Dictionary Of The English Language "R"
Entries are from pre-1900 editions of Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
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R is the eighteenth letter of the English alphabet, is a vocal consonant. It is sometimes called a semivowel, and a liquid. In words derived from the Greek language the letter h is generally written after r to represent the aspirated sound of the Greek p, but does not affect the pronunciation of the English word, as rhapsody, rhetoric. The English letter derives its form from the Greek through the Latin, the Greek letter being derived from the Phoenician, which, it is believed, is ultimately of Egyptian origin. Etymologically, R is most closely related to l, s, and n; as in bandore, mandole; purple, L. purpura; E. chapter, F. chapitre, L. capitulum; E. was, were; hare, G. hase; E. order, F. ordre, L. ordo, ordinis; E. coffer, coffin.
Race
n.
• A root.
n.
• The descendants of a common ancestor; a family, tribe, people, or nation, believed or presumed to belong to the same stock; a lineage; a breed.
• Company; herd; breed.
(Bot.) A variety of such fixed character that it may be propagated by seed.
• Peculiar flavor, taste, or strength, as of wine; that quality, or assemblage of qualities, which indicates origin or kind, as in wine; hence, characteristic flavor; smack.
• Hence, characteristic quality or disposition
n.
• A progress; a course; a movement or progression.
• Esp., swift progress; rapid course; a running.
• Hence: The act or process of running in competition; a contest of speed in any way, as in running, riding, driving, skating, rowing, sailing; in the plural, usually, a meeting for contests in the running of horses; as, he attended the races.
• Competitive action of any kind, especially when prolonged; hence, career; course of life.
• A strong or rapid current of water, or the channel or passage for such a current; a powerful current or heavy sea, sometimes produced by the meeting of two tides; as, the Portland Race; the Race of Alderney.
• The current of water that turns a water wheel, or the channel in which it flows; a mill race.
(Mach.) A channel or guide along which a shuttle is driven back and forth, as in a loom, sewing machine, etc.
v. i.
• To run swiftly; to contend in a race; as, the animals raced over the ground; the ships raced from port to port.
(Steam Mach.) To run too fast at times, as a marine engine or screw, when the screw is lifted out of water by the action of a heavy sea.
v. t.
• To cause to contend in race; to drive at high speed; as, to race horses.
• To run a race with.
Racemate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of racemic acid.
Racemation
n.
• A cluster or bunch, as of grapes.
• Cultivation or gathering of clusters of grapes.
Raceme
n.
(Bot.) A flower cluster with an elongated axis and many one-flowered lateral pedicels, as in the currant and chokecherry.
Racemed
a.
(Bot.) Arranged in a raceme, or in racemes.
Racemic
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid found in many kinds of grapes. It is also obtained from tartaric acid, with which it is isomeric, and from sugar, gum, etc., by oxidation. It is a sour white crystalline substance, consisting of a combination of dextrorotatory and levorotatory tartaric acids.
Racemiferous
a.
(Bot.) Bearing racemes, as the currant.
Racemiform
a.
• Having the form of a raceme.
Racemose
a.
• Resembling a raceme; growing in the form of a raceme; as, (Bot.) racemose berries or flowers; (Anat.) the racemose glands, in which the ducts are branched and clustered like a raceme.
Racemous
a.
• See Racemose.
Racemule
n.
(Bot.) A little raceme.
Racemulose
a.
(Bot.) Growing in very small racemes.
Racer
n.
• One who, or that which, races, or contends in a race; esp., a race horse.
(Zool.) The common American black snake.
(Mil.) One of the circular iron or steel rails on which the chassis of a heavy gun is turned.
Rachialgia
n.
(Med.) A painful affection of the spine; especially, Pott's disease; also, formerly, lead colic.
Rachidian
a.
(Anat. & Zool.) Of or pertaining to the rachis; spinal; vertebral. Same as Rhachidian.
Rachilla
n.
• Same as Rhachilla.
Rachiodont
a.
