time of the more compact sonata, consisting of a string or series of pieces all in the same key, mostly in various dance rhythms, with sometimes an elaborate prelude. Some composers of the present day affect the suite form.
Suiting
n.
• Among tailors, cloth suitable for making entire suits of clothes.
Suitor
n.
• One who sues, petitions, or entreats; a petitioner; an applicant.
• Especially, one who solicits a woman in marriage; a wooer; a lover.
(Law) One who sues or prosecutes a demand in court; a party to a suit, as a plaintiff, petitioner, etc.
(O. Eng. Law) One who attends a court as plaintiff, defendant, petitioner, appellant, witness, juror, or the like.
Suitress
n.
• A female supplicant.
Suji
n.
• Indian wheat, granulated but not pulverized; a kind of semolina.
Sula
n.
(Zool.) A genus of sea birds including the booby and the common gannet.
Sulcation
n.
• A channel or furrow.
Sulciform
a.
• Having the form of a sulcus; as, sulciform markings.
Sulcus
n.
• A furrow; a groove; a fissure.
Sulk
n.
• A furrow.
v. i.
• To be silently sullen; to be morose or obstinate.
Sulker
n.
• One who sulks.
Sulkily
adv.
• In a sulky manner.
Sulkiness
n.
• The quality or state of being sulky; sullenness; moroseness; as, sulkiness of disposition.
Sulks
n. pl.
• The condition of being sulky; a sulky mood or humor; as, to be in the sulks.
Sulky
a.
• Moodly silent; sullen; sour; obstinate; morose; splenetic.
n.
• A light two-wheeled carriage for a single person.
Sull
n.
• A plow.
Sullage
n.
• Drainage of filth; filth collected from the street or highway; sewage.
• That which sullies or defiles.
(Founding) The scoria on the surface of molten metal in the ladle.
(Hydraul. Engin.) Silt; mud deposited by water.
Sullen
a.
• Lonely; solitary; desolate.
• Gloomy; dismal; foreboding.
• Mischievous; malignant; unpropitious.
• Gloomily angry and silent; cross; sour; affected with ill humor; morose.
• Obstinate; intractable.
• Heavy; dull; sluggish.
n.
• One who is solitary, or lives alone; a hermit.
• Sullen feelings or manners; sulks; moroseness; as, to have the sullens.
v. t.
• To make sullen or sluggish.
Sullevate
v. t.
• To rouse; to excite.
Sulliage
n.
• Foulness; filth.
Sully
v. t.
• To soil; to dirty; to spot; to tarnish; to stain; to darken; — used literally and figuratively; as, to sully a sword; to sully a person's reputation.
v. i.
• To become soiled or tarnished.
n.
• Soil; tarnish; stain.
Sulphacid
n.
(Chem.) An acid in which, to a greater or less extent, sulphur plays a part analogous to that of oxygen in an oxyacid; thus, thiosulphuric and sulpharsenic acids are sulphacids; — called also sulphoacid. See the Note under Acid, n., 2.
Sulphamate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of sulphamic acid.
Sulphamic
a.
(Chem.) Of or pertaining to a sulphamide; derived from, or related to, a sulphamide; specifically, designating an amido acid derivative, NH2.SO2.OH, of sulphuric acid (analogous to sulphonic acid) which is not known in the free state, but is known in its salts.
Sulphamide
n.
(Chem.) Any one of a series of amido compounds obtained by treating sulphuryl chloride with various amines.
Sulphanilic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, an anilene sulphonic acid which is obtained as a white crystalline substance.
Sulphantimonate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of sulphantimonic acid.
Sulphantimonic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a hypothetical sulphacid of antimony (called also thioantimonic acid) analogous to sulpharsenic acid.
Sulphantimonious
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a hypothetical sulphacid of antimony (called also thioantimonious acid) analogous to sulpharsenious acid.
Sulphantimonite
n.
(Chem.) A salt of sulphantimonious acid.
Sulpharsenate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of sulpharsenic acid.
Sulpharsenic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a hypothetical sulphacid (called also thioarsenic acid) analogous to arsenic acid, and known only in its salts.
Sulpharsenious
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a hypothetical sulphacid (called also thioarsenious acid) analogous to arsenious acid, and known only in its salts.
Sulpharsenite
n.
(Chem.) A salt of sulpharsenious acid.
Sulphate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of sulphuric acid.
Sulphatic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, resembling, or containing, a sulphate or sulphates.
Sulphaurate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of sulphauric acid.
Sulphauric
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a hypothetical sulphacid of gold (aurum), known only in its salts.
Sulphide
n.
(Chem.) A binary compound of sulphur, or one so regarded; — formerly called sulphuret.
Sulphinate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of a sulphinic acid.
Sulphindigotic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a sulphonic acid obtained, as a blue solution, by dissolving indigo in sulphuric acid; — formerly called also cerulic sulphuric acid, but properly called indigo-disulphonic acid.
Sulphine
n.
(Chem.) Any one of a series of basic compounds which consist essentially of sulphur united with hydrocarbon radicals. In general they are oily or crystalline deliquescent substances having a peculiar odor; as, trimethyl sulphine, (CH3)3S.OH. Cf. Sulphonium.
Sulphinic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, any one of a series of acids regarded as acid ethereal salts of hyposulphurous acid; as, methyl sulphinic acid, CH3.SO.OH, a thick unstable liquid.
Sulphinide
n.
(Chem.) A white or yellowish crystalline substance, C6H4.(SO2.CO).NH, produced artificially by the oxidation of a sulphamic derivative of toluene. It is the sweetest substance known, having over two hundred times the sweetening power of sugar, and is known in commerce under the name of saccharine. It has acid properties and forms salts (which are inaccurately called saccharinates).
Sulphion
n.
(Chem.) A hypothetical radical, SO4, regarded as forming the acid or negative constituent of sulphuric acid and the sulphates in electrolytic decomposition; — so called in accordance with the binary theory of salts.
Sulphionide
n.
(Chem.) A binary compound of sulphion, or one so regarded; thus, sulphuric acid, HSO, is a sulphionide.
Sulphite
n.
(Chem.) A salt of sulphurous acid.
Sulphoarsenic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or containing, sulphur and arsenic; — said of an acid which is the same as arsenic acid with the substitution of sulphur for oxygen.
Sulphocarbonate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of sulphocarbonic acid; a thiocarbonate.
Sulphocarbonic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a sulphacid, H2CSO2 (called also thiocarbonic acid), or an acid, H2CS3, analogous to carbonic acid, obtained as a yellow oily liquid of a pungent odor, and forming salts.
Sulphocyanate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of sulphocyanic acid; — also called thiocyanate, and formerly inaccurately sulphocyanide.
Sulphocyanic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, derived from, or designating, a sulphacid, HSCN, analogous to cyanic acid, and obtained as a colorless deliquescent crystalline substance, having a bitter saline taste, and not poisonous.
Sulphocyanide
n.
(Chem.) See Sulphocyanate.
Sulphocyanogen
n.
(Chem.) See Persulphocyanogen.
Sulphonal
n.
(Med.) A substance employed as a hypnotic, produced by the union of mercaptan and acetone.
Sulphonate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of sulphonic acid.
Sulphone
n.
(Chem.) Any one of a series of compounds analogous to the ketones, and consisting of the sulphuryl group united with two hydrocarbon radicals; as, dimethyl sulphone, (CH).SO.
Sulphonic
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, a sulphone; — used specifically to designate any one of a series of acids (regarded as acid ethereal salts of sulphurous acid) obtained by the oxidation of the mercaptans, or by treating sulphuric acid with certain aromatic bases (as benzene); as, phenyl sulphonic acid, C6H5.SO2.OH, a stable colorless crystalline substance.
Sulphonium
n.
(Chem.) A hypothetical radical, SH3, regarded as the type and nucleus of the sulphines.
Sulphophosphate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of sulphophosphoric acid.
Sulphophosphite
n.
(Chem.) A salt of sulphophosphorous acid.
Sulphophosphoric
a.
• Of, pertaining to, or designating, a hypothetical sulphacid of phosphorus, analogous to phosphoric acid, and known in its salts.
Sulphophosphorous
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a hypothetical acid of phosphorus, analogous to phosphorous acid, and known in its salts.
Sulphosalt
n.
(Chem.) A salt of a sulphacid.
Sulphostannate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of sulphostannic acid.
Sulphostannic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a sulphacid of tin (more exactly called metasulphostannic acid), which is obtained as a dark brown amorphous substance, HSnS, forming a well-known series of salts.
Sulphotungstate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of sulphotungstic acid.
Sulphotungstic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, hypothetical sulphacid of tungsten (called also sulphowolframic acid), analogous to sulphuric acid, and known in its salts.
Sulphovinic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, and formerly designating, ethylsulphuric acid.
Sulphur
n.
(Chem.) A nonmetallic element occurring naturally in large quantities, either combined as in the sulphides (as pyrites) and sulphates (as gypsum), or native in volcanic regions, in vast beds mixed with gypsum and various earthy materials, from which it is melted out. Symbol S. Atomic weight 32. The specific gravity of ordinary octohedral sulphur is 2.05; of prismatic sulphur, 1.96.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of yellow or orange butterflies of the subfamily Pierinae; as, the clouded sulphur (Eurymus, or Colias, philodice), which is the common yellow butterfly of the Eastern United States.
Sulphurate
a.
• Sulphureous.
v. t.
(Chem.) To sulphurize.
Sulphuration
n.
• The act or process of combining or impregnating with sulphur or its compounds; also, the state of being so combined or impregnated.
Sulphurator
n.
• An apparatus for impregnating with, or exposing to the action of, sulphur; especially, an apparatus for fumigating or bleaching by means of the fumes of burning sulphur.
Sulphureity
n.
• The quality or state of being sulphureous.
Sulphureous
a.
• Consisting of sulphur; having the qualities of sulphur, or brimstone; impregnated with sulphur.
Sulphuret
n.
(Chem.) A sulphide; as, a sulphuret of potassium.
Sulphureted
a.
(Chem.) Combined or impregnated with sulphur; sulphurized.
Sulphuric
a.
• Of or pertaining to sulphur; as, a sulphuric smell.
(Chem.) Derived from, or containing, sulphur; specifically, designating those compounds in which the element has a higher valence as contrasted with the sulphurous compounds; as, sulphuric acid.
Sulphurine
a.
• Sulphureous.
Sulphuring
n.
• Exposure to the fumes of burning sulphur, as in bleaching; the process of bleaching by exposure to the fumes of sulphur.
Sulphurize
v. t.
(Chem.) To combine or impregnate with sulphur or any of its compounds; as, to sulphurize caoutchouc in vulcanizing.
Sulphurous
a.
• Of or pertaining to sulphur.
(Chem.) Derived from, or containing, sulphur; specifically, designating those compounds in which the element has a lower valence as contrasted with the sulphuric compounds.
• Having the characteristic odor of sulphur dioxide, or of hydrogen sulphide, or of other sulphur compounds.
Sulphurwort
n.
(Bot.) The hog's fennel. See under Fennel.
Sulphury
a.
• Resembling, or partaking of the nature of, sulphur; having the qualities of sulphur.
Sulphuryl
n.
(Chem.) The hypothetical radical SO2; — called also sulphon.
Sulphydrate
n.
(Chem.) A compound, analogous to a hydrate, regarded as a salt of sulphydric acid, or as a derivative of hydrogen sulphide in which one half of the hydrogen is replaced by a base (as potassium sulphydrate, KSH), or as a hydrate in which the oxygen has been wholly or partially replaced by sulphur.
Sulphydric
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, hydrogen sulphide, which is regarded as an acid, especially when in solution.
Sulpician
n.
(R. C. Ch.) One of an order of priests established in France in 1642 to educate men for the ministry. The order was introduced soon afterwards into Canada, and in 1791 into the United States.
Sultan
n.
• A ruler, or sovereign, of a Mohammedan state; specifically, the ruler of the Turks; the Padishah, or Grand Seignior; — officially so called.
Sultana
n.
• The wife of a sultan; a sultaness.
• A kind of seedless raisin produced near Smyrna in Asiatic Turkey.
Sultanate
n.
• The rule or dominion of a sultan; sultanship.
Sultaness
n.
• A sultana.
Sultanic
a.
• Pertaining to a sultan.
Sultanry
n.
• The dominions of a sultan.
Sultanship
n.
• The office or dignity of a sultan.
Sultany
n.
• Sultanry.
Sultriness
n.
• The quality or state of being sultry.
Sultry
a.
• Very hot, burning, and oppressive; as, Libya's sultry deserts.
• Very hot and moist, or hot, close, stagnant, and oppressive, as air.
Sultryly
adv.
• In a sultry manner.
Sum
n.
• The aggregate of two or more numbers, magnitudes, quantities, or particulars; the amount or whole of any number of individuals or particulars added together; as, the sum of 5 and 7 is 12.
• A quantity of money or currency; any amount, indefinitely; as, a sum of money; a small sum, or a large sum.
• The principal points or thoughts when viewed together; the amount; the substance; compendium; as, this is the sum of all the evidence in the case; this is the sum and substance of his objections.
• Height; completion; utmost degree.
(Arith.) A problem to be solved, or an example to be wrought out.
v. t.
• To bring together into one whole; to collect into one amount; to cast up, as a column of figures; to ascertain the totality of; — usually with up.
• To bring or collect into a small compass; to comprise in a few words; to condense; — usually with up.
(Falconry) To have (the feathers) full grown; to furnish with complete, or full-grown, plumage.
Sumatran
a.
• Of or pertaining to Sumatra or its inhabitants.
n.
• A native of Sumatra.
Sumbul
n.
• The musky root of an Asiatic umbelliferous plant, Ferula Sumbul. It is used in medicine as a stimulant.
Sumless
a.
• Not to be summed up or computed; so great that the amount can not be ascertained; incalculable; inestimable.
Summarily
adv.
• In a summary manner.
Summarist
n.
• One who summarized.
Summarize
v. t.
• To comprise in, or reduce to, a summary; to present briefly.
Summary
a.
• Formed into a sum; summed up; reduced into a narrow compass, or into few words; short; brief; concise; compendious; as, a summary statement of facts.
• Hence, rapidly performed; quickly executed; as, a summary process; to take summary vengeance.
n.
• A general or comprehensive statement; an abridged account; an abstract, abridgment, or compendium, containing the sum or substance of a fuller account.
Summation
n.
• The act of summing, or forming a sum, or total amount; also, an aggregate.
Summer
n.
• One who sums; one who casts up an account.
n.
(Arch.) A large stone or beam placed horizontally on columns, piers, posts, or the like, serving for various uses. Specifically: (a) The lintel of a door or window. (b) The commencement of a cross vault. (c) A central floor timber, as a girder, or a piece reaching from a wall to a girder. Called also summertree.
n.
• The season of the year in which the sun shines most directly upon any region; the warmest period of the year.
v. i.
• To pass the summer; to spend the warm season; as, to summer in Switzerland.
v. t.
• To keep or carry through the summer; to feed during the summer; as, to summer stock.
Summerhouse
n.
• A rustic house or apartment in a garden or park, to be used as a pleasure resort in summer.
Summerliness
n.
• The quality or state of being like summer.
Summerstir
v. t.
• To summer-fallow.
Summertide
n.
• Summer time.
Summertree
n.
(Arch.) A summer. See 2d Summer.
Summery
a.
• Of or pertaining to summer; like summer; as, a summery day.
Summist
n.
• One who sums up; one who forms an abridgment or summary.
Summit
n.
• The top; the highest point.
• The highest degree; the utmost elevation; the acme; as, the summit of human fame.
(Zool.) The most elevated part of a bivalve shell, or the part in which the hinge is situated.
Summitless
a.
• Having no summit.
Summity
n.
• The height or top of anything.
• The utmost degree; perfection.
Summon
v. t.
• To call, bid, or cite; to notify to come to appear; — often with up.
• To give notice to, or command to appear, as in court; to cite by authority; as, to summon witnesses.
(Mil.) To call upon to surrender, as a fort.
Summoner
n.
• One who summons; one who cites by authority; specifically, a petty officer formerly employed to summon persons to appear in court; an apparitor.
Summons
n.
• The act of summoning; a call by authority, or by the command of a superior, to appear at a place named, or to attend to some duty.
(Law) A warning or citation to appear in court; a written notification signed by the proper officer, to be served on a person, warning him to appear in court at a day specified, to answer to the plaintiff, testify as a witness, or the like.
(Mil.) A demand to surrender.
v. t.
• To summon.
Sumner
n.
• A summoner.
Sumoom
n.
• See Simoom.
Sump
n.
(Metal.) A round pit of stone, lined with clay, for receiving the metal on its first fusion.
• The cistern or reservoir made at the lowest point of a mine, from which is pumped the water which accumulates there.
• A pond of water for salt works.
• A puddle or dirty pool.
Sumph
n.
• A dunce; a blockhead.
Sumpitan
n.
• A kind of blowgun for discharging arrows, — used by the savages of Borneo and adjacent islands.
Sumpter
n.
• The driver of a pack horse.
• A pack; a burden.
• An animal, especially a horse, that carries packs or burdens; a baggage horse.
a.
• Carrying pack or burdens on the back; as, a sumpter horse; a sumpter mule.
Sumption
n.
• A taking.
(Logic) The major premise of a syllogism.
Sumptuary
a.
• Relating to expense; regulating expense or expenditure.
Sumptuosity
n.
• Expensiveness; costliness; sumptuousness.
Sumptuous
a.
• Involving large outlay or expense; costly; expensive; hence, luxurious; splendid; magnificient; as, a sumptuous house or table; sumptuous apparel.
Sun
n.
(Bot.) See Sunn.
n.
• The luminous orb, the light of which constitutes day, and its absence night; the central body round which the earth and planets revolve, by which they are held in their orbits, and from which they receive light and heat. Its mean distance from the earth is about 92,500,000 miles, and its diameter about 860,000.
• Any heavenly body which forms the center of a system of orbs.
• The direct light or warmth of the sun; sunshine.
• That which resembles the sun, as in splendor or importance; any source of light, warmth, or animation.
v. t.
• To expose to the sun's rays; to warm or dry in the sun; as, to sun cloth; to sun grain.
Sunbeam
n.
• A beam or ray of the sun.
Sunbird
n.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of small brilliantly colored birds of the family Nectariniidae, native of Africa, Southern Asia, the East Indies, and Australia. In external appearance and habits they somewhat resemble humming birds, but they are true singing birds (Oscines).
• The sun bittern.
Sunblink
n.
• A glimpse or flash of the sun.
Sunbonnet
n.
• A bonnet, generally made of some thin or light fabric, projecting beyond the face, and commonly having a cape, — worn by women as a protection against the sun.
Sunbow
n.
• A rainbow; an iris.
Sunburn
v. t.
• To burn or discolor by the sun; to tan.
n.
• The burning or discoloration produced on the skin by the heat of the sun; tan.
Sunburning
n.
• Sunburn; tan.
Sunburst
n.
• A burst of sunlight.
Sundart
n.
• Sunbeam.
Sunday
n.
• The first day of the week, — consecrated among Christians to rest from secular employments, and to religious worship; the Christian Sabbath; the Lord's Day.
a.
• Belonging to the Christian Sabbath.
Sunder
v. t.
• To disunite in almost any manner, either by rending, cutting, or breaking; to part; to put or keep apart; to separate; to divide; to sever; as, to sunder a rope; to sunder a limb; to sunder friends.
v. i.
• To part; to separate.
n.
• A separation into parts; a division or severance.
v. t.
• To expose to the sun and wind.
Sundew
n.
(Bot.) Any plant of the genus Drosera, low bog plants whose leaves are beset with pediceled glands which secrete a viscid fluid that glitters like dewdrops and attracts and detains insects. After an insect is caught, the glands curve inward like tentacles and the leaf digests it. Called also lustwort.
Sundial
n.
• An instrument to show the time of day by means of the shadow of a gnomon, or style, on a plate.
Sundog
n.
(Meteorol.) A luminous spot occasionally seen a few degrees from the sun, supposed to be formed by the intersection of two or more halos, or in a manner similar to that of halos.
Sundown
n.
• The setting of the sun; sunset.
• A kind of broad-brimmed sun hat worn by women.
Sundries
n. pl.
• Many different or small things; sundry things.
Sundrily
adv.
• In sundry ways; variously.
Sundry
a.
• Several; divers; more than one or two; various.
• Separate; diverse.
Sundryman
n.
• One who deals in sundries, or a variety of articles.
Sunfish
n.
(Zool.) A very large oceanic plectognath fish (Mola mola, Mola rotunda, or Orthagoriscus mola) having a broad body and a truncated tail.
• Any one of numerous species of perch-like North American fresh-water fishes of the family Centrachidae. They have a broad, compressed body, and strong dorsal spines. Among the common species of the Eastern United States are Lepomis gibbosus (called also bream, pondfish, pumpkin seed, and sunny), the blue sunfish, or dollardee (L. pallidus), and the long-eared sunfish (L. auritus). Several of the species are called also pondfish.
• The moonfish, or bluntnosed shiner.
• The opah.
• The basking, or liver, shark.
• Any large jellyfish.
Sunflower
n.
• Any plant of the genus Helianthus; — so called probably from the form and color of its flower, which is large disk with yellow rays. The commonly cultivated sunflower is Helianthus annuus, a native of America.
Sung
• imp. & p. p. of Sing.
Sunglass
n.
• A convex lens of glass for producing heat by converging the sun's rays into a focus.
Sunglow
n.
• A rosy flush in the sky seen after sunset.
Sunk
• imp. & p. p. of Sink.
Sunken
a.
• Lying on the bottom of a river or other water; sunk.
Sunless
a.
• Destitute or deprived of the sun or its rays; shaded; shadowed.
Sunlight
n.
• The light of the sun.
Sunlike
a.
• Like or resembling the sun.
Sunlit
a.
• Lighted by the sun.
Sunn
n.
(Bot.) An East Indian leguminous plant (Crotalaria juncea) and its fiber, which is also called sunn hemp.
Sunna
n.
• A collection of traditions received by the orthodox Mohammedans as of equal authority with the Koran.
Sunniah
n.
• One of the sect of Sunnites.
Sunniness
n.
• The quality or state of being sunny.
Sunnite
n.
• One of the orthodox Mohammedans who receive the Sunna as of equal importance with the Koran.
Sunnud
n.
• A charter or warrant; also, a deed of gift.
Sunny
a.
• Of or pertaining to the sun; proceeding from, or resembling the sun; hence, shining; bright; brilliant; radiant.
• Exposed to the rays of the sun; brightened or warmed by the direct rays of the sun; as, a sunny room; the sunny side of a hill.
• Cheerful; genial; as, a sunny disposition.
n.
(Zool.) See Sunfish (b).
Sunproof
a.
• Impervious to the rays of the sun.
Sunshade
n.
• Anything used as a protection from the sun's rays.
• A small parasol.
• An awning.
Sunshine
n.
• The light of the sun, or the place where it shines; the direct rays of the sun, the place where they fall, or the warmth and light which they give.
• Anything which has a warming and cheering influence like that of the rays of the sun; warmth; illumination; brightness.
a.
• Sunshiny; bright.
Sunshiny
a.
• Bright with the rays of the sun; clear, warm, or pleasant; as, a sunshiny day.
• Bright like the sun; resplendent.
• Beaming with good spirits; cheerful.
Sunsquall
n.
(Zool.) Any large jellyfish.
Sunsted
n.
• Solstice.
Sunstone
n.
(Med.) Aventurine feldspar. See under Aventurine.
Sunstroke
n.
(Med.) Any affection produced by the action of the sun on some part of the body; especially, a sudden prostration of the physical powers, with symptoms resembling those of apoplexy, occasioned by exposure to excessive heat, and often terminating fatally; coup de soleil.
Sunup
n.
• Sunrise.
Sunward
adv.
• Toward the sun.
Sunwise
adv.
• In the direction of the sun's apparent motion, or from the east southward and westward, and so around the circle; also, in the same direction as the movement of the hands of a watch lying face upward.
Sup
v. t.
• To take into the mouth with the lips, as a liquid; to take or drink by a little at a time; to sip.
n.
• A small mouthful, as of liquor or broth; a little taken with the lips; a sip.
v. i.
• To eat the evening meal; to take supper.
v. t.
• To treat with supper.
Supawn
n.
• Boiled Indian meal; hasty pudding; mush.
Supe
n.
• A super.
Super
n.
• A contraction of Supernumerary, in sense 2.
Superable
a.
• Capable of being overcome or conquered; surmountable.
Superabound
v. i.
• To be very abundant or exuberant; to be more than sufficient; as, the country superabounds with corn.
Superabundance
n.
• The quality or state of being superabundant; a superabundant quantity; redundancy; excess.
Superabundant
a.
• Abounding to excess; being more than is sufficient; redundant; as, superabundant zeal.
Superacidulated
a.
• Acidulated to excess.
Superadd
v. t.
• To add over and above; to add to what has been added; to annex, as something extrinsic.
Superaddition
n.
• The act of adding something in excess or something extraneous; also, something which is added in excess or extraneously.
Superadvenient
a.
• Coming upon; coming in addition to, or in assistance of, something.
Superalimentation
n.
• The act of overfeeding, or making one take food in excess of the natural appetite for it.
Superaltar
n.
(Arch.) A raised shelf or stand on the back of an altar, on which different objects can be placed; a predella or gradino.
Superangelic
a.
• Superior to the angels in nature or rank.
Superannuate
v. t.
• To impair or disquality on account of age or infirmity.
• To give a pension to, on account of old age or other infirmity; to cause to retire from service on a pension.
v. i.
• To last beyond the year; — said of annual plants.
Superannuation
n.
• The state of being superannuated, or too old for office or business; the state of being disqualified by old age; decrepitude.
Superb
a.
• Grand; magnificent; august; stately; as, a superb edifice; a superb colonnade.
• Rich; elegant; as, superb furniture or decorations.
• Showy; excellent; grand; as, a superb exhibition.
Superbiate
v. t.
• To make (a person) haughty.
Supercarbonate
n.
(Chem.) A bicarbonate.
Supercarbureted
a.
(Chem.) Bicarbureted.
Supercargo
n.
• An officer or person in a merchant ship, whose duty is to manage the sales, and superintend the commercial concerns, of the voyage.
Supercarpal
a.
(Anat.) Situated above, or in the upper part of, the carpus.
Supercelestial
a.
• Situated above the firmament, or great vault of heaven.
• Higher than celestial; superangelic.
Supercharge
v. t.
(Her.) To charge (a bearing) upon another bearing; as, to supercharge a rose upon a fess.
n.
(Her.) A bearing charged upon another bearing.
Superchemical
a.
• Above or beyond chemistry; inexplicable by chemical laws.
Superchery
n.
• Deceit; fraud; imposition.
Superciliary
a.
• Of or pertaining to the eyebrows; supraorbital.
(Zool.) Having a distinct streak of color above the eyes; as, the superciliary woodpecker.
Supercilious
a.
• Lofty with pride; haughty; dictatorial; overbearing; arrogant; as, a supercilious officer; asupercilious air; supercilious behavior.
Supercilium
n.
(Zool.) The eyebrow, or the region of the eyebrows.
Supercolumniation
n.
(Arch.) The putting of one order above another; also, an architectural work produced by this method; as, the putting of the Doric order in the ground story, Ionic above it, and Corinthian or Composite above this.
Superconception
n.
(Physiol.) Superfetation.
Superconsequence
n.
• Remote consequence.
Supercrescence
n.
• That which grows upon another growing thing; a parasite.
Supercrescent
a.
• Growing on some other growing thing.
Supercretaceous
a.
(Geol.) Same as Supracretaceous.
Supercurious
a.
• Excessively curious or inquisitive.
Superdominant
n.
(Mus.) The sixth tone of the scale; that next above the dominant; — called also submediant.
Supereminent
a.
• Eminent in a superior degree; surpassing others in excellence; as, a supereminent divine; the supereminent glory of Christ.
Supererogant
a.
• Supererogatory.
Supererogate
v. i.
• To do more than duty requires; to perform works of supererogation; to atone (for a dificiency in another) by means of a surplus action or quality.
Supererogation
n.
• The act of supererogating; performance of more than duty or necessity requires.
Supererogative
a.
• Supererogatory.
Supererogatory
a.
• Performed to an extent not enjoined, or not required, by duty or necessity; as, supererogatory services.
Superessential
a.
• Essential above others, or above the constitution of a thing.
Superethical
a.
• More than ethical; above ethics.
Superexalt
v. t.
• To exalt to a superior degree; to exalt above others.
Superexaltation
n.
• Elevation above the common degree.
Superexcellence
n.
• Superior excellence; extraordinary excellence.
Superexcellent
a.
• Excellent in an uncommon degree; very excellent.
Superexcination
n.
• Excessive, or more than normal, excitation.
Superexcrescence
n.
• Something growing superfluously.
Superfamily
n.
(Zool.) A group intermediate between a family and a suborder.
Superfecundation
n.
(Physiol.) Fertilization of two ova, at the same menstruation, by two different acts of coition.
Superfecundity
n.
• Superabundant fecundity or multiplication of the species.
Superfetate
v. i.
• To conceive after a prior conception, but before the birth of the offspring.
Superfetation
n.
(Physiol.) The formation of a fetus at the result of an impregnation occurring after another impregnation but before the birth of the offspring produced by it. This is possible only when there is a double uterus, or where menstruation persists up to the time of the second impregnation.
Superfete
v. i.
• To superfetate.
v. t.
• To conceive (another fetus) after a former conception.
Superfice
n.
• A superficies.
Superficial
a.
• Of or pertaining to the superficies, or surface; lying on the surface; shallow; not deep; as, a superficial color; a superficial covering; superficial measure or contents; superficial tillage.
• Reaching or comprehending only what is obvious or apparent; not deep or profound; shallow; — said especially in respect to study, learning, and the like; as, a superficial scholar; superficial knowledge.
Superficialist
n.
• One who attends to anything superficially; a superficial or shallow person; a sciolist; a smatterer.
Superficiality
n.
• The quality or state of being superficial; also, that which is superficial.
Superficialize
v. t.
• To attend to, or to treat, superficially, or in a shallow or slighting way.
Superficiary
n.
(Rom. Law) One to whom a right of surface occupation is granted; one who pays quitrent for a house built upon another man's ground.
a.
• Of or pertaining to the superficies, or surface; superficial.
(Rom. Law) Situated or built on another man's land, as a house.
Superficies
n.
• The surface; the exterior part, superficial area, or face of a thing.
(Civil Law) Everything on the surface of a piece of ground, or of a building, so closely connected by art or nature as to constitute a part of it, as houses, or other superstructures, fences, trees, vines, etc.
• A real right consisting of a grant by a landed proprietor of a piece of ground, bearing a strong resemblance to the long building leases granted by landholders in England, in consideration of a rent, and under reservation of the ownership of the soil.
Superfine
a.
• Very fine, or most fine; being of surpassing fineness; of extra nice or fine quality; as, superfine cloth.
• Excessively fine; too nice; over particular; as, superfine distinctions; superfine tastes.
Superfineness
n.
• The state of being superfine.
Superfinical
a.
• Extremely finical.
Superfluence
n.
• Superfluity.
Superfluitant
a.
• Floating above or on the surface.
Superfluity
n.
• A greater quantity than is wanted; superabundance; as, a superfluity of water; a superfluity of wealth.
• The state or quality of being superfluous; excess.
• Something beyond what is needed; something which serves for show or luxury.
Superfluous
a.
• More than is wanted or is sufficient; rendered unnecessary by superabundance; unnecessary; useless; excessive; as, a superfluous price.
Superflux
n.
• Superabundance; superfluity; an overflowing.
Superfoetation
n.
• Superfetation.
Superfoliation
n.
• Excess of foliation.
Superfrontal
n.
(Eccl.) A cloth which is placed over the top of an altar, and often hangs down a few inches over the frontal.
Superfuse
a.
• To pour (something) over or on something else.
Superheat
v. t.
• To heat too much, to overheat; as, to superheat an oven.
(Steam Engine) To heat, as steam, apart from contact with water, until it resembles a perfect gas.
n.
• The increase of temperature communicated to steam by superheating it.
Superheater
n.
(Steam Engine) An apparatus for superheating steam.
Superhive
n.
• A removable upper part of a hive. The word is sometimes contracted to super.
Superhuman
a.
• Above or beyond what is human; sometimes, divine; as, superhuman strength; superhuman wisdom.
Superimpose
v. t.
• To lay or impose on something else; as, a stratum of earth superimposed on another stratum.
Superincumbent
a.
• Lying or resting on something else.
Superinduce
v. t.
• To bring in, or upon, as an addition to something.
Superinducement
n.
• Superinduction.
Superinduction
n.
• The act of superinducing, or the state of being superinduced.
Superinfuse
v. t.
• To infuse over.
Superinjection
n.
• An injection succeeding another.
Superinpregnation
n.
• The act of impregnating, or the state of being impregnated, in addition to a prior impregnation; superfetation.
Superinspect
v. t.
• To over see; to superintend by inspection.
Superinstitution
n.
• One institution upon another, as when A is instituted and admitted to a benefice upon a title, and B instituted and admitted upon the presentation of another.
Superintellectual
a.
• Being above intellect.
Superintend
v. t.
• To have or exercise the charge and oversight of; to oversee with the power of direction; to take care of with authority; to supervise; as, an officer superintends the building of a ship or the construction of a fort.
Superintendence
n.
• The act of superintending; care and oversight for the purpose of direction; supervision.
Superintendency
n.
• The act of superintending; superintendence.
Superintendent
a.
• Overseeing; superintending.
n.
• One who has the oversight and charge of some place, institution, or organization, affairs, etc., with the power of direction; as, the superintendent of an almshouse; the superintendent of public works.
Superintender
n.
• A superintendent.
Superinvestiture
n.
• An outer vestment or garment.
Superior
a.
• More elevated in place or position; higher; upper; as, the superior limb of the sun; the superior part of an image.
• Higher in rank or office; more exalted in dignity; as, a superior officer; a superior degree of nobility.
• Higher or greater in excellence; surpassing others in the greatness, or value of any quality; greater in quality or degree; as, a man of superior merit; or of superior bravery.
• Beyond the power or influence of; too great or firm to be subdued or affected by; — with to.
• More comprehensive; as a term in classification; as, a genus is superior to a species.
(Bot.) Above the ovary; — said of parts of the flower which, although normally below the ovary, adhere to it, and so appear to originate from its upper part; also of an ovary when the other floral organs are plainly below it in position, and free from it.
• Belonging to the part of an axillary flower which is toward the main stem; posterior.
• Pointing toward the apex of the fruit; ascending; — said of the radicle.
n.
• One who is above, or surpasses, another in rank, station, office, age, ability, or merit; one who surpasses in what is desirable; as Addison has no superior as a writer of pure English.
(Eccl.) The head of a monastery, convent, abbey, or the like.
Superioress
n.
(Eccl.) A woman who acts as chief in a convent, abbey, or nunnery; a lady superior.
Superiority
n.
• The quality, state, or condition of being superior; as, superiority of rank; superiority in merit.
Superiorly
adv.
• In a superior position or manner.
Superjacent
a.
• Situated immediately above; as, superjacent rocks.
Superlation
n.
• Exaltation of anything beyond truth or propriety.
Superlative
a.
• Lifted up to the highest degree; most eminent; surpassing all other; supreme; as, superlative wisdom or prudence; a woman of superlative beauty; the superlative glory of the divine character.
(Gram.) Expressing the highest or lowest degree of the quality, manner, etc., denoted by an adjective or an adverb. The superlative degree is formed from the positive by the use of -est, most, or least; as, highest, most pleasant, least bright.
n.
• That which is highest or most eminent; the utmost degree.
(Gram.) The superlative degree of adjectives and adverbs; also, a form or word by which the superlative degree is expressed; as, strongest, wisest, most stormy, least windy, are all superlatives.
Superlucration
n.
• Excessive or extraordinary gain.
Supermaterial
a.
• Being above, or superior to, matter.
Supermaxilla
n.
(Anat.) The supermaxilla.
Supermaxillary
a.
(Anat.) Supermaxillary.
Supermedial
a.
• Above the middle.
Supermundane
a.
• Being above the world; — opposed to inframundane.
Supermundial
a.
• Supermundane.
Supernacular
a.
• Like supernaculum; first-rate; as, a supernacular wine.
Supernaculum
adv. & n.
• A kind of mock Latin term intended to mean, upon the nail; — used formerly by topers.
• Good liquor, of which not enough is left to wet one's nail.
Supernal
a.
• Being in a higher place or region; locally higher; as, the supernal orbs; supernal regions.
• Relating or belonging to things above; celestial; heavenly; as, supernal grace.
Supernatant
a.
• Swimming above; floating on the surface; as, oil supernatant on water.
n.
(Chem.) The liquid remaining after solids suspended in a liquid have been sedimented by gravity or by centrifugation. Contrasted with the solid sediment, or (in centrifugation) the pellet.
Supernatation
n.
• The act of floating on the surface of a fluid.
Supernatural
a.
• Being beyond, or exceeding, the power or laws of nature; miraculous.
Supernaturalism
n.
• The quality or state of being supernatural; supernaturalness.
(Theol.) The doctrine of a divine and supernatural agency in the production of the miracles and revelations recorded in the Bible, and in the grace which renews and sanctifies men, — in opposition to the doctrine which denies the agency of any other than physical or natural causes in the case.
Supernaturalist
n.
• One who holds to the principles of supernaturalism.
Supernaturalistic
a.
• Of or pertaining to supernaturalism.
Supernaturality
n.
• The quality or state of being supernatural.
Supernaturalize
v. t.
• To treat or regard as supernatural.
Supernaturally
adv.
• In a supernatural manner.
Supernaturalness
n.
• The quality or state of being supernatural.
Supernumerary
a.
• Exceeding the number stated or prescribed; as, a supernumerary officer in a regiment.
• Exceeding a necessary, usual, or required number or quality; superfluous; as, supernumerary addresses; supernumerary expense.
n.
• A person or thing beyond the number stated.
• A person or thing beyond what is necessary or usual; especially, a person employed not for regular service, but only to fill the place of another in case of need; specifically, in theaters, a person who is not a regular actor, but is employed to appear in a stage spectacle.
Superoccipital
a.
• Supraoccipital.
Superorder
n.
(Zool.) A group intermediate in importance between an order and a subclass.
Superordination
n.
• The ordination of a person to fill a station already occupied; especially, the ordination by an ecclesiastical official, during his lifetime, of his successor.
Superoxide
n.
(Chem.) See Peroxide.
Superparticular
a.
(Math.) Of or pertaining to a ratio when the excess of the greater term over the less is a unit, as the ratio of 1 to 2, or of 3 to 4.
Superpartient
a.
(Math.) Of or pertaining to a ratio when the excess of the greater term over the less is more than a unit, as that of 3 to 5, or 7 to 10.
Superphosphate
n.
(Chem.) An acid phosphate.
Superphysical
a.
• Above or beyond physics; not explainable by physical laws.
Superplant
n.
• A plant growing on another, as the mistletoe; an epiphyte.
Superplease
v. t.
• To please exceedingly.
Superplus
n.
• Surplus.
Superplusage
n.
• Surplusage.
Superpolitic
a.
• More than politic; above or exceeding policy.
Superponderate
v. t.
• To wiegh over and above.
Superposable
a.
• Capable of being superposed, as one figure upon another.
Superpose
v. t.
• To lay upon, as one kind of rock on another.
(Geom.) To lay (a figure) upon another in such a manner that all the parts of the one coincide with the parts of the other; as, to superpose one plane figure on another.
Superposition
n.
• The act of superposing, or the state of being superposed; as, the superposition of rocks; the superposition of one plane figure on another, in geometry.
Superpraise
v. t.
• To praise to excess.
Superproportion
n.
• Overplus or excess of proportion.
Superpurgation
n.
• Excessive purgation.
Superreflection
n.
• The reflection of a reflected image or sound.
Superregal
a.
• More than regal; worthy of one greater than a king.
Superreward
v. t.
• To reward to an excessive degree.
Superroyal
a.
• Larger than royal; — said of a particular size of printing and writing paper. See the Note under Paper, n.
Supersacral
a.
(Anat.) Situated over, or on the dorsal side of, the sacrum.
Supersaliency
n.
• The act of leaping on anything.
Supersalient
a.
• Leaping upon.
Supersalt
n.
(Chem.) An acid salt. See Acid salt (a), under Salt, n.
Supersaturate
v. t.
• To add to beyond saturation; as, to supersaturate a solution.
Supersaturation
n.
• The operation of supersaturating, or the state of being supersaturated.
Superscribe
v. t.
• To write or engrave (a name, address, inscription, or the like) on the top or surface; to write a name, address, or the like, on the outside or cover of (anything); as, to superscribe a letter.
Superscript
n.
• Superscription.
Superscription
n.
• The act of superscribing.
• That which is written or engraved on the surface, outside, or above something else; specifically, an address on a letter, envelope, or the like.
(Pharm.) That part of a prescription which contains the Latin word recipe (Take) or the sign .
Supersecular
a.
• Being above the world, or secular things.
Supersede
v. t.
• To come, or be placed, in the room of; to replace.
• To displace, or set aside, and put another in place of; as, to supersede an officer.
• To make void, inefficacious, or useless, by superior power, or by coming in the place of; to set aside; to render unnecessary; to suspend; to stay.
(Old Law) To omit; to forbear.
Supersedeas
n.
(Law) A writ of command to suspend the powers of an officer in certain cases, or to stay proceedings under another writ.
Supersedure
n.
• The act of superseding, or setting aside; supersession; as, the supersedure of trial by jury.
Superseminate
v. t.
• To sow, as seed, over something previously sown.
Supersemination
n.
• The sowing of seed over seed previously sown.
Supersensible
a.
• Beyond the reach of the senses; above the natural powers of perception.
Supersensitive
a.
• Excessively sensitive; morbidly sensitive.
Supersensual
a.
• Supersensible.
Supersensuous
a.
• Supersensible.
• Excessively sensuous.
Superserviceable
a.
• Overofficious; doing more than is required or desired.
Supersession
n.
• The act of superseding, or the state of being superseded; supersedure.
Supersolar
a.
• Above the sun.
Supersphenoidal
a.
(Anat.) Situated above, or on the dorsal side of, the body of the sphenoid bone.
Superspinous
a.
(Anat.) Supraspinuos.
Superstatum
n.
• A stratum, or layer, above another.
Superstition
n.
• An excessive reverence for, or fear of, that which is unknown or mysterious.
• An ignorant or irrational worship of the Supreme Deity; excessive exactness or rigor in religious opinions or practice; extreme and unnecessary scruples in the observance of religious rites not commanded, or of points of minor importance; also, a rite or practice proceeding from excess of sculptures in religion.
• The worship of a false god or gods; false religion; religious veneration for objects.
• Belief in the direct agency of superior powers in certain extraordinary or singular events, or in magic, omens, prognostics, or the like.
• Excessive nicety; scrupulous exactness.
Superstitionist
n.
• One addicted to superstition.
Superstitious
a.
• Of or pertaining to superstition; proceeding from, or manifesting, superstition; as, superstitious rites; superstitious observances.
• Evincing superstition; overscrupulous and rigid in religious observances; addicted to superstition; full of idle fancies and scruples in regard to religion.
• Overexact; scrupulous beyond need.
Superstrain
v. t.
• To overstrain.
Superstruct
v. t.
• To build over or upon another structure; to erect upon a foundation.
Superstruction
n.
• The act of superstructing, or building upon.
• That which id superstructed, or built upon some foundation; an edifice; a superstructure.
Superstructive
a.
• Built or erected on something else.
Superstructor
n.
• One who builds a superstructure.
Superstructure
n.