(Zool.) Same as Rhachiodont.
Rachis
n.
(Anat.) The spine; the vertebral column.
(Bot. & Zool.) Same as Rhachis.
Rachitic
a.
(Med.) Of or pertaining to rachitis; affected by rachitis; rickety.
Rachitis
n.
(Med.) Literally, inflammation of the spine, but commonly applied to the rickets. See Rickets.
(Bot.) A disease which produces abortion in the fruit or seeds.
Rachitome
n.
• A dissecting instrument for opening the spinal canal.
Racial
a.
• Of or pertaining to a race or family of men; as, the racial complexion.
Racily
adv.
• In a racy manner.
Raciness
n.
• The quality of being racy; peculiar and piquant flavor.
Racing
• a. & n. from Race, v. t. & i.
Rack
n.
• Same as Arrack.
n.
• The neck and spine of a fore quarter of veal or mutton.
n.
• A wreck; destruction.
n.
• Thin, flying, broken clouds, or any portion of floating vapor in the sky.
v. i.
• To fly, as vapor or broken clouds.
v. i.
• To amble fast, causing a rocking or swaying motion of the body; to pace; — said of a horse.
n.
• A fast amble.
v. t.
• To draw off from the lees or sediment, as wine.
n.
• An instrument or frame used for stretching, extending, retaining, or displaying, something.
• An engine of torture, consisting of a large frame, upon which the body was gradually stretched until, sometimes, the joints were dislocated; — formerly used judicially for extorting confessions from criminals or suspected persons.
• An instrument for bending a bow
• A grate on which bacon is laid
• A frame or device of various construction for holding, and preventing the waste of, hay, grain, etc., supplied to beasts.
• A frame on which articles are deposited for keeping or arranged for display; as, a clothes rack; a bottle rack, etc.
(Naut.) A piece or frame of wood, having several sheaves, through which the running rigging passes; — called also rack block. Also, a frame to hold shot.
(Mining) A frame or table on which ores are separated or washed
• A frame fitted to a wagon for carrying hay, straw, or grain on the stalk, or other bulky loads
• A distaff
(Mech.) A bar with teeth on its face, or edge, to work with those of a wheel, pinion, or worm, which is to drive it or be driven by it.
• That which is extorted; exaction.
v. t.
• To extend by the application of force; to stretch or strain; specifically, to stretch on the rack or wheel; to torture by an engine which strains the limbs and pulls the joints.
• To torment; to torture; to affect with extreme pain or anguish.
• To stretch or strain, in a figurative sense; hence, to harass, or oppress by extortion.
(Mining) To wash on a rack, as metals or ore.
(Naut.) To bind together, as two ropes, with cross turns of yarn, marline, etc.
Rackabones
n.
• A very lean animal, esp. a horse.
Racker
n.
• One who racks.
• A horse that has a racking gait.
Racket
n.
• A thin strip of wood, having the ends brought together, forming a somewhat elliptical hoop, across which a network of catgut or cord is stretched. It is furnished with a handle, and is used for catching or striking a ball in tennis and similar games.
• A variety of the game of tennis played with peculiar long-handled rackets; — chiefly in the plural.
• A snowshoe formed of cords stretched across a long and narrow frame of light wood.
• A broad wooden shoe or patten for a man horse, to enable him to step on marshy or soft ground.
v. t.
• To strike with, or as with, a racket.
n.
• confused, clattering noise; din; noisy talk or sport.
• A carouse; any reckless dissipation.
v. i.
• To make a confused noise or racket.
• To engage in noisy sport; to frolic.
• To carouse or engage in dissipation.
Racketer
n.
• One who makes, or engages in, a racket.
Rackett
n.
(Mus.) An old wind instrument of the double bassoon kind, having ventages but not keys.
Rackety
a.
• Making a tumultuous noise.
Racking
n.
(Naut.) Spun yarn used in racking ropes.
Racktail
n.
(Horol.) An arm attached to a swinging notched arc or rack, to let off the striking mechanism of a repeating clock.