• Any material structure or edifice built on something else; that which is raised on a foundation or basis
(Arch.) all that part of a building above the basement. Also used figuratively.
(Railway Engin.) The sleepers, and fastenings, in distinction from the roadbed.
Supersubstantial
a.
• More than substantial; spiritual.
Supersubtle
a.
• To subtle.
Supersulphate
n.
(Chem.) An acid sulphate.
Supersulphureted
a.
(Chem.) Supersulphurized.
Supersulphurize
v. t.
(Chem.) To impregnate or combine with an excess of sulphur.
Supertemporal
n.
• That which is more than temporal; that which is eternal.
Superterranean
a.
• Being above ground.
Superterrene
a.
• Being above ground, or above the earth.
Superterrestrial
a.
• Being above the earth, or above what belongs to the earth.
Supertonic
n.
(Mus.) The note next above the keynote; the second of the scale.
Supertragical
a.
• Tragical to excess.
Supertuberation
n.
(Bot.) The production of young tubers, as potatoes, from the old while still growing.
Supervacaneous
a.
• Serving no purpose; superfluous; needless.
Supervene
v. i.
• To come as something additional or extraneous; to occur with reference or relation to something else; to happen upon or after something else; to be added; to take place; to happen.
Supervenient
a.
• Coming as something additional or extraneous; coming afterwards.
Supervention
n.
• The act of supervening.
Supervisal
n.
• Supervision.
Supervise
v. t.
• To oversee for direction; to superintend; to inspect with authority; as, to supervise the construction of a steam engine, or the printing of a book.
• To look over so as to read; to peruse.
n.
• Supervision; inspection.
Supervision
n.
• The act of overseeing; inspection; superintendence; oversight.
Supervisive
a.
• Supervisory.
Supervisor
n.
• One who supervises; an overseer; an inspector; a superintendent; as, a supervisor of schools.
• A spectator; a looker-on.
Supervisory
a.
• Of or pertaining to supervision; as, supervisory powers.
Supervive
v. t.
• To survive; to outlive.
Supervolute
a.
(Bot.) Having a plainted and convolute arrangement in the bud, as in the morning-glory.
Supination
n.
(Physiol.) The act of turning the hand palm upward; also, position of the hand with the palm upward.
• The act or state of lying with the face upward. Opposed to pronation.
Supinator
n.
(Anat.) A muscle which produces the motion of supination.
Supine
a.
• Lying on the back, or with the face upward; — opposed to prone.
• Leaning backward, or inclining with exposure to the sun; sloping; inclined.
• Negligent; heedless; indolent; listless.
n.
(Lat. Gram.) A verbal noun; or (according to C.F.Becker), a case of the infinitive mood ending in -um and -u, that in -um being sometimes called the former supine, and that in -u the latter supine.
Supinity
n.
• Supineness.
Suppage
n.
• What may be supped; pottage.
Suppalpation
n.
• The act of enticing by soft words; enticement.
Supparasitation
n.
• The act of flattering to gain favor; servile approbation.
Supparasite
v. t.
• To flatter; to cajole; to act the parasite.
Suppawn
n.
• See Supawn.
Suppedaneous
a.
• Being under the feet.
Suppeditate
v. t.
• To supply; to furnish.
Suppeditation
n.
• Supply; aid afforded.
Supper
n.
• A meal taken at the close of the day; the evening meal.
v. i.
• To take supper; to sup.
v. t.
• To supply with supper.
Supperless
a.
• Having no supper; deprived of supper; as, to go supperless to bed.
Supping
n.
• The act of one who sups; the act of taking supper.
• That which is supped; broth.
Supplace
v. t.
• To replace.
Supplant
v. t.
• To trip up.
• To remove or displace by stratagem; to displace and take the place of; to supersede; as, a rival supplants another in the favor of a mistress or a prince.
• To overthrow, undermine, or force away, in order to get a substitute in place of.
Supplantation
n.
• The act of supplanting or displacing.
Supplanter
n.
• One who supplants.
Supple
a.
• Pliant; flexible; easily bent; as, supple joints; supple fingers.
• Yielding compliant; not obstinate; submissive to guidance; as, a supple horse.
• Bending to the humor of others; flattering; fawning; obsequious.
v. t.
• To make soft and pliant; to render flexible; as, to supple leather.
• To make compliant, submissive, or obedient.
v. i.
• To become soft and pliant.
Supplely
adv.
• In a supple manner; softly; pliantly; mildly.
Supplement
n.
• That which supplies a deficiency, or meets a want; a store; a supply.
• That which fills up, completes, or makes an addition to, something already organized, arranged, or set apart; specifically, a part added to, or issued as a continuation of, a book or paper, to make good its deficiencies or correct its errors.
(Trig.) The number of degrees which, if added to a specified arc, make it 180\'f8; the quantity by which an arc or an angle falls short of 180 degrees, or an arc falls short of a semicircle.
v. t.
• To fill up or supply by addition; to add something to.
Supplementation
n.
• The act of supplementing.
Suppleness
n.
• The quality or state of being supple; flexibility; pliableness; pliancy.
Suppletory
n.
• That which is to supply what is wanted.
Supplial
n.
• The act of supplying; a supply.
Suppliance
n.
• That which supplies a want; assistance; a gratification; satisfaction.
n.
• Supplication; entreaty.
Suppliant
a.
• Asking earnestly and submissively; entreating; beseeching; supplicating.
• Manifesting entreaty; expressive of supplication.
n.
• One who supplicates; a humble petitioner; one who entreats submissively.
Supplicancy
n.
• Supplication.
Supplicant
a.
• Entreating; asking submissively.
n.
• One who supplicates; a suppliant.
Supplicat
n.
(Eng. Universities) A petition; esp., a written one, with a certificate that the conditions have been complied with.
Supplicate
v. t.
• To entreat for; to seek by earnest prayer; to ask for earnestly and humbly; as, to supplicate blessings on Christian efforts to spread the gospel.
• To address in prayer; to entreat as a supplicant; as, to supplicate the Deity.
v. i.
• To make petition with earnestness and submission; to implore.
Supplicatingly
adv.
• In a supplicating manner.
Supplication
n.
• The act of supplicating; humble and earnest prayer, as in worship.
• A humble petition; an earnest request; an entreaty.
(Rom. Antiq.) A religious solemnity observed in consequence of some military success, and also, in times of distress and danger, to avert the anger of the gods.
Supplicator
n.
• One who supplicates; a supplicant.
Supplicatory
a.
• Containing supplication; humble; earnest.
Supplier
n.
• One who supplies.
Supply
v. t.
• To fill up, or keep full; to furnish with what is wanted; to afford, or furnish with, a sufficiency; as, rivers are supplied by smaller streams; an aqueduct supplies an artificial lake; — often followed by with before the thing furnished; as, to supply a furnace with fuel; to supply soldiers with ammunition.
• To serve instead of; to take the place of.
• To fill temporarily; to serve as substitute for another in, as a vacant place or office; to occupy; to have possession of; as, to supply a pulpit.
• To give; to bring or furnish; to provide; as, to supply money for the war.
n.
• The act of supplying; supplial.
• That which supplies a want; sufficiency of things for use or want.
• Auxiliary troops or reenforcements.
• The food, and the like, which meets the daily necessities of an army or other large body of men; store; — used chiefly in the plural; as, the army was discontented for lack of supplies.
• An amount of money provided, as by Parliament or Congress, to meet the annual national expenditures; generally in the plural; as, to vote supplies.
• A person who fills a place for a time; one who supplies the place of another; a substitute; esp., a clergyman who supplies a vacant pulpit.
a.
• Serving to contain, deliver, or regulate a supply of anything; as, a supply tank or valve.
Supplyant
a.
• Supplying or aiding; auxiliary; suppletory.
Supplyment
n.
• A supplying or furnishing; supply.
Support
v. t.
• To bear by being under; to keep from falling; to uphold; to sustain, in a literal or physical sense; to prop up; to bear the weight of; as, a pillar supports a structure; an abutment supports an arch; the trunk of a tree supports the branches.
• To endure without being overcome, exhausted, or changed in character; to sustain; as, to support pain, distress, or misfortunes.
• To keep from failing or sinking; to solace under affictive circumstances; to assist; to encourage; to defend; as, to support the courage or spirits.
• To assume and carry successfully, as the part of an actor; to represent or act; to sustain; as, to support the character of King Lear.
• To furnish with the means of sustenance or livelihood; to maintain; to provide for; as, to support a family; to support the ministers of the gospel.
• To carry on; to enable to continue; to maintain; as, to support a war or a contest; to support an argument or a debate.
• To verify; to make good; to substantiate; to establish; to sustain; as, the testimony is not sufficient to support the charges; the evidence will not support the statements or allegations.
• To vindicate; to maintain; to defend successfully; as, to be able to support one's own cause.
• To uphold by aid or countenance; to aid; to help; to back up; as, to support a friend or a party; to support the present administration.
• A attend as an honorary assistant; as, a chairman supported by a vice chairman; O'Connell left the prison, supported by his two sons.
n.
• The act, state, or operation of supporting, upholding, or sustaining.
• That which upholds, sustains, or keeps from falling, as a prop, a pillar, or a foundation of any kind.
• That which maintains or preserves from being overcome, falling, yielding, sinking, giving way, or the like; subsistence; maintenance; assistance; reenforcement; as, he gave his family a good support, the support of national credit; the assaulting column had the support of a battery.
Supportable
a.
• Capable of being supported, maintained, or endured; endurable.
Supportance
n.
• Support.
Supportation
n.
• Maintenance; support.
Supporter
n.
• One who, or that which, supports; as, oxygen is a supporter of life.
• Especially, an adherent; one who sustains, advocates, and defends; as, the supporter of a party, faction, or candidate.
(Shipbuilding) A knee placed under the cathead.
(Her.) A figure, sometimes of a man, but commonly of some animal, placed on either side of an escutcheon, and exterior to it. Usually, both supporters of an escutcheon are similar figures.
(Med.) A broad band or truss for supporting the abdomen or some other part or organ.
Supportful
a.
• Abounding with support.
Supportless
a.
• Having no support.
Supportment
n.
• Support.
Supportress
n.
• A female supporter.
Supposable
a.
• Capable of being supposed, or imagined to exist; as, that is not a supposable case.
Supposal
n.
• The act of supposing; also, that which is supposed; supposition; opinion.
Suppose
v. t.
• To represent to one's self, or state to another, not as true or real, but as if so, and with a view to some consequence or application which the reality would involve or admit of; to imagine or admit to exist, for the sake of argument or illustration; to assume to be true; as, let us suppose the earth to be the center of the system, what would be the result?
• To imagine; to believe; to receive as true.
• To require to exist or to be true; to imply by the laws of thought or of nature; as, purpose supposes foresight.
• To put by fraud in the place of another.
v. i.
• To make supposition; to think; to be of opinion.
n.
• Supposition.
Supposeer
n.
• One who supposes.
Supposition
n.
• The act of supposing, laying down, imagining, or considering as true or existing, what is known not to be true, or what is not proved.
• That which is supposed; hypothesis; conjecture; surmise; opinion or belief without sufficient evidence.
Suppositional
a.
• Resting on supposition; hypothetical; conjectural; supposed.
Supposititious
a.
• Fraudulently substituted for something else; not being what is purports to be; not genuine; spurious; counterfeit; as, a supposititious child; a supposititious writing.
• Suppositional; hypothetical.
Suppositive
a.
• Including or implying supposition, or hypothesis; supposed.
n.
• A word denoting or implying supposition, as the words if, granting, provided, etc.
Suppositor
n.
(Med.) An apparatus for the introduction of suppositories into the rectum.
Suppository
n.
(Med.) A pill or bolus for introduction into the rectum; esp., a cylinder or cone of medicated cacao butter.
Supposure
n.
• Supposition; hypothesis; conjecture.
Suppress
v. t.
• To overpower and crush; to subdue; to put down; to quell.
• To keep in; to restrain from utterance or vent; as, to suppress the voice; to suppress a smile.
• To retain without disclosure; to conceal; not to reveal; to prevent publication of; as, to suppress evidence; to suppress a pamphlet; to suppress the truth.
• To stop; to restrain; to arrest the discharges of; as, to suppress a diarrhea, or a hemorrhage.
Suppressible
a.
• That may be suppressed.
Suppression
n.
• The act of suppressing, or the state of being suppressed; repression; as, the suppression of a riot, insurrection, or tumult; the suppression of truth, of reports, of evidence, and the like.
(Med.) Complete stoppage of a natural secretion or excretion; as, suppression of urine; — used in contradiction to retention, which signifies that the secretion or excretion is retained without expulsion.
(Gram.) Omission; as, the suppression of a word.
Suppressive
a.
• Tending to suppress; subduing; concealing.
Suppressor
n.
• One who suppresses.
Supprise
v. t.
• To surprise.
Suppurant
n.
(Med.) A suppurative.
Suppurate
v. i.
• To generate pus; as, a boil or abscess suppurates.
v. t.
• To cause to generate pus; as, to suppurate a sore.
Suppuration
n.
• The act or process of suppurating.
• The matter produced by suppuration; pus.
Suppurative
a.
• Tending to suppurate; promoting suppuration.
n.
(Med.) A suppurative medicine.
Supputate
v. t.
• To suppute.
Supputation
n.
• Reckoning; account.
Suppute
v. t.
• To reckon; to compute; to suppose; to impute.
Supra
adv.
• Over; above; before; also, beyond; besides; — much used as a prefix.
Suprabranchial
a.
(Zool.) Situated above the branchiae; — applied especially to the upper division of the gill cavity of bivalve mollusks.
Supraciliary
a.
(Anat.) Superciliary.
Supraclavicle
n.
(Anat.) A bone which usually connects the clavicle with the post-temporal in the pectorial arch of fishes.
Supraclavicular
a.
(Anat.) Situated above the clavicle.
• Of or pertaining to the supraclavicle.
Supracostal
a.
(Anat.) Situated above, or on the outside of, the ribs.
Supracranial
a.
(Anat.) Situated above, or in the roof of, the cranium.
Supracretaceous
a.
(Geol.) Lying above the chalk; Supercretaceous.
Supradecompound
a.
(Bot.) More than decompound; divided many times.
Suprafoliaceous
a.
(Bot.) Inserted into the stem above the leaf, petiole, or axil, as a peduncle or flower.
Supraglotic
a.
(Anat.) Situated above the glottis; — applied to that part of the cavity of the larynx above the true vocal cords.
Suprahepatic
a.
(Anat.) Situated over, or on the dorsal side of, the liver; — applied to the branches of the hepatic veins.
Suprahyoid
a.
(Anat.) Hyomental.
Supralapsarian
n.
(Eccl. Hist.) One of that class of Calvinists who believed that God's decree of election determined that man should fall, in order that the opportunity might be furnished of securing the redemption of a part of the race, the decree of salvation being conceived of as formed before or beyond, and not after or following, the lapse, or fall. Cf. Infralapsarian.
a.
• Of or pertaining to the Supralapsarians, or their doctrine.
Supralapsarianism
n.
• The doctrine, belief, or principles of the Supralapsarians.
Supralapsary
a.
• Supralapsarian.
n.
• A Supralapsarian.
Supraloral
a.
(Zool.) Situated above the lores; as, the supraloral feathers of a bird.
n.
• A supraloral feather.
Supramaxilla
n.
(Anat.) The upper jaw or maxilla.
Supramaxillary
a.
(Anat.) Situated over the lower jaw; as, the supramaxillary nerve.
• Of or pertaining to the upper jaw.
Supramundane
a.
• Being or situated above the world or above our system; celestial.
Supranaturalism
n.
• The state of being supernatural; belief in supernatural agency or revelation; supernaturalism.
Supranaturalist
n.
• A supernaturalist.
Supraoccipital
a.
(Anat.) Situated over, or in the upper part of, the occiput; of or pertaining to the supraoccipital bone.
n.
• The supraoccipital bone.
Supraocular
a.
(Zool.) Above the eyes; — said of certain scales of fishes and reptiles.
Suprapedal
a.
(Zool.) Situated above the foot of a mollusk; as, the suprapedal gland.
Supraprotest
n.
(Mercantile Law) An acceptance of a bill by a third person after protest for nonacceptance by the drawee.
Suprarenal
a.
(Anat.) Situated above, or anterior to, the kidneys.
n.
• A suprarenal capsule.
Suprasphenoidal
a.
(Anat.) Situated above the sphenoidal bone; as, the suprasphenoidal appendage, or pituitary body.
Supraspinal
a.
(Anat.) Situated above the vertebral column.
• Situated above a spine or spines; supraspinate; supraspinous.
Suprastapedial
a.
(Anat.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, that part of the columella of the ear which projects above the connection with the stapes, as in many animals.
n.
• The suprastapedial part of the columella.
Suprasternal
a.
(Anat.) Situated above, or anterior to, the sternum.
Supratemporal
a.
(Anat.) Situated above the temporal bone or temporal fossa.
n.
• A supratemporal bone.
Supratrochlear
a.
(Anat.) Situated over or above a trochlea or trochlear surface; — applied esp. to one of the subdivisions of the trigeminal nerve.
Supravaginal
a.
(Anat.) Situated above or outside a sheath or vaginal membrane.
Supravision
n.
• Supervision.
Supravisor
n.
• A supervisor.
Supravulgar
a.
• Being above the vulgar or common people.
Supremacy
n.
• The state of being supreme, or in the highest station of power; highest or supreme authority or power; as, the supremacy of a king or a parliament.
Supreme
a.
• Highest in authority; holding the highest place in authority, government, or power.
• Highest; greatest; most excellent or most extreme; utmost; greatist possible (sometimes in a bad sense); as, supreme love; supreme glory; supreme magnanimity; supreme folly.
(Bot.) Situated at the highest part or point.
Supremely
adv.
• In a supreme manner.
Supremity
n.
• Supremacy.
Sura
n.
• One of the sections or chapters of the Koran, which are one hundred and fourteen in number.
Suradanni
n.
• A valuable kind of wood obtained on the shores of the Demerara River in South America, much used for timbers, rails, naves and fellies of wheels, and the like.
Suraddition
n.
• Something added or appended, as to a name.
Surah
n.
• A soft twilled silk fabric much used for women's dresses; — called also surah silk.
Sural
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the calf of the leg; as, the sural arteries.
Surance
n.
• Assurance.
Surangular
a.
(Anat.) Above the angular bone; supra-angular; — applied to a bone of the lower jaw in many reptiles and birds.
n.
• The surangular bone.
Surbase
n.
(Arch.) A cornice, or series of moldings, on the top of the base of a pedestal, podium, etc. See Illust. of Column.
• A board or group of moldings running round a room on a level with the tops of the chair backs.
Surbased
a.
(Arch.) Having a surbase, or molding above the base.
• Having the vertical height from springing line to crown less than the half span; — said of an arch; as, a segmental arch is surbased.
Surbate
v. t.
• To make sore or bruise, as the feet by travel.
• To harass; to fatigue.
Surbeat
v. t.
• Same as Surbate.
Surbed
v. t.
• To set edgewise, as a stone; that is, to set it in a position different from that which it had in the quarry.
Surbet
v. t.
• Same as Surbate.
a.
• Surbated; bruised.
Surcease
n.
• Cessation; stop; end.
v. t.
• To cause to cease; to end.
v. i.
• To cease.
Surceaseance
n.
• Cessation.
Surcharge
v. t.
• To overload; to overburden; to overmatch; to overcharge; as, to surcharge a beast or a ship; to surcharge a cannon.
(Law) To overstock; especially, to put more cattle into, as a common, than the person has a right to do, or more than the herbage will sustain. Blackstone.
(Equity) To show an omission in (an account) for which credit ought to have been given.
n.
• An overcharge; an excessive load or burden; a load greater than can well be borne.
(Law) The putting, by a commoner, of more beasts on the common than he has a right to.
(Equity) The showing an omission, as in an account, for which credit ought to have been given.
Surchargement
n.
• The act of surcharging; also, surcharge, surplus.
Surcharger
n.
• One who surcharges.
Surcingle
n.
• A belt, band, or girth which passes over a saddle, or over anything laid on a horse's back, to bind it fast.
(Eccl.) The girdle of a cassock, by which it is fastened round the waist.
Surcingled
a.
• Bound with the surcingle.
Surcle
n.
• A little shoot; a twig; a sucker.
Surcloy
v. t.
• To surfeit.
Surcoat
n.
• A coat worn over the other garments; especially, the long and flowing garment of knights, worn over the armor, and frequently emblazoned with the arms of the wearer.
• A name given to the outer garment of either sex at different epochs of the Middle Ages.
Surcrew
n.
• Increase; addition; surplus.
Surculate
v. t.
• To purne; to trim.
Surculation
n.
• Act of purning.
Surculose
a.
(Bot.) Producing suckers, or shoots resembling suckers.
Surd
a.
• Net having the sense of hearing; deaf.
• Unheard.
(Math.) Involving surds; not capable of being expressed in rational numbers; radical; irrational; as, a surd expression or quantity; a surd number.
(Phonetics) Uttered, as an element of speech, without tone, or proper vocal sound; voiceless; unintonated; nonvocal; atonic; whispered; aspirated; sharp; hard, as f, p, s, etc.; — opposed to sonant. See Guide to Pronunciation, §§169, 179, 180.
n.
(Math.) A quantity which can not be expressed by rational numbers; thus, \'fb2 is a surd.
(Phon.) A surd element of speech. See Surd, a., 4.
Surdal
a.
(Math.) Same as Surd, a., 3.
Surdiny
n.
• A sardine.
Surdity
n.
• Deafness.
Sure
a.
• Certainly knowing and believing; confident beyond doubt; implicity trusting; unquestioning; positive.
• Certain to find or retain; as, to be sure of game; to be sure of success; to be sure of life or health.
• Fit or worthy to be depended on; certain not to fail or disappoint expectation; unfailing; strong; permanent; enduring.
• Betrothed; engaged to marry.
• Free from danger; safe; secure.
adv.
• In a sure manner; safely; certainly.
Surely
adv.
• In a sure or certain manner; certainly; infallibly; undoubtedly; assuredly.