Rackwork
n.
• Any mechanism having a rack, as a rack and pinion.
Racle
a.
• See Rakel.
Racleness
n.
• See Rakelness.
Raconteur
n.
• A relater; a storyteller.
Racoonda
n.
(Zool.) The coypu.
Racovian
n.
(Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect of Socinians or Unitarians in Poland.
Racquet
n.
• See Racket.
Racy
a.
• Having a strong flavor indicating origin; of distinct characteristic taste; tasting of the soil; hence, fresh; rich.
• Hence: Exciting to the mental taste by a strong or distinctive character of thought or language; peculiar and piquant; fresh and lively.
Rad
• imp. & p. p. of Read, Rede.
Radde
• imp. of Read, Rede.
Raddle
n.
• A long, flexible stick, rod, or branch, which is interwoven with others, between upright posts or stakes, in making a kind of hedge or fence.
• A hedge or fence made with raddles; — called also raddle hedge.
• An instrument consisting of a woodmen bar, with a row of upright pegs set in it, used by domestic weavers to keep the warp of a proper width, and prevent tangling when it is wound upon the beam of the loom.
v. t.
• To interweave or twist together.
n.
• A red pigment used in marking sheep, and in some mechanical processes; ruddle.
v. t.
• To mark or paint with, or as with, raddle
Raddock
n.
(Zool.) The ruddock.
Rade
n.
• A raid.
Radeau
n.
• A float; a raft.
Radial
a.
• Of or pertaining to a radius or ray; consisting of, or like, radii or rays; radiated; as, (Bot.) radial projections; (Zool.) radial vessels or canals; (Anat.) the radial artery.
Radiale
n.
(Anat.) The bone or cartilage of the carpus which articulates with the radius and corresponds to the scaphoid bone in man.
(Zool.) Radial plates in the calyx of a crinoid.
Radially
adv.
• In a radial manner.
Radian
n.
(Math.) An arc of a circle which is equal to the radius, or the angle measured by such an arc.
Radiant
a.
• Emitting or proceeding as from a center; rays; radiating; radiate.
• Especially, emitting or darting rays of light or heat; issuing in beams or rays; beaming with brightness; emitting a vivid light or splendor; as, the radiant sun.
• Beaming with vivacity and happiness; as, a radiant face.
(Her.) Giving off rays; — said of a bearing; as, the sun radiant; a crown radiant.
(Bot.) Having a raylike appearance, as the large marginal flowers of certain umbelliferous plants; — said also of the cluster which has such marginal flowers.
n.
(Opt.) The luminous point or object from which light emanates; also, a body radiating light brightly.
(Geom.) A straight line proceeding from a given point, or fixed pole, about which it is conceived to revolve.
(Astron.) The point in the heavens at which the apparent paths of shooting stars meet, when traced backward, or whence they appear to radiate.
Radiantly
adv.
• In a radiant manner; with glittering splendor.
Radiary
n.
(Zool.) A radiate.
Radiata
n. pl.
(Zool.) An extensive artificial group of invertebrates, having all the parts arranged radially around the vertical axis of the body, and the various organs repeated symmetrically in each ray or spheromere.
Radiate
v. i.
• To emit rays; to be radiant; to shine.
• To proceed in direct lines from a point or surface; to issue in rays, as light or heat.
v. t.
• To emit or send out in direct lines from a point or points; as, to radiate heat.
• To enlighten; to illuminate; to shed light or brightness on; to irradiate.
a.
• Having rays or parts diverging from a center; radiated; as, a radiate crystal.
(Bot.) Having in a capitulum large ray florets which are unlike the disk florets, as in the aster, daisy, etc.
(Zool.) Belonging to the Radiata.
n.
(Zool.) One of the Radiata.
Radiated
a.
• Emitted, or sent forth, in rays or direct lines; as, radiated heat.
• Formed of, or arranged like, rays or radii; having parts or markings diverging, like radii, from a common center or axis; as, a radiated structure; a radiated group of crystals.
(Zool.) Belonging to the Radiata.
Radiately
adv.
• In a radiate manner; with radiation or divergence from a center.
Radiatiform
a.
(Bot.) Having the marginal florets enlarged and radiating but not ligulate, as in the capitula or heads of the cornflower,
Radiation
n.
• The act of radiating, or the state of being radiated; emission and diffusion of rays of light; beamy brightness.
• The shooting forth of anything from a point or surface, like the diverging rays of light; as, the radiation of heat.
Radiative
a.
• Capable of radiating; acting by radiation.
Radiator
n.
• That which radiates or emits rays, whether of light or heat; especially, that part of a heating apparatus from which the heat is radiated or diffused; as, a stream radiator.
Radical
a.
• Of or pertaining to the root; proceeding directly from the root.
• Hence: Of or pertaining to the root or origin; reaching to the center, to the foundation to the ultimate sources to the principles, or the like: original; fundamental; thorough-going; unsparing; extreme; as, radical evils; radical reform; a radical party.
(Bot.) Belonging to, or proceeding from, the root of a plant; as, radical tubers or hairs.
• Proceeding from a rootlike stem, or one which does not rise above the ground; as, the radical leaves of the dandelion and the sidesaddle flower.
(Philol.) Relating, or belonging, to the root, or ultimate source of derivation; as, a radical verbal form.
(Math.) Of or pertaining to a radix or root; as, a radical quantity; a radical sign. See below.
n.
(Philol.) A primitive word; a radix, root, or simple, underived, uncompounded word; an etymon.
• A primitive letter; a letter that belongs to the radix.
(Politics) One who advocates radical changes in government or social institutions, especially such changes as are intended to level class inequalities; — opposed to conservative.
(Chem.) A characteristic, essential, and fundamental constituent of any compound; hence, sometimes, an atom.
(Alg.) A radical quantity. See under Radical, a.
(Anat.) A radical vessel. See under Radical, a.
Radicalism
n.
• The quality or state of being radical; specifically, the doctrines or principles of radicals in politics or social reform.
Radicality
n.
• Germinal principle; source; origination.
• Radicalness; relation to root in essential to a root in essential nature or principle.
Radically
adv.
• In a radical manner; at, or from, the origin or root; fundamentally; as, a scheme or system radically wrong or defective.
• Without derivation; primitively; essentially.
Radicalness
n.
• Quality or state of being radical.
Radicant
a.
(Bot.) Taking root on, or above, the ground; rooting from the stem, as the trumpet creeper and the ivy.
Radicate
a.
• Radicated.
v. i.
• To take root; to become rooted.
v. t.
• To cause to take root; to plant deeply and firmly; to root.
Radicated
a.
• Rooted
(Bot.) Having roots, or possessing a well-developed root
(Zool.) Having rootlike organs for attachment.
Radication
n.
• The process of taking root, or state of being rooted; as, the radication of habits.
(Bot.) The disposition of the roots of a plant.
Radicel
n.
(Bot.) A small branch of a root; a rootlet.
Radiciflorous
a.
(Bot.) Rhizanthous.
Radiciform
a.
(Bot.) Having the nature or appearance of a radix or root.
Radicle
n.
(Bot.) The rudimentary stem of a plant which supports the cotyledons in the seed, and from which the root is developed downward; the stem of the embryo; the caulicle.
• A rootlet; a radicel.
Radicular
a.
• Of or performance to roots, or the root of a plant.
Radicule
n.
• A radicle.
Radiculose
a.
(Bot.) Producing numerous radicles, or rootlets.
Radii
n.
• pl. of Radius.
Radiograph
n.
(Phys.) A picture produced by the Rontgen rays upon a sensitive surface, photographic or fluorescent, especially a picture of opaque objects traversed by the rays.
Radiolaria
n. pl.
(Zool.) Order of rhizopods, usually having a siliceous skeleton, or shell, and sometimes radiating spicules. The pseudopodia project from the body like rays. It includes the polycystines. See Polycystina.