• Without danger; firmly; steadly; securely.
Surement
n.
• A making sure; surety.
Sureness
n.
• The state of being sure; certainty.
Suresby
n.
• One to be sure of, or to be relied on.
Suretiship
n.
• Suretyship.
Surety
n.
• The state of being sure; certainty; security.
• That which makes sure; that which confirms; ground of confidence or security.
• Security against loss or damage; security for payment, or for the performance of some act.
(Law) One who is bound with and for another who is primarily liable, and who is called the principal; one who engages to answer for another's appearance in court, or for his payment of a debt, or for performance of some act; a bondsman; a bail.
• Hence, a substitute; a hostage.
• Evidence; confirmation; warrant.
v. t.
• To act as surety for.
Suretyship
n.
• The state of being surety; the obligation of a person to answer for the debt, default, or miscarriage of another.
Surf
n.
• The swell of the sea which breaks upon the shore, esp. upon a sloping beach.
n.
• The bottom of a drain.
Surface
n.
• The exterior part of anything that has length and breadth; one of the limits that bound a solid, esp. the upper face; superficies; the outside; as, the surface of the earth; the surface of a diamond; the surface of the body.
• Hence, outward or external appearance.
(Geom.) A magnitude that has length and breadth without thickness; superficies; as, a plane surface; a spherical surface.
(Fort.) That part of the side which is terminated by the flank prolonged, and the angle of the nearest bastion.
v. t.
• To give a surface to; especially, to cause to have a smooth or plain surface; to make smooth or plain.
• To work over the surface or soil of, as ground, in hunting for gold.
Surfacer
n.
• A form of machine for dressing the surface of wood, metal, stone, etc.
Surfboat
n.
(Naut.) A boat intended for use in heavy surf. It is built with a pronounced sheer, and with a view to resist the shock of waves and of contact with the beach.
Surfeit
n.
• Excess in eating and drinking.
• Fullness and oppression of the system, occasioned often by excessive eating and drinking.
• Disgust caused by excess; satiety.
v. i.
• To load the stomach with food, so that sickness or uneasiness ensues; to eat to excess.
• To indulge to satiety in any gratification.
v. t.
• To feed so as to oppress the stomach and derange the function of the system; to overfeed, and produce satiety, sickness, or uneasiness; — often reflexive; as, to surfeit one's self with sweets.
• To fill to satiety and disgust; to cloy; as, he surfeits us with compliments.
Surfeiter
n.
• One who surfeits.
Surfer
n.
(Zool.) The surf duck.
Surfman
n.
• One who serves in a surfboat in the life-saving service.
Surfoot
a.
• Tired or sore of foot from travel; lamed.
Surfy
a.
• Consisting of, abounding in, or resembling, surf; as, a surfy shore.
Surge
n.
• A spring; a fountain.
• A large wave or billow; a great, rolling swell of water, produced generally by a high wind.
• The motion of, or produced by, a great wave.
• The tapered part of a windlass barrel or a capstan, upon which the cable surges, or slips.
v. i.
• To swell; to rise hifg and roll.
(Naut.) To slip along a windlass.
v. t.
(Naut.) To let go or slacken suddenly, as a rope; as, to surge a hawser or messenger; also, to slacken the rope about (a capstan).
Surgeful
a.
• Abounding in surges; surgy.
Surgeless
a.
• Free from surges; smooth; calm.
Surgent
a.
• Rising; swelling, as a flood.
Surgeon
n.
• One whose profession or occupation is to cure diseases or injuries of the body by manual operation; one whose occupation is to cure local injuries or disorders (such as wounds, dislocations, tumors, etc.), whether by manual operation, or by medication and constitutional treatment.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of chaetodont fishes of the family Teuthidae, or Acanthuridae, which have one or two sharp lancelike spines on each side of the base of the tail. Called also surgeon fish, doctor fish, lancet fish, and sea surgeon.
Surgeoncy
n.
• The office or employment of a surgeon, as in the naval or military service.
Surgeonry
n.
• Surgery.
Surgery
n.
• The art of healing by manual operation; that branch of medical science which treats of manual operations for the healing of diseases or injuries of the body; that branch of medical science which has for its object the cure of local injuries or diseases, as wounds or fractures, tumors, etc., whether by manual operation or by medicines and constitutional treatment.
• A surgeon's operating room or laboratory.
Surgical
a.
• Of or pertaining to surgeons or surgery; done by means of surgery; used in surgery; as, a surgical operation; surgical instruments.
Surgically
adv.
• By means of surgery.
Surgy
a.
• Rising in surges or billows; full of surges; resembling surges in motion or appearance; swelling.
Suricat
n.
(Zool.) Same as Zenick.
Surintendant
n.
• Superintendent.
Surlily
adv.
• In a surly manner.
Surliness
n.
• The quality or state of being surly.
Surling
n.
• A sour, morose fellow.
Surloin
n.
• A loin of beef, or the upper part of the loin. See Sirloin, the more usual, but not etymologically preferable, orthography.
Surly
a.
• Arrogant; haughty.
• Gloomily morose; ill-natured, abrupt, and rude; severe; sour; crabbed; rough; sullen; gloomy; as, a surly groom; a surly dog; surly language; a surly look.
• Rough; dark; tempestuous.
Surmark
n.
(Shipbuilding) A mark made on the molds of a ship, when building, to show where the angles of the timbers are to be placed.
Surmisable
a.
• Capable of being surmised; as, a surmisable result.
Surmisal
n.
• Surmise.
Surmise
n.
• A thought, imagination, or conjecture, which is based upon feeble or scanty evidence; suspicion; guess; as, the surmisses of jealousy or of envy.
• Reflection; thought.
v. t.
• To imagine without certain knowledge; to infer on slight grounds; to suppose, conjecture, or suspect; to guess.
Surmiser
n.
• One who surmises.
Surmising
a. & n.
• from Surmise, v.
Surmount
v. t.
• To rise above; to be higher than; to overtop.
• To conquer; to overcome; as, to surmount difficulties or obstacles.
• To surpass; to exceed.
Surmountable
a.
• Capable of being surmounted or overcome; superable.
Surmounted
a.
(Arch.) Having its vertical height greater than the half span; — said of an arch.
(Her.) Partly covered by another charge; — said of an ordinary or other bearing.
Surmounter
n.
• One who, or that which, surmounts.
Surmullet
n.
(Zool.) Any one of various species of mullets of the family Millidae, esp. the European species (Millus surmulletus), which is highly prized as a food fish. See Mullet.
Surmulot
n.
(Zool.) The brown, or Norway, rat.
Surname
n.
• A name or appellation which is added to, or over and above, the baptismal or Christian name, and becomes a family name.
• An appellation added to the original name; an agnomen.
v. t.
• To name or call by an appellation added to the original name; to give a surname to.
Surnominal
a.
• Of or pertaining to a surname or surnames.
Suroxidate
v. t.
(Chem.) To combine with oxygen so as to form a suroxide or peroxide.
Suroxide
n.
(Chem.) A peroxide.
Surpass
v. t.
• To go beyond in anything good or bad; to exceed; to excel.
Surpassable
a.
• That may be surpassed.
Surpassing
a.
• Eminently excellent; exceeding others.
Surphul
v. t.
• To surfel.
Surplice
n.
(Eccl.) A white garment worn over another dress by the clergy of the Roman Catholic, Episcopal, and certain other churches, in some of their ministrations.
Surpliced
a.
• Wearing a surplice.
Surplus
n.
• That which remains when use or need is satisfied, or when a limit is reached; excess; overplus.
• Specifically, an amount in the public treasury at any time greater than is required for the ordinary purposes of the government.
a.
• Being or constituting a surplus; more than sufficient; as, surplus revenues; surplus population; surplus words.
Surplusage
n.
• Surplus; excess; overplus; as, surplusage of grain or goods beyond what is wanted.
(Law) Matter in pleading which is not necessary or relevant to the case, and which may be rejected.
(Accounts) A greater disbursement than the charge of the accountant amounts to.
Surprisal
n.
• The act of surprising, or state of being surprised; surprise.
Surprise
n.
• The act of coming upon, or taking, unawares; the act of seizing unexpectedly; surprisal; as, the fort was taken by surprise.
• The state of being surprised, or taken unawares, by some act or event which could not reasonably be foreseen; emotion excited by what is sudden and strange; a suddenly excited feeling of wonder or astonishment.
• Anything that causes such a state or emotion.
• A dish covered with a crust of raised paste, but with no other contents.
v. t.
• To come or fall suddenly and unexpectedly; to take unawares; to seize or capture by unexpected attack.
• To strike with wonder, astonishment, or confusion, by something sudden, unexpected, or remarkable; to confound; as, his conduct surprised me.
• To lead (one) to do suddenly and without forethought; to bring (one) into some unexpected state; — with into; as, to be surprised into an indiscretion; to be surprised into generosity.
• To hold possession of; to hold.
Surprisement
n.
• Surprisal.
Surpriser
n.
• One who surprises.
Surprising
a.
• Exciting surprise; extraordinary; of a nature to excite wonder and astonishment; as, surprising bravery; a surprising escape from danger.
Surrebound
v. i.
• To give back echoes; to reecho.
Surrebut
v. i.
(Law) To reply, as a plaintiff to a defendant's rebutter.
Surrebuter
n.
(Law) The reply of a plaintiff to a defendant's rebutter.
Surrein
v. t.
• To override; to exhaust by riding.
Surrejoin
v. i.
(Law) To reply, as a plaintiff to a defendant's rejoinder.
Surrejoinder
n.
(Law) The answer of a plaintiff to a defendant's rejoinder.
Surrender
v. t.
• To yield to the power of another; to give or deliver up possession of (anything) upon compulsion or demand; as, to surrender one's person to an enemy or to an officer; to surrender a fort or a ship.
• To give up possession of; to yield; to resign; as, to surrender a right, privilege, or advantage.
• To yield to any influence, emotion, passion, or power; — used reflexively; as, to surrender one's self to grief, to despair, to indolence, or to sleep.
(Law) To yield; to render or deliver up; to give up; as, a principal surrendered by his bail, a fugitive from justice by a foreign state, or a particular estate by the tenant thereof to him in remainder or reversion.
v. i.
• To give up one's self into the power of another; to yield; as, the enemy, seeing no way of escape, surrendered at the first summons.
n.
• The act of surrendering; the act of yielding, or resigning one's person, or the possession of something, into the power of another; as, the surrender of a castle to an enemy; the surrender of a right.
(Law) The yielding of a particular estate to him who has an immediate estate in remainder or reversion. (b) The giving up of a principal into lawful custody by his bail. (c) The delivry up oh fugitives from justice by one government to another, as by a foreign state. See Extradition.
Surrenderee
n.
(Law) The person to whom a surrender is made.
Surrenderer
n.
• One who surrenders.
Surrenderor
n.
(Law) One who makes a surrender, as of an estate.
Surrendry
n.
• Surrender.
Surreption
n.
• The act or process of getting in a surreptitious manner, or by craft or stealth.
• A coming unperceived or suddenly.
Surreptitious
a.
• Done or made by stealth, or without proper authority; made or introduced fraudulently; clandestine; stealthy; as, a surreptitious passage in an old manuscript; a surreptitious removal of goods.
Surrey
n.
• A four-wheeled pleasure carriage, (commonly two-seated) somewhat like a phaeton, but having a straight bottom.
Surrogate
n.
• A deputy; a delegate; a substitute.
• The deputy of an ecclesiastical judge, most commonly of a bishop or his chancellor, especially a deputy who grants marriage licenses.
• In some States of the United States, an officer who presides over the probate of wills and testaments and yield the settlement of estates.
v. t.
• To put in the place of another; to substitute.
Surrogateship
n.
• The office of a surrogate.
Surrogation
n.
• The act of substituting one person in the place of another.
Surround
v. t.
• To inclose on all sides; to encompass; to environ.
• To lie or be on all sides of; to encircle; as, a wall surrounds the city.
• To pass around; to travel about; to circumnavigate; as, to surround the world.
(Mil.) To inclose, as a body of troops, between hostile forces, so as to cut off means of communication or retreat; to invest, as a city.
n.
• A method of hunting some animals, as the buffalo, by surrounding a herd, and driving them over a precipice, into a ravine, etc.
Surrounding
a.
• Inclosing; encircling.
n.
• An encompassing.
• The things which surround or environ; external or attending circumstances or conditions.
Surroyal
n.
(Zool.) One of the terminal branches or divisions of the beam of the antler of the stag or other large deer.
Sursanure
n.
• A wound healed or healing outwardly only.
Surseance
n.
• Peace; quiet.
Sursolid
n.
(Math.) The fifth power of a number; as, a is the sursolid of a, or 32 that of 2.
Surstyle
v. t.
• To surname.
Surtax
n.
• An additional or extra tax.
v. t.
• To impose an additional tax on.
Surtout
n.
• A man's coat to be worn over his other garments; an overcoat, especially when long, and fitting closely like a body coat.
Surturbrand
n.
• A fibrous brown coal or bituminous wood.
Surucucu
n.
(Zool.) See Bush master, under Bush.
Surveillance
n.
• Oversight; watch; inspection; supervision.
Surveillant
n.
• One who watches over another; an overseer; a spy; a supervisor.
a.
• Overseeing; watchful.
Survene
v. t.
• To supervene upon; to come as an addition to.
Survenue
n.
• A sudden or unexpected coming or stepping on.
Survey
v. t.
• To inspect, or take a view of; to view with attention, as from a high place; to overlook; as, to stand on a hill, and survey the surrounding country.
• To view with a scrutinizing eye; to examine.
• To examine with reference to condition, situation, value, etc.; to examine and ascertain the state of; as, to survey a building in order to determine its value and exposure to loss by fire.
• To determine the form, extent, position, etc., of, as a tract of land, a coast, harbor, or the like, by means of linear and angular measurments, and the application of the principles of geometry and trigonometry; as, to survey land or a coast.
• To examine and ascertain, as the boundaries and royalties of a manor, the tenure of the tenants, and the rent and value of the same.
n.
• The act of surveying; a general view, as from above.
• A particular view; an examination, especially an official examination, of all the parts or particulars of a thing, with a design to ascertain the condition, quantity, or quality; as, a survey of the stores of a ship; a survey of roads and bridges; a survey of buildings.
• The operation of finding the contour, dimensions, position, or other particulars of, as any part of the earth's surface, whether land or water; also, a measured plan and description of any portion of country, or of a road or line through it.
Surveyal
n.
• Survey.
Surveyance
n.
• Survey; inspection.
Surveying
n.
• That branch of applied mathematics which teaches the art of determining the area of any portion of the earth's surface, the length and directions of the bounding lines, the contour of the surface, etc., with an accurate delineation of the whole on paper; the act or occupation of making surveys.
Surveyor
n.
• One placed to superintend others; an overseer; an inspector.
• One who views and examines for the purpose of ascertaining the condition, quantity, or quality of anything; as, a surveyor of highways, ordnance, etc.
• One who surveys or measures land; one who practices the art of surveying.
(Customs) An officer who ascertains the contents of casks, and the quantity of liquors subject to duty; a gauger.
• In the United States, an officer whose duties include the various measures to be taken for ascertaining the quantity, condition, and value of merchandise brought into a port.
Surveyorship
n.
• The office of a surveyor.
Surview
v. t.
• To survey; to make a survey of.
n.
• A survey.
Survise
v. t.
• To look over; to supervise.
Survival
n.
• A living or continuing longer than, or beyond the existence of, another person, thing, or event; an outliving.
(Arhaeol. & Ethnol.) Any habit, usage, or belief, remaining from ancient times, the origin of which is often unknown, or imperfectly known.
Survive
v. t.
• To live beyond the life or existence of; to live longer than; to outlive; to outlast; as, to survive a person or an event.
v. i.
• To remain alive; to continue to live.
Survivency
n.
• Survivorship.
Surviver
n.
• One who survives; a survivor.
Surviving
a.
• Remaining alive; yet living or existing; as, surviving friends; surviving customs.
Survivor
n.
• One who survives or outlives another person, or any time, event, or thing.
(Law) The longer liver of two joint tenants, or two persons having a joint interest in anything.
Survivorship
n.
• The state of being a survivor.
(Law) The right of a joint tenant, or other person who has a joint interest in an estate, to take the whole estate upon the death of other.
Susceptibility
n.
• The state or quality of being susceptible; the capability of receiving impressions, or of being affected.
• Specifically, capacity for deep feeling or emotional excitement; sensibility, in its broadest acceptation; impressibility; sensitiveness.
Susceptible
a.
• Capable of admitting anything additional, or any change, affection, or influence; readily acted upon; as, a body susceptible of color or of alteration.
• Capable of impression; having nice sensibility; impressible; tender; sensitive; as, children are more susceptible than adults; a man of a susceptible heart.
Susception
n.
• The act of taking; reception.
Susceptive
a.
• Susceptible.
Susceptivity
n.
• Capacity for receiving; susceptibility.
Susceptor
n.
• One who undertakes anything; specifically, a godfather; a sponsor; a guardian.
Suscipiency
n.
• Admission.
Suscipient
a.
• Receiving; admitting.
n.
• One who takes or admits; one who receives.
Suscitability
n.
• Capability of being suscitated; excitability.
Suscitate
v. t.
• To rouse; to excite; to call into life and action.
Suscitation
n.
• The act of raising or exciting.
Suslik
n.
(Zool.) A ground squirrel (Spermophilus citillus) of Europe and Asia. It has large cheek pouches.
Suspect
a.
• Suspicious; inspiring distrust.
• Suspected; distrusted.
n.
• Suspicion.
• One who, or that which, is suspected; an object of suspicion; — formerly applied to persons and things; now, only to persons suspected of crime.
v. t.
• To imagine to exist; to have a slight or vague opinion of the existence of, without proof, and often upon weak evidence or no evidence; to mistrust; to surmise; — commonly used regarding something unfavorable, hurtful, or wrong; as, to suspect the presence of disease.
• To imagine to be guilty, upon slight evidence, or without proof; as, to suspect one of equivocation.
• To hold to be uncertain; to doubt; to mistrust; to distruct; as, to suspect the truth of a story.
• To look up to; to respect.
v. i.
• To imagine guilt; to have a suspicion or suspicions; to be suspicious.
Suspectable
a.
• That may be suspected.
Suspected
a.
• Distrusted; doubted.
Suspecter
n.
• One who suspects.
Suspectful
a.
• Apt to suspect or mistrust; full of suspicion; suspicious; as, to be suspectful of the motives of others.
Suspection
n.
• Suspicion.
Suspectiousness
n.
• Suspiciousness; cause for suspicion.
Suspectless
a.
• Not suspecting; having no suspicion.
• Not suspected; not mistrusted.
Suspend
v. t.
• To attach to something above; to hang; as, to suspend a ball by a thread; to suspend a needle by a loadstone.
• To make to depend; as, God hath suspended the promise of eternal life on the condition of obedience and holiness of life.
• To cause to cease for a time; to hinder from proceeding; to interrupt; to delay; to stay.
• To hold in an undetermined or undecided state; as, to suspend one's judgment or opinion.
• To debar, or cause to withdraw temporarily, from any privilege, from the execution of an office, from the enjoyment of income, etc.; as, to suspend a student from college; to suspend a member of a club.
• To cause to cease for a time from operation or effect; as, to suspend the habeas corpus act; to suspend the rules of a legislative body.
(Chem.) To support in a liquid, as an insoluble powder, by stirring, to facilitate chemical action.
v. i.
• To cease from operation or activity; esp., to stop payment, or be unable to meet obligations or engagements (said of a commercial firm or a bank).
Suspender
n.
• One who, or that which, suspends; esp., one of a pair of straps or braces worn over the shoulders, for holding up the trousers.
Suspensation
n.
• The act of suspending, or the state of being suspended, especially for a short time; temporary suspension.
Suspense
a.
• Held or lifted up; held or prevented from proceeding.
• Expressing, or proceeding from, suspense or doubt.
n.
• The state of being suspended; specifically, a state of uncertainty and expectation, with anxiety or apprehension; indetermination; indecision; as, the suspense of a person waiting for the verdict of a jury.
• Cessation for a time; stop; pause.
(Law) A temporary cessation of one's right; suspension, as when the rent or other profits of land cease by unity of possession of land and rent.
Suspensely
adv.
• In suspense.
Suspensibility
n.
• The quality or state of being suspensible.
Suspensible
a.
• Capable of being suspended; capable of being held from sinking.
Suspension
n.
• The act of suspending, or the state of being suspended; pendency; as, suspension from a hook.
• Especially, temporary delay, interruption, or cessation
• Of labor, study, pain, etc.
• Of decision, determination, judgment, etc.; as, to ask a suspension of judgment or opinion in view of evidence to be produced.
• Of the payment of what is due; as, the suspension of a mercantile firm or of a bank.
• Of punishment, or sentence of punishment.
• Of a person in respect of the exercise of his office, powers, prerogative, etc.; as, the suspension of a student or of a clergyman.
• Of the action or execution of law, etc.; as, the suspension of the habeas corpus act.
• A conditional withholding, interruption, or delay; as, the suspension of a payment on the performance of a condition.
• The state of a solid when its particles are mixed with, but undissolved in, a fluid, and are capable of separation by straining; also, any substance in this state.
(Rhet.) A keeping of the hearer in doubt and in attentive expectation of what is to follow, or of what is to be the inference or conclusion from the arguments or observations employed.
(Scots Law) A stay or postponement of execution of a sentence condemnatory by means of letters of suspension granted on application to the lord ordinary.
(Mus.) The prolongation of one or more tones of a chord into the chord which follows, thus producing a momentary discord, suspending the concord which the ear expects. Cf. Retardation.
Suspensive
a.
• Tending to suspend, or to keep in suspense; causing interruption or delay; uncertain; doubtful.
Suspensor
n.
• A suspensory.
(Bot.) The cord which suspends the embryo; and which is attached to the radicle in the young state; the proembryo.
Suspensorium
n.