Radiolarian
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Radiolaria.
n.
• One of the Radiolaria.
Radioli
n. pl.
(Zool.) The barbs of the radii of a feather; barbules.
Radiolite
n.
(Paleon.) A hippurite.
Radiometer
n.
(Naut.) A forestaff.
(Physics) An instrument designed for measuring the mechanical effect of radiant energy.
Radiomicrometer
n.
(Physics) A very sensitive modification or application of the thermopile, used for indicating minute changes of radiant heat, or temperature.
Radiophone
(Physics) An apparatus for the production of sound by the action of luminous or thermal rays. It is essentially the same as the photophone.
Radiophony
n.
(Physics) The art or practice of using the radiophone.
Radious
a.
• Consisting of rays, and light.
• Radiating; radiant.
Radish
n.
(Bot.) The pungent fleshy root of a well-known cruciferous plant (Paphanus sativus); also, the whole plant.
Radius
n.
(Geom.) A right line drawn or extending from the center of a circle to the periphery; the semidiameter of a circle or sphere.
(Anat.) The preaxial bone of the forearm, or brachium, corresponding to the tibia of the hind limb. See Illust. of Artiodactyla.
(Bot.) A ray, or outer floret, of the capitulum of such plants as the sunflower and the daisy. See Ray, 2.
(Zool.) The barbs of a perfect.
• Radiating organs, or color-markings, of the radiates.
• The movable limb of a sextant or other angular instrument.
Radix
n.
(Philol.) A primitive, from which spring other words; a radical; a root; an etymon.
(Math.) A number or quantity which is arbitrarily made the fundamental number of any system; a base. Thus, 10 is the radix, or base, of the common system of logarithms, and also of the decimal system of numeration.
(Alg.) A finite expression, from which a series is derived.
(Bot.) The root of a plant.
Radula
n.
(Zool.) The chitinous ribbon bearing the teeth of mollusks; — called also lingual ribbon, and tongue. See Odontophore.
Raduliform
a.
• Rasplike; as, raduliform teeth.
Raff
v. t.
• To sweep, snatch, draw, or huddle together; to take by a promiscuous sweep.
n.
• A promiscuous heap; a jumble; a large quantity; lumber; refuse.
• The sweepings of society; the rabble; the mob; — chiefly used in the compound or duplicate, riffraff.
• A low fellow; a churl.
Raffaelesque
a.
• Raphaelesque.
Raffia
n.
(Bot.) A fibrous material used for tying plants, said to come from the leaves of a palm tree of the genus Raphia.
Raffinose
n.
(Chem.) A colorless crystalline slightly sweet substance obtained from the molasses of the sugar beet.
Raffish
a.
• Resembling, or having the character of, raff, or a raff; worthless; low.
Raffle
n.
• A kind of lottery, in which several persons pay, in shares, the value of something put up as a stake, and then determine by chance (as by casting dice) which one of them shall become the sole possessor.
• A game of dice in which he who threw three alike won all the stakes.
v. i.
• To engage in a raffle; as, to raffle for a watch.
v. t.
• To dispose of by means of a raffle; — often followed by off; as, to raffle off a horse.
Raffler
n.
• One who raffles.
Rafflesia
n.
(Bot.) A genus of stemless, leafless plants, living parasitically upon the roots and stems of grapevines in Malaysia. The flowers have a carrionlike odor, and are very large, in one species (Rafflesia Arnoldi) having a diameter of two or three feet.
Raft
• imp. & p. p. of Reave.
n.
• A collection of logs, boards, pieces of timber, or the like, fastened, together, either for their own collective conveyance on the water, or to serve as a support in conveying other things; a float.
• A collection of logs, fallen trees, etc. (such as is formed in some Western rivers of the United States), which obstructs navigation.
• A large collection of people or things taken indiscriminately.
v. t.
• To transport on a raft, or in the form of a raft; to make into a raft; as, to raft timber.
Rafte
• imp. of Reave.
Rafter
n.
• A raftsman.
n.
(Arch.) Originally, any rough and somewhat heavy piece of timber. Now, commonly, one of the timbers of a roof which are put on sloping, according to the inclination of the roof. See Illust. of Queen-post.
v. t.
• To make into rafters, as timber.
• To furnish with rafters, as a house.
(Agric.) To plow so as to turn the grass side of each furrow upon an unplowed ridge; to ridge.
Rafting
n.
• The business of making or managing rafts.
Raftsman
n.
• A man engaged in rafting.
Rafty
a.
• Damp; musty.
Rag
v. t.
• To scold or rail at; to rate; to tease; to torment; to banter.
n.
• A piece of cloth torn off; a tattered piece of cloth; a shred; a tatter; a fragment.
• Hence, mean or tattered attire; worn-out dress.
• A shabby, beggarly fellow; a ragamuffin.
(Geol.) A coarse kind of rock, somewhat cellular in texture.
(Metal Working) A ragged edge.
• A sail, or any piece of canvas.
v. i.
• To become tattered.
v. t.
• To break (ore) into lumps for sorting.
• To cut or dress roughly, as a grindstone.
Ragamuffin
n.
• A paltry or disreputable fellow; a mean which.
• A person who wears ragged clothing.
(Zool.) The long-tailed titmouse.
Rage
n.
• Violent excitement; eager passion; extreme vehemence of desire, emotion, or suffering, mastering the will.
• Especially, anger accompanied with raving; overmastering wrath; violent anger; fury.
• A violent or raging wind.
• The subject of eager desire; that which is sought after, or prosecuted, with unreasonable or excessive passion; as, to be all the rage.
v. i.
• To be furious with anger; to be exasperated to fury; to be violently agitated with passion.
• To be violent and tumultuous; to be violently driven or agitated; to act or move furiously; as, the raging sea or winds.
• To ravage; to prevail without restraint, or with destruction or fatal effect; as, the plague raged in Cairo.
• To toy or act wantonly; to sport.
v. t.
• To enrage.
Rageful
a.
• Full of rage; expressing rage.
Ragery
n.
• Wantonness.
Ragged
a.
• Rent or worn into tatters, or till the texture is broken; as, a ragged coat; a ragged sail.
• Broken with rough edges; having jags; uneven; rough; jagged; as, ragged rocks.
• Hence, harsh and disagreeable to the ear; dissonant.
• Wearing tattered clothes; as, a ragged fellow.
• Rough; shaggy; rugged.
Raghuvansa
n.
• A celebrated Sanskrit poem having for its subject the Raghu dynasty.
Raging
• a. & n. from Rage, v. i.
Ragious
a.
• Raging; furious; rageful.
Raglan
n.
• A loose overcoat with large sleeves; — named from Lord Raglan, an English general.
Ragman
n.
• A man who collects, or deals in, rags.
n.
• A document having many names or numerous seals, as a papal bull.
Ragout
n.
• A dish made of pieces of meat, stewed, and highly seasoned; as, a ragout of mutton.
Ragpicker
n.
• One who gets a living by picking up rags and refuse things in the streets.
Ragweed
n.
(Bot.) A common American composite weed (Ambrosia artemisiaefolia) with finely divided leaves; hogweed.
Ragwork
n.
(Masonry) A kind of rubblework. In the United States, any rubblework of thin and small stones.
Ragwort
n.
(Bot.) A name given to several species of the composite genus Senecio.
Raia
n.
(Zool.) A genus of rays which includes the skates. See Skate.
Raiae
n. pl.
(Zool.) The order of elasmobranch fishes which includes the sawfishes, skates, and rays; — called also Rajae, and Rajii.
Raid
n.
• A hostile or predatory incursion; an inroad or incursion of mounted men; a sudden and rapid invasion by a cavalry force; a foray.