(Anat.) Anything which suspends or holds up a part: especially, the mandibular suspensorium (a series of bones, or of cartilages representing them) which connects the base of the lower jaw with the skull in most vertebrates below mammals.
Suspensory
a.
• Suspended; hanging; depending.
• Fitted or serving to suspend; suspending; as, a suspensory muscle.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to a suspensorium.
n.
• That which suspends, or holds up, as a truss
(Med.) a bandage or bag for supporting the scrotum.
Suspicable
a.
• Liable to suspicion; suspicious.
Suspiciency
n.
• Suspiciousness; suspicion.
Suspicion
n.
• The act of suspecting; the imagination or apprehension of the existence of something (esp. something wrong or hurtful) without proof, or upon very slight evidence, or upon no evidence.
• Slight degree; suggestion; hint.
v. t.
• To view with suspicion; to suspect; to doubt.
Suspicious
a.
• Inclined to suspect; given or prone to suspicion; apt to imagine without proof.
• Indicating suspicion, mistrust, or fear.
• Liable to suspicion; adapted to raise suspicion; giving reason to imagine ill; questionable; as, an author of suspicious innovations; suspicious circumstances.
Suspiral
n.
• A breathing hole; a vent or ventiduct.
• A spring of water passing under ground toward a cistern or conduit.
Suspiration
n.
• The act of sighing, or fetching a long and deep breath; a deep respiration; a sigh.
Suspire
v. i.
• To fetch a long, deep breath; to sigh; to breathe.
n.
• A long, deep breath; a sigh.
Suspired
a.
• Ardently desired or longed for; earnestly coveted.
Sustain
v. t.
• To keep from falling; to bear; to uphold; to support; as, a foundation sustains the superstructure; a beast sustains a load; a rope sustains a weight.
• Hence, to keep from sinking, as in despondence, or the like; to support.
• To maintain; to keep alive; to support; to subsist; to nourish; as, provisions to sustain an army.
• To aid, comfort, or relieve; to vindicate.
• To endure without failing or yielding; to bear up under; as, to sustain defeat and disappointment.
• To suffer; to bear; to undergo.
• To allow the prosecution of; to admit as valid; to sanction; to continue; not to dismiss or abate; as, the court sustained the action or suit.
• To prove; to establish by evidence; to corroborate or confirm; to be conclusive of; as, to sustain a charge, an accusation, or a proposition.
n.
• One who, or that which, upholds or sustains; a sustainer.
Sustainable
a.
• Capable of being sustained or maintained; as, the action is not sustainable.
Sustained
a.
• Held up to a certain pitch, degree, or level; uniform; as, sustained pasion; a sustained style of writing; a sustained note in music.
Sustainer
n.
• One who, or that which, sustains.
Sustainment
n.
• The act of sustaining; maintenance; support.
Sustaltic
a.
• Mournful; — said of a species of music among the ancient Greeks.
Sustenance
n.
• The act of sustaining; support; maintenance; subsistence; as, the sustenance of the body; the sustenance of life.
• That which supports life; food; victuals; provisions; means of living; as, the city has ample sustenance.
Sustentacle
n.
• Sustenance.
Sustentacular
a.
(Anat.) Supporting; sustaining; as, a sustentacular tissue.
Sustentate
v. t.
• To sustain.
Sustentation
n.
• The act of sustaining, or the state of being sustained; preservation from falling; support; sustenance; maintenance.
(Physiol.) The aggregate of the functions by which a living organism is maintained in a normal condition of weight and growth.
Sustentative
a.
• Adapted to sustain, strengthen, or corroborate; as, sustentative citations or quotations.
Sustention
n.
• Sustentation.
Susu
n.
(Zool.) See Soosoo.
Susurrant
a.
• Whispering.
Susurration
n.
• A whispering; a soft murmur.
Susurringly
adv.
• In the manner of a whisper.
Susurrous
a.
• Whispering; rustling; full of whispering sounds.
Susurrus
n.
• The act of whispering; a whisper; a murmur.
Sutile
a.
• Done by stitching.
Sutler
n.
• A person who follows an army, and sells to the troops provisions, liquors, and the like.
Sutlership
n.
• The condition or occupation of a sutler.
Sutling
a.
• Belonging to sutlers; engaged in the occupation of a sutler.
Sutor
n.
• A kind of sirup made by the Indians of Arizona from the fruit of some cactaceous plant (probably the Cereus giganteus).
Sutra
n.
• A precept; an aphorism; a brief rule.
• A collection of such aphorisms.
• A body of Hindoo literature containing aphorisms on grammar, meter, law, and philosophy, and forming a connecting link between the Vedic and later Sanscrit literature.
Suttee
n.
• A Hindoo widow who immolates herself, or is immolated, on the funeral pile of her husband; — so called because this act of self-immolation is regarded as envincing excellence of wifely character.
• The act of burning a widow on the funeral pile of her husband.
Sutteeism
n.
• The practice of self-immolation of widows in Hindostan.
Suttle
n.
(Com.) The weight when the tare has been deducted, and tret is yet to be allowed.
v. i.
• To act as sutler; to supply provisions and other articles to troops.
Sutural
a.
• Of or pertaining to a suture, or seam.
(Bot.) Taking place at a suture; as, a sutural deiscence.
Suturally
adv.
• In a sutural manner.
Suturated
a.
• Sewed or knit together; united by a suture; stitched.
Suture
n.
• The act of sewing; also, the line along which two things or parts are sewed together, or are united so as to form a seam, or that which resembles a seam.
(Surg.) The uniting of the parts of a wound by stitching.
• The stitch by which the parts are united.
(Anat.) The line of union, or seam, in an immovable articulation, like those between the bones of the skull; also, such an articulation itself; synarthrosis. See Harmonic suture, under Harmonic.
(Bot.) The line, or seam, formed by the union of two margins in any part of a plant; as, the ventral suture of a legume.
• A line resembling a seam; as, the dorsal suture of a legume, which really corresponds to a midrib.
(Zool.) The line at which the elytra of a beetle meet and are sometimes confluent.
• A seam, or impressed line, as between the segments of a crustacean, or between the whorls of a univalve shell.
Sutured
a.
• Having a suture or sutures; knit or united together.
Suwarrow
n.
(Bot.) The giant cactus (Cereus giganteus); — so named by the Indians of Arizona. Called also saguaro.
Suzerain
n.
• A superior lord, to whom fealty is due; a feudal lord; a lord paramount.
Suzerainty
n.
• The dominion or authority of a suzerain; paramount authority.
Swa
adv.
• So.
Swab
v. t.
• To clean with a mop or swab; to wipe when very wet, as after washing; as, to swab the desk of a ship.
n.
• A kind of mop for cleaning floors, the desks of vessels, etc., esp. one made of rope-yarns or threads.
• A bit of sponge, cloth, or the like, fastened to a handle, for cleansing the mouth of a sick person, applying medicaments to deep-seated parts, etc.
(Naut.) An epaulet.
• A cod, or pod, as of beans or pease.
• A sponge, or other suitable substance, attached to a long rod or handle, for cleaning the bore of a firearm.
Swabber
v. t.
• To swab.
n.
• One who swabs a floor or desk.
(Naut.) Formerly, an interior officer on board of British ships of war, whose business it was to see that the ship was kept clean.
• Same as Swobber, 2.
Swad
n.
• A cod, or pod, as of beans or pease.
• A clown; a country bumpkin.
• A lump of mass; also, a crowd.
(Coal Mining) A thin layer of refuse at the bottom of a seam.
Swaddle
n.
• Anything used to swaddle with, as a cloth or band; a swaddling band.
v. t.
• To bind as with a bandage; to bind or warp tightly with clothes; to swathe; — used esp. of infants; as, to swaddle a baby.
• To beat; to cudgel.
Swaddlebill
n.
(Zool.) The shoveler.
Swaddler
n.
• A term of contempt for an Irish Methodist.
Swaddling
a. & n.
• from Swaddle, v.
Swag
v. i.
• To hang or move, as something loose and heavy; to sway; to swing.
• To sink down by its weight; to sag.
n.
• A swaying, irregular motion.
• A burglar's or thief's booty; boodle.
Swagbelly
n.
• A prominent, overhanging belly.
(Med.) Any large tumor developed in the abdomen, and neither fluctuating nor sonorous.
Swage
v. t. & i.
• See Assuage.
n.
• A tool, variously shaped or grooved on the end or face, used by blacksmiths and other workers in metals, for shaping their work, whether sheet metal or forging, by holding the swage upon the work, or the work upon the swage, and striking with a sledge.
v. t.
• To shape by means of a swage; to fashion, as a piece of iron, by forcing it into a groove or mold having the required shape.
Swagger
v. i.
• To walk with a swaying motion; hence, to walk and act in a pompous, consequential manner.
• To boast or brag noisily; to be ostentatiously proud or vainglorious; to bluster; to bully.
v. t.
• To bully.
n.
• The act or manner of a swaggerer.
Swaggerer
n.
• One who swaggers; a blusterer; a bully; a boastful, noisy fellow.
Swaggy
a.
• Inclined to swag; sinking, hanging, or leaning by its weight.
Swain
n.
• A servant.
• A young man dwelling in the country; a rustic; esp., a cuntry gallant or lover; — chiefly in poetry.
Swainish
a.
• Pertaining to, or resembling, a swain; rustic; ignorant.
Swainling
n.
• A little swain.
Swainmote
n.
(Eng. Forest Law) A court held before the verders of the forest as judges, by the steward of the court, thrice every year, the swains, or freeholders, within the forest composing the jury.
Swainship
n.
• The condition of a swain.
Swaip
v. i.
• To walk proudly; to sweep along.
Swal
imp.
• Swelled.
Swale
n.
• A valley or low place; a tract of low, and usually wet, land; a moor; a fen.
v. i. & t.
• To melt and waste away; to singe. See Sweal, v.
n.
• A gutter in a candle.
Swallet
n.
• Water breaking in upon the miners at their work; — so called among tin miners.
Swallow
n.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of passerine birds of the family Hirundinidae, especially one of those species in which the tail is deeply forked. They have long, pointed wings, and are noted for the swiftness and gracefulness of their flight.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of swifts which resemble the true swallows in form and habits, as the common American chimney swallow, or swift.
(Naut.) The aperture in a block through which the rope reeves.
v. t.
• To take into the stomach; to receive through the gullet, or esophagus, into the stomach; as, to swallow food or drink.
• To draw into an abyss or gulf; to ingulf; to absorb — usually followed by up.
• To receive or embrace, as opinions or belief, without examination or scruple; to receive implicitly.
• To engross; to appropriate; — usually with up.
• To occupy; to take up; to employ.
• To seize and waste; to exhaust; to consume.
• To retract; to recant; as, to swallow one's opinions.
• To put up with; to bear patiently or without retaliation; as, to swallow an affront or insult.
v. i.
• To perform the act of swallowing; as, his cold is so severe he is unable to swallow.
n.
• The act of swallowing.
• The gullet, or esophagus; the throat.
• Taste; relish; inclination; liking.
• Capacity for swallowing; voracity.
• As much as is, or can be, swallowed at once; as, a swallow of water.
• That which ingulfs; a whirlpool.
Swallower
n.
• One who swallows; also, a glutton.
Swallowfish
n.
(Zool.) The European sapphirine gurnard (Trigla hirundo). It has large pectoral fins.
Swallowtail
n.
(Carp.) A kind of tenon or tongue used in making joints. See Dovetail.
(Bot.) A species of willow.
(Fort.) An outwork with converging sides, its head or front forming a reentrant angle; — so called from its form. Called also priestcap.
• A swallow-tailed coat.
• An arrow.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of large and handsome butterflies, belonging to Papilio and allied genera, in which the posterior border of each hind wing is prolongated in the form of a long lobe.
Swallowwort
n.
(Bot.) See Celandine.
• A poisonous plant (Vincetoxicum officinale) of the Milkweed family, at one time used in medicine; — also called white swallowwort.
Swam
• imp. of Swim.
Swamp
n.
• Wet, spongy land; soft, low ground saturated with water, but not usually covered with it; marshy ground away from the seashore.
v. t.
• To plunge or sink into a swamp.
(Naut.) To cause (a boat) to become filled with water; to capsize or sink by whelming with water.
• Fig.: To plunge into difficulties and perils; to overwhelm; to ruin; to wreck.
v. i.
• To sink or stick in a swamp; figuratively, to become involved in insuperable difficulties.
• To become filled with water, as a boat; to founder; to capsize or sink; figuratively, to be ruined; to be wrecked.
Swampy
a.
• Consisting of swamp; like a swamp; low, wet, and spongy; as, swampy land.
Swan
n.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of large aquatic birds belonging to Cygnus, Olor, and allied genera of the subfamily Cygninae. They have a large and strong beak and a long neck, and are noted for their graceful movements when swimming. Most of the northern species are white. In literature the swan was fabled to sing a melodious song, especially at the time of its death.
• Fig.: An appellation for a sweet singer, or a poet noted for grace and melody; as Shakespeare is called the swan of Avon.
(Astron.) The constellation Cygnus.
Swang
• imp. of Swing.
n.
• A swamp.
Swanherd
n.
• One who tends or marks swans; as, the royal swanherd of England.
Swanimote
n.
(Eng. Forest Law) See Swainmote.
Swanlike
a.
• Resembling a swan.
Swanmark
n.
• A mark of ownership cut on the bill or swan.
Swannery
n.
• A place where swans are bred.
Swanny
a.
• Swanlike; as, a swanny glossiness of the neck.
Swanpan
n.
• The Chinese abacus; a schwanpan.
Swanskin
n.
• The act of a swan with the down or the feathers on.
• A species of soft flannel, thick and warm.
Swap
v. t.
• To strike; — with off.
• To exchange (usually two things of the same kind); to swop.
v. i.
• To fall or descend; to rush hastily or violently.
• To beat the air, or ply the wings, with a sweeping motion or noise; to flap.
n.
• A blow; a stroke.
• An exchange; a barter.
adv.
• Hastily.
Swape
n.
• See Sweep, n., 12.
Sward
n.
• Skin; covering.
• The grassy surface of land; that part of the soil which is filled with the roots of grass; turf.
v. t. & i.
• To produce sward upon; to cover, or be covered, with sward.
Swarded
a.
• Covered with sward.
Swardy
a.
• Covered with sward or grass.
Sware
• imp. of Swear.
Swarf
v. i.
• To grow languid; to faint.
n.
• The grit worn away from grindstones in grinding cutlery wet.
Swarm
v. i.
• To climb a tree, pole, or the like, by embracing it with the arms and legs alternately. See Shin.
n.
• A large number or mass of small animals or insects, especially when in motion.
• Especially, a great number of honeybees which emigrate from a hive at once, and seek new lodgings under the direction of a queen; a like body of bees settled permanently in a hive.
• Hence, any great nimber or multitude, as of people in motion, or sometimes of inanimate objects; as, a swarm of meteorites.
v. i.
• To collect, and depart from a hive by flight in a body; — said of bees; as, bees swarm in warm, clear days in summer.
• To appear or collect in a crowd; to throng together; to congregate in a multitude.
• To be crowded; to be thronged with a multitude of beings in motion.
• To abound; to be filled (with).
• To breed multitudes.
v. t.
• To crowd or throng.
Swarmspore
n.
(Bot.) One of innumerable minute, motile, reproductive bodies, produced asexually by certain algae and fungi; a zoospore.
(Zool.) One of the minute flagellate germs produced by the sporulation of a protozoan; — called also zoospore.
Swart
n.
• Sward.
a.
• Of a dark hue; moderately black; swarthy; tawny.
• Gloomy; malignant.
v. t.
• To make swart or tawny; as, to swart a living part.
Swartback
n.
(Zool.) The black-backed gull (Larus marinus); — called also swarbie.
Swarth
a.
• Swart; swarthy.
n.
• An apparition of a person about to die; a wraith.
n.
• Sward; short grass.
n.
• See Swath.
Swarthily
adv.
• In a swarthy manner; with a tawny hue; duskily.
Swarthiness
n.
• The quality or state of being swarthy; a dusky or dark complexion; tawniness.
Swarthness
n.
• Swarthiness.
Swarthy
a.
• Being of a dark hue or dusky complexion; tawny; swart; as, swarthy faces.
v. t.
• To make swarthy.
Swartiness
n.
• Swarthiness.
Swartish
a.
• Somewhat swart, dark, or tawny.
Swartness
n.
• The quality or state of being swart.
Swarty
a.
• Swarthy; tawny.
Swarve
v. i.
• To swerve.
• To climb.
Swash
n.
(Arch.) An oval figure, whose moldings are oblique to the axis of the work.
a.
• Soft, like fruit too ripe; swashy.
v. i.
• To dash or flow noisily, as water; to splash; as, water swashing on a shallow place.
• To fall violently or noisily.
• To bluster; to make a great noise; to vapor or brag.
n.
• Impulse of water flowing with violence; a dashing or splashing of water.
• A narrow sound or channel of water lying within a sand bank, or between a sand bank and the shore, or a bar over which the sea washes.
• Liquid filth; wash; hog mash.
• A blustering noise; a swaggering behavior.
• A swaggering fellow; a swasher.
Swashbuckler
n.
• A bully or braggadocio; a swaggering, boastful fellow; a swaggerer.
Swasher
n.
• One who makes a blustering show of valor or force of arms.
Swashing
a.
• Swaggering; hectoring.
• Resounding; crushing.
Swashway
n.
• Same as 4th Swash, 2.
Swashy
a.
• Soft, like fruit that is too ripe; quashy; swash.
Swat
• imp. of Sweat.
Swatch
n.
• A swath.
• A piece, pattern, or sample, generally of cloth.
Swate
• imp. of Sweat.
Swath
n.
• A line of grass or grain cut and thrown together by the scythe in mowing or cradling.
• The whole sweep of a scythe, or the whole breadth from which grass or grain is cut by a scythe or a machine, in mowing or cradling; as, to cut a wide swath.
• A band or fillet; a swathe.
Swathe
v. t.
• To bind with a swathe, band, bandage, or rollers.
n.
• A bandage; a band; a swath.
Swather
n.
(Agric.) A device attached to a mowing machine for raising the uncut fallen grain and marking the limit of the swath.
Swatte
• imp. of Sweat.
Sway
v. t.
• To move or wield with the hand; to swing; to wield; as, to sway the scepter.
• To influence or direct by power and authority; by persuasion, or by moral force; to rule; to govern; to guide.
• To cause to incline or swing to one side, or backward and forward; to bias; to turn; to bend; warp; as, reeds swayed by wind; judgment swayed by passion.
(Naut.) To hoist; as, to sway up the yards.
v. i.
• To be drawn to one side by weight or influence; to lean; to incline.
• To move or swing from side to side; or backward and forward.
• To have weight or influence.
• To bear sway; to rule; to govern.
n.
• The act of swaying; a swaying motion; the swing or sweep of a weapon.
• Influence, weight, or authority that inclines to one side; as, the sway of desires.
• Preponderance; turn or cast of balance.
• Rule; dominion; control.
• A switch or rod used by thatchers to bind their work.
Swayed
a.
• Bent down, and hollow in the back; sway-backed; — said of a horse.
Swayful
a.
• Able to sway.
Swaying
n.
• An injury caused by violent strains or by overloading; — said of the backs of horses.
Sweal
v. i.
• To melt and run down, as the tallow of a candle; to waste away without feeding the flame.
v. t.
• To singe; to scorch; to swale; as, to sweal a pig by singeing off the hair.
Swear
v. i.
• To affirm or utter a solemn declaration, with an appeal to God for the truth of what is affirmed; to make a promise, threat, or resolve on oath; also, to affirm solemnly by some sacred object, or one regarded as sacred, as the Bible, the Koran, etc.
(Law) To give evidence on oath; as, to swear to the truth of a statement; he swore against the prisoner.
• To make an appeal to God in an irreverant manner; to use the name of God or sacred things profanely; to call upon God in imprecation; to curse.
v. t.
• To utter or affirm with a solemn appeal to God for the truth of the declaration; to make (a promise, threat, or resolve) under oath.
(Law) To put to an oath; to cause to take an oath; to administer an oath to; — ofetn followed by in or into; as, to swear witnesses; to swear a jury; to swear in an officer; he was sworn into office.
• To declare or charge upon oath; as, he swore treason against his friend.
• To appeal to by an oath.
Swearer
n.
• One who swears; one who calls God to witness for the truth of his declaration.
• A profane person; one who uses profane language.
Swearing
a. & n.
• from Swear, v.
Sweat
v. i.
• To excrete sensible moisture from the pores of the skin; to perspire.
• Fig.: To perspire in toil; to work hard; to drudge.
• To emit moisture, as green plants in a heap.
v. t.
• To cause to excrete moisture from the skin; to cause to perspire; as, his physicians attempted to sweat him by most powerful sudorifics.
• To emit or suffer to flow from the pores; to exude.
• To unite by heating, after the application of soldier.
• To get something advantageous, as money, property, or labor from (any one), by exaction or oppression; as, to sweat a spendthrift; to sweat laborers.
n.
(Physiol.) The fluid which is excreted from the skin of an animal; the fluid secreted by the sudoriferous glands; a transparent, colorless, acid liquid with a peculiar odor, containing some fatty acids and mineral matter; perspiration. See Perspiration.
• The act of sweating; or the state of one who sweats; hence, labor; toil; drudgery.
• Moisture issuing from any substance; as, the sweat of hay or grain in a mow or stack.
• The sweating sickness.
(Man.) A short run by a race horse in exercise.
Sweater
n.
• One who sweats.
• One who, or that which, causes to sweat
• A sudorific.
• A woolen jacket or jersey worn by athletes.
• An employer who oppresses his workmen by paying low wages.
Sweatily
adv.
• In a sweaty manner.
Sweatiness
n.
• Quality or state of being sweaty.
Sweating
• a. & n. from Sweat, v.
Sweaty
a.
• Moist with sweat; as, a sweaty skin; a sweaty garment.
• Consisting of sweat; of the nature of sweat.
• Causing sweat; hence, laborious; toilsome; difficult.
Swede
n.
• A native or inhabitant of Sweden.
(Bot.) A Swedish turnip. See under Turnip.
Swedenborgian
n.
• One who holds the doctrines of the New Jerusalem church, as taught by Emanuel Swedenborg, a Swedish philosopher and religious writer, who was born a. d. 1688 and died 1772. Swedenborg claimed to have intercourse with the spiritual world, through the opening of his spiritual senses in 1745. He taught that the Lord Jesus Christ, as comprehending in himself all the fullness of the Godhead, is the one only God, and that there is a spiritual sense to the Scriptures, which he (Swedenborg) was able to reveal, because he saw the correspondence between natural and spiritual things.
a.
• Of or pertaining to Swedenborg or his views.
Swedenborgianism
n.
• The doctrines of the Swedenborgians.
Swedish
a.
• Of or pertaining to Sweden or its inhabitants.
n.
• The language of Swedes.
Sweeny
n.
(Far.) An atrophy of the muscles of the shoulder in horses; also, atrophy of any muscle in horses.
Sweep
v. t.
• To pass a broom across (a surface) so as to remove loose dirt, dust, etc.; to brush, or rub over, with a broom for the purpose of cleaning; as, to sweep a floor, the street, or a chimney. Used also figuratively.
• To drive or carry along or off with a broom or a brush, or as if with a broom; to remove by, or as if by, brushing; as, to sweep dirt from a floor; the wind sweeps the snow from the hills; a freshet sweeps away a dam, timber, or rubbish; a pestilence sweeps off multitudes.
• To brush against or over; to rub lightly along.
• To carry with a long, swinging, or dragging motion; hence, to carry in a stately or proud fashion.
• To strike with a long stroke.
(Naut.) To draw or drag something over; as, to sweep the bottom of a river with a net.
• To pass over, or traverse, with the eye or with an instrument of observation; as, to sweep the heavens with a telescope.
v. i.
• To clean rooms, yards, etc., or to clear away dust, dirt, litter, etc., with a broom, brush, or the like.
• To brush swiftly over the surface of anything; to pass with switness and force, as if brushing the surface of anything; to move in a stately manner; as, the wind sweeps across the plain; a woman sweeps through a drawing-room.
• To pass over anything comprehensively; to range through with rapidity; as, his eye sweeps through space.
n.
• The act of sweeping.
• The compass or range of a stroke; as, a long sweep.
• The compass of any turning body or of any motion; as, the sweep of a door; the sweep of the eye.
• The compass of anything flowing or brushing; as, the flood carried away everything within its sweep.
• Violent and general destruction; as, the sweep of an epidemic disease.
• Direction and extent of any motion not rectlinear; as, the sweep of a compass.
• Direction or departure of a curve, a road, an arch, or the like, away from a rectlinear line.
• One who sweeps; a sweeper; specifically, a chimney sweeper.
(Founding) A movable templet for making molds, in loam molding.
(Naut.) The mold of a ship when she begins to curve in at the rungheads; any part of a ship shaped in a segment of a circle.
• A large oar used in small vessels, partly to propel them and partly to steer them.
(Refining) The almond furnace.
• A long pole, or piece of timber, moved on a horizontal fulcrum fixed to a tall post and used to raise and lower a bucket in a well for drawing water.
(Card Playing) In the game of casino, a pairing or combining of all the cards on the board, and so removing them all; in whist, the winning of all the tricks (thirteen) in a hand; a slam.
• The sweeping of workshops where precious metals are worked, containing filings, etc.
Sweepage
n.
• The crop of hay got in a meadow.
Sweeper
n.
• One who, or that which, sweeps, or cleans by sweeping; a sweep; as, a carpet sweeper.
Sweeping
a.
• Cleaning off surfaces, or cleaning away dust, dirt, or litter, as a broom does; moving with swiftness and force; carrying everything before it; including in its scope many persons or things; as, a sweeping flood; a sweeping majority; a sweeping accusation.
Sweepings
n. pl.
• Things collected by sweeping; rubbish; as, the sweepings of a street.
Sweepstake
n.
• A winning of all the stakes or prizes.
• A complete removal or carrying away; a clean sweep.
Sweepstakes
n.
• A winning of all the stakes or prizes; a sweepstake.
sing. or pl.
• The whole money or other things staked at a horse race, a given sum being put up for each horse, all of which goes to the winner, or is divided among several, as may be previously agreed.
• A race for all the sums staked or prizes offered.
Sweepwasher
n.
• One who extracts the residuum of precious metals from the sweepings, potsherds, etc., of refineries of gold and silver, or places where these metals are used.
Sweepy
a.
• Moving with a sweeping motion.
Sweet
a.
• Having an agreeable taste or flavor such as that of sugar; saccharine; — opposed to sour and bitter; as, a sweet beverage; sweet fruits; sweet oranges.
• Pleasing to the smell; fragrant; redolent; balmy; as, a sweet rose; sweet odor; sweet incense.
• Pleasing to the ear; soft; melodious; harmonious; as, the sweet notes of a flute or an organ; sweet music; a sweet voice; a sweet singer.
• Pleasing to the eye; beautiful; mild and attractive; fair; as, a sweet face; a sweet color or complexion.
• Fresh; not salt or brackish; as, sweet water.
• Not changed from a sound or wholesome state. Specifically: (a) Not sour; as, sweet milk or bread. (b) Not state; not putrescent or putrid; not rancid; as, sweet butter; sweet meat or fish.
• Plaesing to the mind; mild; gentle; calm; amiable; winning; presuasive; as, sweet manners.
n.
• That which is sweet to the taste; — used chiefly in the plural.
• Confectionery, sweetmeats, preserves, etc.
• Home-made wines, cordials, metheglin, etc.
• That which is sweet or pleasant in odor; a perfume.
• That which is pleasing or grateful to the mind; as, the sweets of domestic life.
• One who is dear to another; a darling; — a term of endearment.
adv.
• Sweetly.
v. t.
• To sweeten.
Sweetbread
n.
• Either the thymus gland or the pancreas, the former being called neck, or throat, sweetbread, the latter belly sweetbread. The sweetbreads of ruminants, esp. of the calf, are highly esteemed as food. See Pancreas, and Thymus.
(Anat.) The pancreas.
Sweetbrier
n.
(Bot.) A kind of rose (Rosa rubiginosa) with minutely glandular and fragrant foliage. The small-flowered sweetbrier is Rosa micrantha.
Sweeten
v. t.
• To make sweet to the taste; as, to sweeten tea.
• To make pleasing or grateful to the mind or feelings; as, to sweeten life; to sweeten friendship.
• To make mild or kind; to soften; as, to sweeten the temper.
• To make less painful or laborious; to relieve; as, to sweeten the cares of life.
• To soften to the eye; to make delicate.
• To make pure and salubrious by destroying noxious matter; as, to sweeten rooms or apartments that have been infected; to sweeten the air.
• To make warm and fertile; — opposed to sour; as, to dry and sweeten soils.
• To restore to purity; to free from taint; as, to sweeten water, butter, or meat.
v. i.
• To become sweet.
Sweetener
n.
• One who, or that which, sweetens; one who palliates; that which moderates acrimony.
Sweetening
n.
• The act of making sweet.
• That which sweetens.
Sweetheart
n.
• A lover of mistress.
Sweethearting
n.
• Making love.
Sweeting
n.
• A sweet apple.
• A darling; — a word of endearment.
Sweetish
a.
• Somewhat sweet.
Sweetly
adv.
• In a sweet manner.
Sweetmeat
n.
• Fruit preserved with sugar, as peaches, pears, melons, nuts, orange peel, etc.; — usually in the plural; a confect; a confection.
• The paint used in making patent leather.
(Zool.) A boat shell (Crepidula fornicata) of the American coast.
Sweetness
n.
• The quality or state of being sweet (in any sense of the adjective); gratefulness to the taste or to the smell; agreeableness.
Sweetroot
n.
(Bot.) Licorice.
Sweetwater
n.
(Bot.) A variety of white grape, having a sweet watery juice; — also called white sweetwater, and white muscadine.
Sweetweed
n.
(Bot.) A name for two tropical American weeds (Capraria biflora, and Scoparia dulcis) of the Figwort family.
Sweetwood
n.
(Bot.) The true laurel (Laurus nobilis.)
• The timber of the tree Oreodaphne Leucoxylon, growing in Jamaica. The name is also applied to the timber of several other related trees.
Sweetwort
n.
• Any plant of a sweet taste.
Sweigh
n.
• Sway; movement.
Sweinmote
n.
• See Swainmote.
Swell
v. i.
• To grow larger; to dilate or extend the exterior surface or dimensions, by matter added within, or by expansion of the inclosed substance; as, the legs swell in dropsy; a bruised part swells; a bladder swells by inflation.
• To increase in size or extent by any addition; to increase in volume or force; as, a river swells, and overflows its banks; sounds swell or diminish.
• To rise or be driven into waves or billows; to heave; as, in tempest, the ocean swells into waves.
• To be puffed up or bloated; as, to swell with pride.
• To be inflated; to belly; as, the sails swell.
• To be turgid, bombastic, or extravagant; as, swelling words; a swelling style.
• To protuberate; to bulge out; as, a cask swells in the middle.
• To be elated; to rise arrogantly.
• To grow upon the view; to become larger; to expand.
• To become larger in amount; as, many little debts added, swell to a great amount.
• To act in a pompous, ostentatious, or arrogant manner; to strut; to look big.
v. t.
• To increase the size, bulk, or dimensions of; to cause to rise, dilate, or increase; as, rains and dissolving snow swell the rivers in spring; immigration swells the population.
• To aggravate; to heighten.
• To raise to arrogance; to puff up; to inflate; as, to be swelled with pride or haughtiness.
(Mus.) To augment gradually in force or loudness, as the sound of a note.
n.
• The act of swelling.
• Gradual increase.
• Increase or augmentation in bulk; protuberance.
• Increase in height; elevation; rise.
• Increase of force, intensity, or volume of sound.
• Increase of power in style, or of rhetorical force.
• A gradual ascent, or rounded elevation, of land; as, an extensive plain abounding with little swells.
• A wave, or billow; especially, a succession of large waves; the roll of the sea after a storm; as, a heavy swell sets into the harbor.
(Mus.) A gradual increase and decrease of the volume of sound; the crescendo and diminuendo combined; — generally indicated by the sign.
• A showy, dashing person; a dandy.
a.
• Having the characteristics of a person of rank and importance; showy; dandified; distinguished; as, a swell person; a swell neighborhood.
Swelldom
n.
• People of rank and fashion; the class of swells, collectively.
Swellfish
n.
(Zool.) Any plectognath fish that dilates itself, as the bur fish, puffer, or diodon.
Swelling
n.
• The act of that which swells; as, the swelling of rivers in spring; the swelling of the breast with pride.
• A protuberance; a prominence
(Med.) an unnatural prominence or protuberance; as, a scrofulous swelling.
Swellish
a.
• Dandified; stylish.
Swelltoad
n.
(Zool.) A swellfish.
Swelt
• imp. of Swell.
v. i.
• To die; to perish.
• To faint; to swoon.
v. t.
• To overpower, as with heat; to cause to faint; to swelter.
Swelter
v. i.
• To be overcome and faint with heat; to be ready to perish with heat.
• To welter; to soak.
v. t.
• To oppress with heat.
• To exude, like sweat.
Sweltry
a.
• Suffocating with heat; oppressively hot; sultry.
Swelve
v. t.
• To swallow.
Swept
• imp. & p. p. of Sweep.
Swerd
n. & v.
• See Sward, n. & v.
n.
• Sword.
Swerve
v. i.
• To stray; to wander; to rope.
• To go out of a straight line; to deflect.
• To wander from any line prescribed, or from a rule or duty; to depart from what is established by law, duty, custom, or the like; to deviate.
• To bend; to incline.
• To climb or move upward by winding or turning.
v. t.
• To turn aside.
Sweven
n.
• A vision seen in sleep; a dream.
Swich
a.
• Such.
Swietenia
n.
(Bot.) A genus of meliaceous trees consisting of one species (Sweitenia Mahogoni), the mahogany tree.
Swift
a.
• Moving a great distance in a short time; moving with celerity or velocity; fleet; rapid; quick; speedy; prompt.
adv.
• Swiftly.
n.
• The current of a stream.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of small, long-winged, insectivorous birds of the family Micropodidae. In form and habits the swifts resemble swallows, but they are destitute of complex vocal muscles and are not singing birds, but belong to a widely different group allied to the humming birds.
(Zool.) Any one of several species of lizards, as the pine lizard.
(Zool.) The ghost moth. See under Ghost.
• A reel, or turning instrument, for winding yarn, thread, etc.; — used chiefly in the plural.
• The main card cylinder of a flax-carding machine.
Swifter
n.
(Naut.) A rope used to retain the bars of the capstan in their sockets while men are turning it.
• A rope used to encircle a boat longitudinally, to strengthen and defend her sides.
• The forward shroud of a lower mast.
v. t.
(Naut.) To tighten, as slack standing rigging, by bringing the opposite shrouds nearer.
Swiftfoot
a.
• Nimble; fleet.
n.
(Zool.) The courser.
Swiftlet
n.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of small East Indian and Asiatic swifts of the genus Collocalia. Some of the species are noted for furnishing the edible bird's nest. See Illust. under Edible.
Swiftly
adv.
• In a swift manner; with quick motion or velocity; fleetly.
Swiftness
n.
• The quality or state of being swift; speed; quickness; celerity; velocity; rapidity; as, the swiftness of a bird; the swiftness of a stream; swiftness of descent in a falling body; swiftness of thought, etc.
Swig
v. t.
• To drink in long draughts; to gulp; as, to swig cider.
• To suck.
n.
• A long draught.
(Naut.) A tackle with ropes which are not parallel.
• A beverage consisting of warm beer flavored with spices, lemon, etc.
v. t.
• To castrate, as a ram, by binding the testicles tightly with a string, so that they mortify and slough off.
(Naut.) To pull upon (a tackle) by throwing the weight of the body upon the fall between the block and a cleat.
Swill
v. t.
• To wash; to drench.
• To drink in great draughts; to swallow greedily.
• To inebriate; to fill with drink.
v. i.
• To drink greedily or swinishly; to drink to excess.
n.
• The wash, or mixture of liquid substances, given to swine; hogwash; — called also swillings.
• Large draughts of liquor; drink taken in excessive quantities.
Swiller
n.
• One who swills.
Swillings
n. pl.
• See Swill, n., 1.
Swim
v. i.
• To be supported by water or other fluid; not to sink; to float; as, any substance will swim, whose specific gravity is less than that of the fluid in which it is immersed.
• To move progressively in water by means of strokes with the hands and feet, or the fins or the tail.
• To be overflowed or drenched.
• Fig.: To be as if borne or floating in a fluid.
• To be filled with swimming animals.
v. t.
• To pass or move over or on by swimming; as, to swim a stream.
• To cause or compel to swim; to make to float; as, to swim a horse across a river.
• To immerse in water that the lighter parts may float; as, to swim wheat in order to select seed.
n.
• The act of swimming; a gliding motion, like that of one swimming.
• The sound, or air bladder, of a fish.
• A part of a stream much frequented by fish.
v. i.
• To be dizzy; to have an unsteady or reeling sensation; as, the head swims.
Swimbel
n.
• A moaning or sighing sound or noise; a sough.
Swimmer
n.
• One who swims.
(Far.) A protuberance on the leg of a horse.
(Zool.) A swimming bird; one of the natatores.
Swimmeret
n.
(Zool.) One of a series of flat, fringed, and usually bilobed, appendages, of which several pairs occur on the abdominal somites of many crustaceans. They are used as fins in swimming.
Swimming
a.
• That swims; capable of swimming; adapted to, or used in, swimming; as, a swimming bird; a swimming motion.
• Suffused with moisture; as, swimming eyes.
n.
• The act of one who swims.
a.
• Being in a state of vertigo or dizziness; as, a swimming brain.
n.
• Vertigo; dizziness; as, a swimming in the head.
Swimmingly
adv.
• In an easy, gliding manner, as if swimming; smoothly; successfully; prosperously.
Swimmingness
n.
• Act or state of swimming; suffusion.
Swinck
v. & n.
• See Swink.
Swindle
v. t.
• To cheat defraud grossly, or with deliberate artifice; as, to swindle a man out of his property.
n.
• The act or process of swindling; a cheat.
Swindler
n.
• One who swindles, or defrauds grossly; one who makes a practice of defrauding others by imposition or deliberate artifice; a cheat.
Swindlery
n.
• Swindling; rougery.
Swine
n.sing. & pl.
(Zool.) Any animal of the hog kind, especially one of the domestical species. Swine secrete a large amount of subcutaneous fat, which, when extracted, is known as lard. The male is specifically called boar, the female, sow, and the young, pig. See Hog.
Swinebread
n.
(Bot.) The truffle.
Swinecase
n.
• A hogsty.
Swinecote
n.
• A hogsty.
Swinecrue
n.
• A hogsty.
Swineery
n.
• Same as Piggery.
Swinefish
n.
(Zool.) The wolf fish.
Swineherd
n.
• A keeper of swine.
Swinepipe
n.
(Zool.) The European redwing.
Swinestone
n.
(Min.) See Stinkstone.
Swinesty
n.
• A sty, or pen, for swine.
Swing
v. i.
• To move to and fro, as a body suspended in the air; to wave; to vibrate; to oscillate.
• To sway or move from one side or direction to another; as, the door swung open.
• To use a swing; as, a boy swings for exercise or pleasure. See Swing, n., 3.
(Naut.) To turn round by action of wind or tide when at anchor; as, a ship swings with the tide.
• To be hanged.
v. t.
• To cause to swing or vibrate; to cause to move backward and forward, or from one side to the other.
• To give a circular movement to; to whirl; to brandish; as, to swing a sword; to swing a club; hence, colloquially, to manage; as, to swing a business.
(Mach.) To admit or turn (anything) for the purpose of shaping it; — said of a lathe; as, the lathe can swing a pulley of 12 inches diameter.
n.
• The act of swinging; a waving, oscillating, or vibratory motion of a hanging or pivoted object; oscillation; as, the swing of a pendulum.
• Swaying motion from one side or direction to the other; as, some men walk with a swing.
• A line, cord, or other thing suspended and hanging loose, upon which anything may swing; especially, an apparatus for recreation by swinging, commonly consisting of a rope, the two ends of which are attached overhead, as to the bough of a tree, a seat being placed in the loop at the bottom; also, any contrivance by which a similar motion is produced for amusement or exercise.
• Influence of power of a body put in swaying motion.
• Capacity of a turning lathe, as determined by the diameter of the largest object that can be turned in it.
• Free course; unrestrained liberty or license; tendency.
Swingdevil
n.
(Zool.) The European swift.
Swinge
v. & n.
• See Singe.
v. t.
• To beat soundly; to whip; to chastise; to punish.
• To move as a lash; to lash.
n.
• The sweep of anything in motion; a swinging blow; a swing.
• Power; sway; influence.
Swingebuckler
n.
• A swashbuckler; a bully; a roiserer.
Swingeing
a.
• Huge; very large.
Swingel
n.
• The swinging part of a flail which falls on the grain in thrashing; the swiple.
Swinger
n.
• One who swings or whirls.
n.
• One who swinges.
• Anything very large, forcible; or astonishing.
• A person who engages frequently in lively and fashionable pursuits, such as attending night clubs or discos.
• A person who engages freely in sexual intercourse.
Swingle
v. i.
• To dangle; to wave hanging.
• To swing for pleasure.
v. t.
• To clean, as flax, by beating it with a swingle, so as to separate the coarse parts and the woody substance from it; to scutch.
• To beat off the tops of without pulling up the roots; — said of weeds.
n.
• A wooden instrument like a large knife, about two feet long, with one thin edge, used for beating and cleaning flax; a scutcher; — called also swingling knife, swingling staff, and swingling wand.
Swinglebar
n.
• A swingletree.
Swingletail
n.
(Zool.) The thrasher, or fox shark. See Thrasher.
Swingletree
n.
• A whiffletree, or whippletree. See Singletree.
Swingling
a. & n.
• from Swingle, v. t.
Swingtree
n.
• The bar of a carriage to which the traces are fastened; the whiffletree.
Swinish
a.
• Of or pertaining to swine; befitting swine; like swine; hoggish; gross; beasty; as, a swinish drunkard or sot.
Swink
v. i.
• To labor; to toil; to salve.
v. t.
• To cause to toil or drudge; to tire or exhaust with labor.
• To acquire by labor.
n.
• Labor; toil; drudgery.
Swinker
n.
• A laborer.
Swinney
n.
(Far.) See Sweeny.
Swipe
n.
• A swape or sweep. See Sweep.
• A strong blow given with a sweeping motion, as with a bat or club.
• Poor, weak beer; small beer.
v. t.
• To give a swipe to; to strike forcibly with a sweeping motion, as a ball.
• To pluck; to snatch; to steal.
Swiple
n.
• That part of a flail which strikes the grain in thrashing; a swingel.
Swipper
a.
• Nimble; quick.
Swirl
v. t. & i.
• To whirl, or cause to whirl, as in an eddy.
n.
• A whirling motion; an eddy, as of water; a whirl.
Swish
v. t.
• To flourish, so as to make the sound swish.
• To flog; to lash.
v. i.
• To dash; to swash.
n.
• A sound of quick movement, as of something whirled through the air.
(Naut.) Light driven spray.
Swiss
n.sing. & pl.
• A native or inhabitant of Switzerland; a Switzer; the people of Switzerland.
a.
• Of or pertaining to Switzerland, or the people of Switzerland.
Switch
n.
• A small, flexible twig or rod.
(Railways) A movable part of a rail; or of opposite rails, for transferring cars from one track to another.
• A separate mass or trees of hair, or of some substance (at jute) made to resemble hair, worn on the head by women.
(Eccl.) A mechanical device for shifting an electric current to another circuit.
v. t.
• To strike with a switch or small flexible rod; to whip.
• To swing or whisk; as, to switch a cane.
• To trim, as, a hedge.
• To turn from one railway track to another; to transfer by a switch; — generally with off, from, etc.; as, to switch off a train; to switch a car from one track to another.
(Eccl.) To shift to another circuit.
v. i.
• To walk with a jerk.
Switchel
n.
• A beverage of molasses and water, seasoned with vinegar and ginger.
Switching
a. & n.
• from Switch, v.
Switchman
n.
• One who tends a switch on a railway.
Switchy
a.
• Whisking.
Swithe
adv.
• Instantly; quickly; speedily; rapidly.
Switzer
n.
• A native or inhabitant of Switzerland; a Swiss.
Swive
v. t.
• To copulate with (a woman).
Swivel
n.
(Mech.) A piece, as a ring or hook, attached to another piece by a pin, in such a manner as to permit rotation about the pin as an axis.
(Mil.) A small piece of ordnance, turning on a point or swivel; — called also swivel gun.
v. i.
• To swing or turn, as on a pin or pivot.
Swizzle
v. t.
• To drink; to swill.
n.
• Ale and beer mixed; also, drink generally.
Swob
n. & v.
• See Swab.
Swobber
n.
• See Swabber.
• Four privileged cards, formerly used in betting at the game of whist.
Swollen
• p. p. of Swell.
a.
• Enlarged by swelling; immoderately increased; as, swollen eyes; swollen streams.
Swoln
• Contraction of Swollen, p. p.
Swom
• imp. of Swim.
Swoon
v. i.
• To sink into a fainting fit, in which there is an apparent suspension of the vital functions and mental powers; to faint; — often with away.
n.
• A fainting fit; syncope.
Swooning
a. & n.
• from Swoon, v.
Swoop
v. t.
• To fall on at once and seize; to catch while on the wing; as, a hawk swoops a chicken.
• To seize; to catch up; to take with a sweep.
v. i.
• To descend with closed wings from a height upon prey, as a hawk; to swoop.
• To pass with pomp; to sweep.
n.
• A falling on and seizing, as the prey of a rapacious bird; the act of swooping.
Swoopstake
n.
• See Sweepstake.
adv.
• Altogether; indiscriminately.
Swop
v. & n.
• Same as Swap.
Sword
n.
• An offensive weapon, having a long and usually sharppointed blade with a cutting edge or edges. It is the general term, including the small sword, rapier, saber, scimiter, and many other varieties.
• Hence, the emblem of judicial vengeance or punishment, or of authority and power.
• Destruction by the sword, or in battle; war; dissension.
• The military power of a country.
(Weaving) One of the end bars by which the lay of a hand loom is suspended.
Swordbill
n.
(Zool.) A humming bird (Docimastes ensiferus) having a very long, slender bill, exceeding the length of the body of the bird.
Sworded
a.
• Girded with a sword.
Sworder
n.
• One who uses, or fights with, a sword; a swordsman; a soldier; a cutthroat.
Swordfish
n.
(Zool.) A very large oceanic fish (Xiphias gladius), the only representative of the family Xiphiidae. It is highly valued as a food fish. The bones of the upper jaw are consolidated, and form a long, rigid, swordlike beak; the dorsal fin is high and without distinct spines; the ventral fins are absent. The adult is destitute of teeth. It becomes sixteen feet or more long.
• The ger pike.
• The cutlass fish.
(Astron.) A southern constellation. See Dorado, 1.
Swordick
n.
(Zool.) The spotted gunnel (Muraenoides gunnellus).
Swording
n.
• Slashing with a sword.
Swordless
a.
• Destitute of a sword.
Swordman
n.
• A swordsman.
Swordplay
n.
• Fencing; a sword fight.
Swordplayer
n.
• A fencer; a gladiator; one who exhibits his skill in the use of the sword.
Swordsman
n.
• A soldier; a fighting man.
• One skilled of a use of the sword; a professor of the science of fencing; a fencer.
Swordsmanship
n.
• The state of being a swordsman; skill in the use of the sword.
Swordtail
n.
(Zool.) The limulus.
• Any hemipterous insect of the genus Uroxiphus, found upon forest trees.
Swore
imp.
Sworn
• p. p. of Swear.
Swough
n.
• A sound; a groan; a moan; a sough.
• A swoon.
Swound
v. & n.
• See Swoon, v. & n.
Swown
v. & n.
• Swoon.
Swum
• imp. & p. p. of Swim.
Swung
• imp. & p. p. of Swing.
Swythe
adv.
• Quickly. See Swithe.
Sy
imp.
• Saw.
Syb
a.
• See Sib.
Sybarite
n.
• A person devoted to luxury and pleasure; a voluptuary.
Sybaritism
n.
• Luxuriousness; effeminacy; wantonness; voluptuousness.
Sycamine
n.
• See Sycamore.
Sycamore
n.
(Bot.) A large tree (Ficus Sycomorus) allied to the common fig. It is found in Egypt and Syria, and is the sycamore, or sycamine, of Scripture.
• The American plane tree, or buttonwood.
• A large European species of maple (Acer Pseudo-Platanus).
Syce
n.
• A groom.
Sycee
n.
• Silver, pounded into ingots of the shape of a shoe, and used as currency. The most common weight is about one pound troy.
Sychnocarpous
a.
(Bot.) Having the capacity of bearing several successive crops of fruit without perishing; as, sychnocarpous plants.
Sycite
n.
(Min.) A nodule of flint, or a pebble, which resembles a fig.
Sycoceric
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, an acid obtained by the oxidation of sycoceryl alcohol.
Sycoceryl
n.
(Chem.) A radical, of the aromatic series, regarded as an essential ingredient of certain compounds found in the waxy resin of an Australian species of fig.
Sycock
n.
(Zool.) The missel thrush.
Sycones
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of calcareous sponges.
Sycophancy
n.
• The character or characteristic of a sycophant.
• False accusation; calumniation; talebearing.
• Obsequious flattery; servility.
Sycophant
n.
• An informer; a talebearer.
• A base parasite; a mean or servile flatterer; especially, a flatterer of princes and great men.
v. t.
• To inform against; hence, to calumniate.
• To play the sycophant toward; to flatter obsequiously.
v. i.
• To play the sycophant.
Sycophantcy
n.
• Sycophancy.
Sycophantish
a.
• Like a sycophant; obsequiously flattering.
Sycophantism
n.
• Sycophancy.
Sycophantize
v. i.
• To play the sycophant.
Sycophantry
n.
• Sycophancy.
Sycosis
n.
(Med.) A pustular eruption upon the scalp, or the beared part of the face, whether due to ringworm, acne, or impetigo.
Syderolite
n.
• A kind of Bohemian earthenware resembling the Wedgwood ware.
Sye
imp.
• Saw.
Syenite
n.
(Min.) Orig., a rock composed of quartz, hornblende, and feldspar, anciently quarried at Syene, in Upper Egypt, and now called granite.
• A granular, crystalline, ingeous rock composed of orthoclase and hornblende, the latter often replaced or accompanied by pyroxene or mica. Syenite sometimes contains nephelite (elaeolite) or leucite, and is then called nephelite (elaeolite) syenite or leucite syenite.
Syenitic
a.
• Relating to Syene; as, Syenitic inscriptions.
• Relating to, or like, syenite; as, syenitic granite.
Syke
n. & v.
• See Sike.
Syker
a. & adv.
• See Sicker.
Syle
n.
(Zool.) A young herring (Clupea harengus).
Syllabarium
n.
• A syllabary.
Syllabary
n.
• A table of syllables; more especially, a table of the indivisible syllabic symbols used in certain languages, as the Japanese and Cherokee, instead of letters.
Syllabe
n.
• Syllable.
Syllabically
adv.
• In a syllabic manner.
Syllabicate
v. t.
• To form or divide into syllables; to syllabify.
Syllabication
n.
• The act of forming syllables; the act or method of dividing words into syllables. See Guide to Pron., §275.
Syllabification
n.
• Same as Syllabication.
Syllabify
v. t.
• To form or divide into syllables.
Syllabism
n.
• The expressing of the sounds of a language by syllables, rather than by an alphabet or by signs for words.
Syllabist
n.
• One who forms or divides words into syllables, or is skilled in doing this.
Syllabize
v. t.
• To syllabify.
Syllable
n.
• An elementary sound, or a combination of elementary sounds, uttered together, or with a single effort or impulse of the voice, and constituting a word or a part of a word. In other terms, it is a vowel or a diphtong, either by itself or flanked by one or more consonants, the whole produced by a single impulse or utterance. One of the liquids, l, m, n, may fill the place of a vowel in a syllable. Adjoining syllables in a word or phrase need not to be marked off by a pause, but only by such an abatement and renewal, or reenforcement, of the stress as to give the feeling of separate impulses. See Guide to Pronunciation, §275.
• In writing and printing, a part of a word, separated from the rest, and capable of being pronounced by a single impulse of the voice. It may or may not correspond to a syllable in the spoken language.
• A small part of a sentence or discourse; anything concise or short; a particle.
v. t.
• To pronounce the syllables of; to utter; to articulate.
Syllabub
n.
• Same as Syllabub.
Syllabus
n.
• A compendium containing the heads of a discourse, and the like; an abstract.
Syllepsis
n.
(Rhet.) A figure of speech by which a word is used in a literal and metaphorical sense at the same time.
(Gram.) The agreement of a verb or adjective with one, rather than another, of two nouns, with either of which it might agree in gender, number, etc.; as, rex et regina beati.
Syllidian
n.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of marine annelids of the family Syllidae.
Syllogism
n.
(Logic) The regular logical form of every argument, consisting of three propositions, of which the first two are called the premises, and the last, the conclusion. The conclusion necessarily follows from the premises; so that, if these are true, the conclusion must be true, and the argument amounts to demonstration
Syllogistically
adv.
• In a syllogistic manner.
Syllogization
n.
• A reasoning by syllogisms.
Syllogize
v. i.
• To reason by means of syllogisms.
Syllogizer
n.
• One who syllogizes.
Sylph
n.
• An imaginary being inhabiting the air; a fairy.
• Fig.: A slender, graceful woman.
(Zool.) Any one of several species of very brilliant South American humming birds, having a very long and deeply-forked tail; as, the blue-tailed sylph (Cynanthus cyanurus).
Sylphid
n.
• A little sylph; a young or diminutive sylph.
Sylphine
a.
• Like a sylph.
Sylphish
a.
• Sylphlike.
Sylphlike
a.
• Like a sylph; airy; graceful.
Sylva
n.
(Bot.) Same as Silva.
Sylvan
a.
• Of or pertaining to a sylva; forestlike; hence, rural; rustic.
• Abounding in forests or in trees; woody.
n.
• A fabled deity of the wood; a satyr; a faun; sometimes, a rustic.
n.
(Chem.) A liquid hydrocarbon obtained together with furfuran (tetrol) by the distillation of pine wood; — called also methyl tetrol, or methyl furfuran.
Sylvanite
n.
(Min.) A mineral, a telluride of gold and silver, of a steel-gray, silver-white, or brass-yellow color. It often occurs in implanted crystals resembling written characters, and hence is called graphic tellurium.
Sylvanium
n.
(Chem.) An old name for tellurium.
Sylvate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of sylvic acid.
Sylvatic
a.
• Sylvan.
Sylvestrian
a.
• Sylvan.
Sylvic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, pine or its products; specifically, designating an acid called also abeitic acid, which is the chief ingredient of common resin (obtained from Pinus sylvestris, and other species).
Sylvicoline
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the family of warblers (Sylvicolidae). See Warbler.
Sylviculture
n.
• The cultivation of forest trees for timber or other purposes; forestry; arboriculture.
Sylviculturist
n.
• One who cultivates forest trees, especially as a business.
Symbal
n.
• See Cimbal.
Symbol
n.
• A visible sign or representation of an idea; anything which suggests an idea or quality, or another thing, as by resemblance or by convention; an emblem; a representation; a type; a figure; as, the lion is the symbol of courage; the lamb is the symbol of meekness or patience.
(Math.) Any character used to represent a quantity, an operation, a relation, or an abbreviation.
(Theol.) An abstract or compendium of faith or doctrine; a creed, or a summary of the articles of religion.
• That which is thrown into a common fund; hence, an appointed or accustomed duty.
• Share; allotment.
(Chem.) An abbreviation standing for the name of an element and consisting of the initial letter of the Latin or New Latin name, or sometimes of the initial letter with a following one; as, C for carbon, Na for sodium (Natrium), Fe for iron (Ferrum), Sn for tin (Stannum), Sb for antimony (Stibium), etc. See the list of names and symbols under Element.
v. t.
• To symbolize.
Symbolic
n.
(Theol.) See Symbolics.
Symbolics
n.
• The study of ancient symbols
(Theol.) that branch of historic theology which treats of creeds and confessions of faith; symbolism; — called also symbolic.
Symbolism
n.
• The act of symbolizing, or the state of being symbolized; as, symbolism in Christian art is the representation of truth, virtues, vices, etc., by emblematic colors, signs, and forms.
• A system of symbols or representations.
(Chem.) The practice of using symbols, or the system of notation developed thereby.
• A combining together of parts or ingredients.
(Theol.) The science of creeds; symbolics.
Symbolist
n.
• One who employs symbols.
Symbolization
n.
• The act of symbolizing; symbolical representation.
Symbolize
v. i.
• To have a resemblance of qualities or properties; to correspond; to harmonize.
• To hold the same faith; to agree.
• To use symbols; to represent ideas symbolically.
v. t.
• To make to agree in properties or qualities.
• To make representative of something; to regard or treat as symbolic.
• To represent by a symbol or symbols.
Symbolizer
n.
• One who symbolizes.
Symbological
a.
• Pertaining to a symbology; versed in, or characterized by, symbology.
Symbologist
n.
• One who practices, or who is versed in, symbology.
Symbology
n.
• The art of expressing by symbols.
Symbranchii
n. pl.
(Zool.) An order of slender eel-like fishes having the gill openings confluent beneath the neck. The pectoral arch is generally attached to the skull, and the entire margin of the upper jaw is formed by the premaxillary. Called also Symbranchia.
Symmetral
a.
• Commensurable; symmetrical.
Symmetrian
n.
• One eminently studious of symmetry of parts.
Symmetric
a.
• Symmetrical.
Symmetrical
a.
• Involving or exhibiting symmetry; proportional in parts; having its parts in due proportion as to dimensions; as, a symmetrical body or building.
(Biol.) Having the organs or parts of one side correspponding with those of the other; having the parts in two or more series of organs the same in number; exhibiting a symmetry.See Symmetry, 2.
(Bot.) Having an equal number of parts in the successive circles of floral organs; — said of flowers.
• Having a likeness in the form and size of floral organs of the same kind; regular.
(Math.) Having a common measure; commensurable.
• Having corresponding parts or relations.
Symmetrician
n.
• Same as Symmetrian.
Symmetrist
n.
• One eminently studious of symmetry of parts.
Symmetrize
v. t.
• To make proportional in its parts; to reduce to symmetry.
Symmetry
n.
• A due proportion of the several parts of a body to each other; adaptation of the form or dimensions of the several parts of a thing to each other; the union and conformity of the members of a work to the whole.
(Biol.) The law of likeness; similarity of structure; regularity in form and arrangement; orderly and similar distribution of parts, such that an animal may be divided into parts which are structurally symmetrical.
(Bot.) Equality in the number of parts of the successive circles in a flower.
• Likeness in the form and size of floral organs of the same kind; regularity.
Sympathetic
a.
• Inclined to sympathy; sympathizing.
• Produced by, or expressive of, sympathy.
(Physiol.) Produced by sympathy; — applied particularly to symptoms or affections. See Sympathy.
• Of or relating to the sympathetic nervous system or some of its branches; produced by stimulation on the sympathetic nervious system or some part of it; as, the sympathetic saliva, a modified form of saliva, produced from some of the salivary glands by stimulation of a sympathetic nerve fiber.
Sympathetical
a.
• Sympathetic.
Sympathetically
adv.
• In a sympathetic manner.
Sympathist
n.
• One who sympathizes; a sympathizer.
Sympathize
v. i.
• To have a common feeling, as of bodily pleasure or pain.
• To feel in consequence of what another feels; to be affected by feelings similar to those of another, in consequence of knowing the person to be thus affected.
• To agree; to be in accord; to harmonize.
v. t.
• To experience together.
• To ansew to; to correspond to.
Sympathizer
n.
• One who sympathizes.
Sympathy
n.
• Feeling corresponding to that which another feels; the quality of being affected by the affection of another, with feelings correspondent in kind, if not in degree; fellow-feeling.
• An agreement of affections or inclinations, or a conformity of natural temperament, which causes persons to be pleased, or in accord, with one another; as, there is perfect sympathy between them.
• Kindness of feeling toward one who suffers; pity; commiseration; compassion.
(Physiol.) The reciprocal influence exercised by the various organs or parts of the body on one another, as manifested in the transmission of a disease by unknown means from one organ to another quite remote, or in the influence exerted by a diseased condition of one part on another part or organ, as in the vomiting produced by a tumor of the brain.
• That relation which exists between different persons by which one of them produces in the others a state or condition like that of himself. This is shown in the tendency to yawn which a person often feels on seeing another yawn, or the strong inclination to become hysteric experienced by many women on seeing another person suffering with hysteria.
• A tendency of inanimate things to unite, or to act on each other; as, the sympathy between the loadstone and iron.
• Similarity of function, use office, or the like.
Sympetalous
a.
(Bot.) Having the petals united; gamopetalous.
Symphonic
a.
• Symphonious.
(Mus.) Relating to, or in the manner of, symphony; as, the symphonic form or style of composition.
Symphonious
a.
• Agreeing in sound; accordant; harmonious.
(Mus.) Symphonic.
Symphonist
n.
• A composer of symphonies.
Symphonize
v. i.
• To agree; to be in harmony.
Symphony
n.
• A consonance or harmony of sounds, agreeable to the ear, whether the sounds are vocal or instrumental, or both.
• A stringed instrument formerly in use, somewhat resembling the virginal.
(Mus.) An elaborate instrumental composition for a full orchestra, consisting usually, like the sonata, of three or four contrasted yet inwardly related movements, as the allegro, the adagio, the minuet and trio, or scherzo, and the finale in quick time. The term has recently been applied to large orchestral works in freer form, with arguments or programmes to explain their meaning, such as the "symphonic poems" of Liszt. The term was formerly applied to any composition for an orchestra, as overtures, etc., and still earlier, to certain compositions partly vocal, partly instrumental.
• An instrumental passage at the beginning or end, or in the course of, a vocal composition; a prelude, interlude, or postude; a ritornello.
Symphyla
n. pl.
(Zool.) An order of small apterous insects having an elongated body, with three pairs of thoracic and about nine pairs of abdominal legs. They are, in many respects, intermediate between myriapods and true insects.
Symphyseal
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to to symphysis.
Symphyseotomy
n.
(Surg.) The operation of dividing the symphysis pubis for the purpose of facilitating labor; — formerly called the Sigualtian section.
Symphysis
n.
(Anat.) An articulation formed by intervening cartilage; as, the pubic symphysis.
• The union or coalescence of bones; also, the place of union or coalescence; as, the symphysis of the lower jaw. Cf. Articulation.
Symphysotomy
n.
• Symphyseotomy.
Symphytism
n.
• Coalescence; a growing into one with another word.
Sympiesometer
n.
• A sensitive kind of barometer, in which the pressure of the atmosphere, acting upon a liquid, as oil, in the lower portion of the instrument, compresses an elastic gas in the upper part.
Symplectic
a.
(Anat.) Plaiting or joining together; — said of a bone next above the quadrate in the mandibular suspensorium of many fishes, which unites together the other bones of the suspensorium.
n.
• The symplectic bone.
Symploce
n.
(Rhet.) The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning and another at the end of successive clauses; as, Justice came down from heaven to view the earth; Justice returned to heaven, and left the earth.
Sympode
n.
(Bot.) A sympodium.
Sympodial
a.
(Bot.) Composed of superposed branches in such a way as to imitate a simple axis; as, a sympodial stem.
Sympodium
n.
(Bot.) An axis or stem produced by dichotomous branching in which one of the branches is regularly developed at the expense of the other, as in the grapevine.
Symposiac
a.
• Of or pertaining to compotations and merrymaking; happening where company is drinking together; as, symposiac meetings.
n.
• A conference or conversation of philosophers at a banquet; hence, any similar gathering.
Symposiarch
n.
(Gr. Antiq.) The master of a feast.
Symposiast
n.
• One engaged with others at a banquet or merrymaking.
Symposion
n.
• A drinking together; a symposium.
Symposium
n.
• A drinking together; a merry feast.
• A collection of short essays by different authors on a common topic; — so called from the appellation given to the philosophical dialogue by the Greeks.
Symptom
n.
(Med.) Any affection which accompanies disease; a perceptible change in the body or its functions, which indicates disease, or the kind or phases of disease; as, the causes of disease often lie beyond our sight, but we learn their nature by the symptoms exhibited.
• A sign or token; that which indicates the existence of something else; as, corruption in elections is a symptom of the decay of public virtue.
Symptomatology
n.
(Med.) The doctrine of symptoms; that part of the science of medicine which treats of the symptoms of diseases; semeiology.
Synagogical
a.
• Of or pertaining to a synagogue.
Synagogue
n.
• A congregation or assembly of Jews met for the purpose of worship, or the performance of religious rites.
• The building or place appropriated to the religious worship of the Jews.
• The council of, probably, 120 members among the Jews, first appointed after the return from the Babylonish captivity; — called also the Great Synagogue, and sometimes, though erroneously, the Sanhedrin.
• A congregation in the early Christian church.
• Any assembly of men.
Synalepha
n.
(Gram.) A contraction of syllables by suppressing some vowel or diphthong at the end of a word, before another vowel or diphthong; as, th' army, for the army.
Synallagmatic
a.
(Law) Imposing reciprocal obligations upon the parties; as, a synallagmatic contract.
Synallaxine
a.
(Zool.) Having the outer and middle toes partially united; — said of certain birds related to the creepers.
Synaloepha
n.
• Same as Synalepha.
Synangium
n.
(Anat.) The divided part beyond the pylangium in the aortic trunk of the amphibian heart.
Synantherous
a.
(Bot.) Having the stamens united by their anthers; as, synantherous flowers.
Synanthesis
n.
(Bot.) The simultaneous maturity of the anthers and stigmas of a blossom.
Synanthous
a.
(Bot.) Having flowers and leaves which appear at the same time; — said of certain plants.
Synanthrose
n.
(Chem.) A variety of sugar, isomeric with sucrose, found in the tubers of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus), in the dahlia, and other Compositae.
Synapta
n.
(Zool.) A genus of slender, transparent holothurians which have delicate calcareous anchors attached to the dermal plates. See Illustration in Appendix.
Synaptase
n.
(Chem.) A ferment resembling diastase, found in bitter almonds. Cf. Amygdalin, and Emulsin.
Synapticula
n.
(Zool.) One of numerous calcareous processes which extend between, and unite, the adjacent septa of certain corals, especially of the fungian corals.
Synarchy
n.
• Joint rule or sovereignity.
Synartesis
n.
• A fastening or knitting together; the state of being closely jointed; close union.
Synarthrodia
n.
(Anat.) Synarthrosis.
Synarthrosis
n.
(Anat.) Immovable articulation by close union, as in sutures. It sometimes includes symphysial articulations also. See the Note under Articulation, n., 1.
Synastry
n.
• Concurrence of starry position or influence; hence, similarity of condition, fortune, etc., as prefigured by astrological calculation.
Synaxis
n.
• A congregation; also, formerly, the Lord's Supper.
Syncarp
n.
(Bot.) A kind of aggregate fruit in which the ovaries cohere in a solid mass, with a slender receptacle, as in the magnolia; also, a similar multiple fruit, as a mulberry.
Syncarpium
n.
(Bot.) Same as Syncarp.
Syncarpous
a.
(Bot.) Composed of several carpels consolidated into one ovary.
Syncategorematic
a.
(Logic) Not capable of being used as a term by itself; — said of words, as an adverb or preposition.
Synchondrosis
n.
(Anat.) An immovable articulation in which the union is formed by cartilage.
Synchondrotomy
n.
(Surg.) Symphyseotomy.
Synchoresis
n.
(Rhet.) A concession made for the purpose of retorting with greater force.
Synchronal
a.
• Happening at, or belonging to, the same time; synchronous; simultaneous.
n.
• A synchronal thing or event.
Synchronical
a.
• Happening at the same time; synchronous.
Synchronism
n.
• The concurrence of events in time; simultaneousness.
• The tabular arrangement of historical events and personages, according to their dates.
(Paint.) A representation, in the same picture, of two or events which occured at different times.
Synchronistic
a.
• Of or pertaining to synchronism; arranged according to correspondence in time; as, synchronistic tables.
Synchronization
n.
• The act of synchronizing; concurrence of events in respect to time.
Synchronize
v. i.
• To agree in time; to be simultaneous.
v. t.
• To assign to the same date or period of time; as, to synchronize two events of Greek and Roman history.
• To cause to agree in time; as, to synchronize the movements of different machines; to synchronize clocks.
Synchronology
n.
• Contemporaneous chronology.
Synchronous
a.
• Happening at the same time; simultaneous.
Synchrony
n.
• The concurrence of events in time; synchronism.
Synchysis
n.
• A derangement or confusion of any kind, as of words in a sentence, or of humors in the eye.
Synclastic
a.
(Math. Physics) Curved toward the same side in all directions; — said of surfaces which in all directions around any point bend away from a tangent plane toward the same side, as the surface of a sphere; — opposed to anticlastic.
Synclinal
a.
• Inclined downward from opposite directions, so as to meet in a common point or line.
(Geol.) Formed by strata dipping toward a common line or plane; as, a synclinal trough or valley; a synclinal fold; — opposed to anticlinal.
n.
(Geol.) A synclinal fold.
Syncline
n.
(Geol.) A synclinal fold.
Synclinical
a.
• Synclinal.
Synclinorium
n.
(Geol.) A mountain range owing its origin to the progress of a geosynclinal, and ending in a catastrophe of displacement and upturning.
Syncopal
a.
• Of or pertaining to syncope; resembling syncope.
Syncopate
v. t.
(Gram.) To contract, as a word, by taking one or more letters or syllables from the middle; as, "Gloster" is a syncopated form of "Gloucester."
(Mus.) To commence, as a tone, on an unaccented part of a measure, and continue it into the following accented part, so that the accent is driven back upon the weak part and the rhythm drags.
Syncopation
n.
(Gram.) The act of syncopating; the contraction of a word by taking one or more letters or syllables from the middle; syncope.
(Mus.) The act of syncopating; a peculiar figure of rhythm, or rhythmical alteration, which consists in welding into one tone the second half of one beat with the first half of the beat which follows.
Syncope
n.
(Gram.) An elision or retrenchment of one or more letters or syllables from the middle of a word; as, ne'er for never, ev'ry for every.
(Mus.) Same as Syncopation.
(Med.) A fainting, or swooning. See Fainting.
• A pause or cessation; suspension.
Syncopist
n.
• One who syncopates.
Syncopize
v. t.
• To syncopate.
Syncotyledonous
a.
(Bot.) Having united cotyledonous.
Syncretic
a.
• Uniting and blending together different systems, as of philosophy, morals, or religion.
Syncretism
n.
• Attempted union of principles or parties irreconcilably at variance with each other.
Syncretist
n.
• One who attempts to unite principles or parties which are irreconcilably at variance;
(Eccl. Hist.) an adherent of George Calixtus and other Germans of the seventeenth century, who sought to unite or reconcile the Protestant sects with each other and with the Roman Catholics, and thus occasioned a long and violent controversy in the Lutheran church.
Syncretistic
a.
• Pertaining to, or characterized by, syncretism; as, a syncretistic mixture of the service of Jehovah and the worship of idols.
• Of or pertaining to Syncretists.
Syncrisis
n.
(Rhet.) A figure of speech in which opposite things or persons are compared.
Syncytium
n.
(Biol.) Tissue in which the cell or partition walls are wholly wanting and the cell bodies fused together, so that the tissue consists of a continuous mass of protoplasm in which nuclei are imbedded, as in ordinary striped muscle.
(Zool.) The ectoderm of a sponge.
Syndactyle
n.
(Zool.) Any bird having syndactilous feet.
Syndactylic
a.
(Zool.) Syndactilous.
Syndactylous
a.
(Zool.) Having the toes firmly united together for some distance, and without an intermediate web, as the kingfishers; gressorial.
Syndesmography
n.
• A description of the ligaments; syndesmology.
Syndesmology
n.
• That part of anatomy which treats of ligaments.
Syndesmosis
n.
(Anat.) An articulation formed by means of ligaments.
Syndic
n.
• An officer of government, invested with different powers in different countries; a magistrate.
(Law) An agent of a corporation, or of any body of men engaged in a business enterprise; an advocate or patron; an assignee.
Syndicate
n.
• The office or jurisdiction of a syndic; a council, or body of syndics.
• An association of persons officially authorized to undertake some duty or to negotiate some business; also, an association of persons who combine to carry out, on their own account, a financial or industrial project; as, a syndicate of bankers formed to take up and dispose of an entire issue of government bonds.
v. t.
• To judge; to censure.
Syndrome
n.
• Concurrence.
• A group of symptoms occurring together that are characteristic and indicative of some underlying cause, such as a disease.
Syndyasmian
a.
• Pertaining to the state of pairing together sexually; — said of animals during periods of procreation and while rearing their offspring.
Syne
adv.
• Afterwards; since; ago.
• Late, — as opposed to soon.
conj.
• Since; seeing.
Synecdoche
n.
(Rhet.) A figure or trope by which a part of a thing is put for the whole (as, fifty sail for fifty ships), or the whole for a part (as, the smiling year for spring), the species for the genus (as, cutthroat for assassin), the genus for the species (as, a creature for a man), the name of the material for the thing made, etc.
Synecdochical
a.
• Expressed by synecdoche; implying a synecdoche.
Synecdochically
adv.
• By synecdoche.
Synechia
n.
(Med.) A disease of the eye, in which the iris adheres to the cornea or to the capsule of the crystalline lens.
Synecphonesis
n.
(Gram.) A contraction of two syllables into one; synizesis.
Synedral
a.
(Bot.) Growing on the angles of a stem, as the leaves in some species of Selaginella.
Synentognathi
n. pl.
(Zool.) An order of fishes, resembling the Physoclisti, without spines in the dorsal, anal, and ventral fins. It includes the true flying fishes.
Synepy
n.
(Rhet.) The interjunction, or joining, of words in uttering the clauses of sentences.
Syneresis
n.
• Same as Synaeresis.
Synergetic
a.
• Working together; cooperating; as, synergetic muscles.
Synergism
n.
(Theol.) The doctrine or theory, attributed to Melanchthon, that in the regeneration of a human soul there is a cooperation, or joint agency, on the part both of God and of man.
Synergist
n.
• One who holds the doctrine of synergism.
(Med.) A remedy which has an action similar to that of another remedy, and hence increases the efficiency of that remedy when combined with it.
Synergistic
a.
• Of or pertaining to synergism.
• Cooperating; synergetic.
Synergy
n.
• Combined action
(Med.) the combined healty action of every organ of a particular system; as, the digestive synergy.
• An effect of the interaction of the actions of two agents such that the result of the combined action is greater than expected as a simple additive combination of the two agents acting separately.
Syngenesia
n. pl.
(Bot.) A Linnaean class of plants in which the stamens are united by the anthers.
Syngenesis
n.
(Biol.) A theory of generation in which each germ is supposed to contain the germs of all subsequent generations; — the opposite of epigenesis.
Syngnathi
n. pl.
(Zool.) A suborder of lophobranch fishes which have an elongated snout and lack the ventral and first dorsal fins. The pipefishes and sea horses are examples.
Syngraph
n.
(Law) A writing signed by both or all the parties to a contract or bond.
Synizesis
n.
(Med.) An obliteration of the pupil of the eye.
(Gram.) A contraction of two syllables into one; synecphonesis.
Synneorosis
n.
(Anat.) Syndesmosis.
Synocha
n.
(Med.) See Synochus.
Synochal
a.
(Med.) Of or pertaining to synocha; like synocha.
Synochus
n.
(Med.) A continuous fever.
Synocil
n.
(Zool.) A sense organ found in certain sponges. It consists of several filaments, each of which arises from a single cell.
Synod
n.
(Eccl. Hist.) An ecclesiastic council or meeting to consult on church matters.
• An assembly or council having civil authority; a legislative body.
(Astron.) A conjunction of two or more of the heavenly bodies.
Synodal
a.
• Synodical.
n.
(Ch. of Eng.) A tribute in money formerly paid to the bishop or archdeacon, at the time of his Easter visitation, by every parish priest, now made to the ecclesiastical commissioners; a procuration.
• A constitution made in a provincial or diocesan synod.
Synodically
adv.
• In a synodical manner; in a synod; by the authority of a synod.
Synodist
n.
• An adherent to a synod.
Synoecious
a.
(Bot.) Having stamens and pistil in the same head, or, in mosses, having antheridia and archegonia on the same receptacle.
Synomocy
n.
• Sworn brotherhood; a society in ancient Greece nearly resembling a modern political club.
Synonym
n.
• One of two or more words (commonly words of the same language) which are equivalents of each other; one of two or more words which have very nearly the same signification, and therefore may often be used interchangeably. See under Synonymous.
Synonyma
n. pl.
• Synonyms.
Synonymal
a.
• Synonymous.
Synonymally
adv.
• Synonymously.
Synonyme
n.
• Same as Synonym.
Synonymic
n.
(Gram.) The science, or the scientific treatment, of synonymous words.
Synonymicon
n.
• A dictionary of synonyms.
Synonymist
n.
• One who collects or explains synonyms.
Synonymize
v. t.
• To express by a synonym or synonyms; to give the synonym or synonyms corresponding to.
Synonymous
a.
• Having the character of a synonym; expressing the same thing; conveying the same, or approximately the same, idea.
Synonymy
n.
• The quality of being synonymous; sameness of meaning.
• A system of synonyms.
(Rhet.) A figure by which synonymous words are used to amplify a discourse.
Synopsis
n.
• A general view, or a collection of heads or parts so arranged as to exhibit a general view of the whole; an abstract or summary of a discourse; a syllabus; a conspectus.
Synoptic
n.
• One of the first three Gospels of the New Testament. See Synoptist.
Synoptist
n.
• Any one of the authors of the three synoptic Gospels, which give a history of our Lord's life and ministry, in distinction from the writer of John's Gospel, which gives a fuller record of his teachings.
Synosteology
n.
• That part of anatomy which treats of joints; arthrology.
Synosteosis
n.
(Anat.) Union by means of bone; the complete closing up and obliteration of sutures.
Synostosis
n.
• Same as Synosteosis.
Synovia
n.
(Anat.) A transparent, viscid, lubricating fluid which contains mucin and secreted by synovial membranes; synovial fluid.
Synovial
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to synovia; secreting synovia.
Synovitis
n.
(Med.) Inflammation of the synovial membrane.
Synpelmous
a.
(Zool.) Having the two main flexor tendons of the toes blended together.
Synsepalous
a.
(Bot.) Having united sepals; gamosepalous.
Syntax
n.
• Connected system or order; union of things; a number of things jointed together; organism.
• That part of grammar which treats of the construction of sentences; the due arrangement of words in sentences in their necessary relations, according to established usage in any language.
Syntaxis
n.
• Syntax.
Synteresis
n.
(Med.) Prophylaxis.
(Metaph.) Conscience viewed as the internal repository of the laws of duty.
Synteretic
a.
(Med.) Preserving health; prophylactic.
Synteretics
n.
(Med.) That department of medicine which relates to the preservation of health; prophylaxis.
Synthermal
a.
• Having the same degree of heat.
Synthesis
n.
• Composition, or the putting of two or more things together, as in compounding medicines.
(Chem.) The art or process of making a compound by putting the ingredients together, as contrasted with analysis; thus, water is made by synthesis from hydrogen and oxygen; hence, specifically, the building up of complex compounds by special reactions, whereby their component radicals are so grouped that the resulting substances are identical in every respect with the natural articles when such occur; thus, artificial alcohol, urea, indigo blue, alizarin, etc., are made by synthesis.
(Logic) The combination of separate elements of thought into a whole, as of simple into complex conceptions, species into genera, individual propositions into systems; — the opposite of analysis.
Synthesist
n.
• One who employs synthesis, or who follows synthetic methods.
Synthesize
v. t.
• To combine by synthesis; to unite.
• To produce by synthesis; as, to synthesize albumin.
Synthetically
adv.
• In a synthetic manner.
Synthetize
v. t.
• To combine; to unite in regular structure.
Syntomy
n.
• Brevity; conciseness.
Syntonin
n.
(Physiol. Chem.) A proteid substance (acid albumin) formed from the albuminous matter of muscle by the action of dilute acids; — formerly called musculin. See Acid albumin, under Albumin.
Syphering
n.
(Carp.) The lapping of chamfered edges of planks to make a smooth surface, as for a bulkhead.
Syphilide
n.
(Med.) A cutaneous eruption due to syphilis.
Syphilis
n.
(Med.) The pox, or venereal disease; a chronic, specific, infectious disease, usually communicated by sexual intercourse or by hereditary transmission, and occurring in three stages known as primary, secondary, and tertiary syphilis. See under Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary.
Syphilitic
a.
(Med.) Of or pertaining to syphilis; of the nature of syphilis; affected with syphilis.
n.
• A syphilitic patient.
Syphilitically
adv.
(Med.) In a syphilitic manner; with venereal disease.
Syphilization
n.
(Med.) Inoculation with the syphilitic virus, especially when employed as a preventive measure, like vaccination.
Syphilize
v. t.
(Med.) To inoculate with syphilis.
Syphiloderm
n.
(Med.) A cutaneous affection due to syphilis.
Syphilodermatous
a.
(Med.) Of or pertaining to the cutaneous manifestations of syphilis.
Syphiloid
a.
(Med.) Resembling syphilis.
Syphilologist
n.
• One skilled in syphilology.
Syphilology
n.
• That branch of medicine which treats of syphilis.
Syphon
n.
• See Syphon.
Syracuse
n.
• A red wine of Italy.
Syren
n.
• See Siren.
Syriac
a.
• Of or pertaining to Syria, or its language; as, the Syriac version of the Pentateuch.
n.
• The language of Syria; especially, the ancient language of that country.
Syriacism
n.
• A Syrian idiom; a Syrianism.
Syrian
a.
• Of or pertaining to Syria; Syriac.
n.
• A native of Syria.
Syrianism
n.
• A Syrian idiom, or a peculiarity of the Syrian language; a Syriacism.
Syriasm
n.
• A Syrian idiom; a Syrianism; a Syriacism.
Syringa
n.
(Bot.) A genus of plants; the lilac.
• The mock orange; — popularly so called because its stems were formerly used as pipestems.
Syringe
n.
• A kind of small hand-pump for throwing a stream of liquid, or for purposes of aspiration. It consists of a small cylindrical barrel and piston, or a bulb of soft elastic material, with or without valves, and with a nozzle which is sometimes at the end of a flexible tube; — used for injecting animal bodies, cleansing wounds, etc.
v. t.
• To inject by means of a syringe; as, to syringe warm water into a vein.
• To wash and clean by injection from a syringe.
Syringeal
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the syrinx; as, the syringeal muscle.
Syringin
n.
(Chem.) A glucoside found in the bark of the lilac (Syringa) and extracted as a white crystalline substance; — formerly called also lilacin.
Syringocoele
n.
(Anat.) The central canal of the spinal cord.
Syringotome
n.
(Surg. & Anat.) A small blunt-pointed bistoury, — used in syringotomy.
Syringotomy
n.
(Surg.) The operation of cutting for anal fistula.
Syrinx
n.
(Mus.) A wind instrument made of reeds tied together; — called also pandean pipes.
(Anat.) The lower larynx in birds.
Syrma
n.
(Class. Antiq.) A long dress, trailing on the floor, worn by tragic actors in Greek and Roman theaters.
Syrphian
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the syrphus flies.
n.
(Zool.) A syrphus fly.
Syrt
n.
• A quicksand; a bog.
Syrtic
a.
• Of or pertaining to a syrt; resembling syrt, or quicksand.
Syrtis
n.
• A quicksand.
Syssarcosis
n.
(Anat.) The junction of bones by intervening muscles.
Systaltic
a.
(Physiol.) Capable of, or taking place by, alternate contraction and dilatation; as, the systaltic action of the heart.
Systasis
n.
• A political union, confederation, or league.
System
n.
• An assemblage of objects arranged in regular subordination, or after some distinct method, usually logical or scientific; a complete whole of objects related by some common law, principle, or end; a complete exhibition of essential principles or facts, arranged in a rational dependence or connection; a regular union of principles or parts forming one entire thing; as, a system of philosophy; a system of government; a system of divinity; a system of botany or chemistry; a military system; the solar system.
• Hence, the whole scheme of created things regarded as forming one complete plan of whole; the universe.
• Regular method or order; formal arrangement; plan; as, to have a system in one's business.
(Mus.) The collection of staves which form a full score. See Score, n.
(Biol.) An assemblage of parts or organs, either in animal or plant, essential to the performance of some particular function or functions which as a rule are of greater complexity than those manifested by a single organ; as, the capillary system, the muscular system, the digestive system, etc.; hence, the whole body as a functional unity.
(Zool.) One of the stellate or irregular clusters of intimately united zooids which are imbedded in, or scattered over, the surface of the common tissue of many compound ascidians.
Systematically
adv.
• In a systematic manner; methodically.
Systematism
n.
• The reduction of facts or principles to a system.
Systematist
n.
• One who forms a system, or reduces to system.
• One who adheres to a system.
Systematization
n.
• The act or operation of systematizing.
Systematize
v. t.
• To reduce to system or regular method; to arrange methodically; to methodize; as, to systematize a collection of plants or minerals; to systematize one's work; to systematize one's ideas.
Systematizer
n.
• One who systematizes.
Systematology
n.
• The doctrine of, or a treatise upon, systems.
Systemic
a.
• Of or relating to a system; common to a system; as, the systemic circulation of the blood.
(Anat. & Physiol.) Of or pertaining to the general system, or the body as a whole; as, systemic death, in distinction from local death; systemic circulation, in distinction from pulmonic circulation; systemic diseases.
Systemization
n.
• The act or process of systematizing; systematization.
Systemize
v. t.
• To reduce to system; to systematize.
Systemizer
n.
• One who systemizes, or reduces to system; a systematizer.
Systemless
a.
• Being without system.
(Nat. Hist.) Not agreeing with some artificial system of classification.
(Biol.) Not having any of the distinct systems or types of structure, as the radiate, articulate, etc., characteristic of organic nature; as, all unicellular organisms are systemless.
Systole
n.
(Gram.) The shortening of the long syllable.
(Physiol.) The contraction of the heart and arteries by which the blood is forced onward and the circulation kept up; — correlative to diastole.
Systolic
a.
• Of or pertaining to systole, or contraction; contracting; esp., ralating to the systole of the heart; as, systolic murmur.
Systyle
a.
(Arch.) Having a space equal to two diameters or four modules between two columns; — said of a portico or building. See Intercolumniation.
n.
• A systyle temple or other edifice.
Sythe
n.
• Scythe.
Syzygial
a.
• Pertaining to a syzygy.
Syzygy
n.
(Astron.) The point of an orbit, as of the moon or a planet, at which it is in conjunction or opposition; — commonly used in the plural.
(Gr. & L. Pros.) The coupling together of different feet; as, in Greek verse, an iambic syzygy.
(Zool.) Any one of the segments of an arm of a crinoid composed of two joints so closely united that the line of union is obliterated on the outer, though visible on the inner, side.
• The immovable union of two joints of a crinoidal arm.

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