• An attack or invasion for the purpose of making arrests, seizing property, or plundering; as, a raid of the police upon a gambling house; a raid of contractors on the public treasury.
v. t.
• To make a raid upon or into; as, two regiments raided the border counties.
Raider
n.
• One who engages in a raid.
Rail
n.
• An outer cloak or covering; a neckerchief for women.
v. i.
• To flow forth; to roll out; to course.
n.
• A bar of timber or metal, usually horizontal or nearly so, extending from one post or support to another, as in fences, balustrades, staircases, etc.
(Arch.) A horizontal piece in a frame or paneling. See Illust. of Style.
(Railroad) A bar of steel or iron, forming part of the track on which the wheels roll. It is usually shaped with reference to vertical strength, and is held in place by chairs, splices, etc.
(Naut.) The stout, narrow plank that forms the top of the bulwarks.
• The light, fencelike structures of wood or metal at the break of the deck, and elsewhere where such protection is needed.
v. t.
• To inclose with rails or a railing.
• To range in a line.
n.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of limicoline birds of the family Rallidae, especially those of the genus Rallus, and of closely allied genera. They are prized as game birds.
v. i.
• To use insolent and reproachful language; to utter reproaches; to scoff; followed by at or against, formerly by on.
v. t.
• To rail at.
• To move or influence by railing.
Railer
n.
• One who rails; one who scoffs, insults, censures, or reproaches with opprobrious language.
Railery
n.
• Pleasantry or slight satire; banter; jesting language; satirical merriment.
Railing
a.
• Expressing reproach; insulting.
n.
• A barrier made of a rail or of rails.
• Rails in general; also, material for making rails.
Railingly
adv.
• With scoffing or insulting language.
Railleur
n.
• A banterer; a jester; a mocker.
Raillier
n.
• One who rallies.
Railroading
n.
• The construction of a railroad; the business of managing or operating a railroad.
Raiment
n.
• Clothing in general; vesture; garments; — usually singular in form, with a collective sense.
• An article of dress.
Rain
n. & v.
• Reign.
n.
• Water falling in drops from the clouds; the descent of water from the clouds in drops.
v. i.
• To fall in drops from the clouds, as water; used mostly with it for a nominative; as, it rains.
• To fall or drop like water from the clouds; as, tears rained from their eyes.
v. t.
• To pour or shower down from above, like rain from the clouds.
• To bestow in a profuse or abundant manner; as, to rain favors upon a person.
Rainbow
n.
• A bow or arch exhibiting, in concentric bands, the several colors of the spectrum, and formed in the part of the hemisphere opposite to the sun by the refraction and reflection of the sun's rays in drops of falling rain.
Rainbowed
a.
• Formed with or like a rainbow.
Raindeer
n.
(Zool.) See Reindeer.
Raindrop
n.
• A drop of rain.
Rainfall
n.
• A fall or descent of rain; the water, or amount of water, that falls in rain; as, the average annual rainfall of a region.
Raininess
n.
• The state of being rainy.
Rainless
a.
• Destitute of rain; as, a rainless region.
Rainy
a.
• Abounding with rain; wet; showery; as, rainy day or season.
Raip
n.
• A rope; also, a measure equal to a rod.
Rais
n.
• Same as 2d Reis.
Raisable
a.
• Capable of being raised.
Raise
v. t.
• To cause to rise; to bring from a lower to a higher place; to lift upward; to elevate; to heave; as, to raise a stone or weight.
• To bring to a higher condition or situation; to elevate in rank, dignity, and the like; to increase the value or estimation of; to promote; to exalt; to advance; to enhance; as, to raise from a low estate; to raise to office; to raise the price, and the like
• To increase the strength, vigor, or vehemence of; to excite; to intensify; to invigorate; to heighten; as, to raise the pulse; to raise the voice; to raise the spirits or the courage; to raise the heat of a furnace
• To elevate in degree according to some scale; as, to raise the pitch of the voice; to raise the temperature of a room
• To cause to rise up, or assume an erect position or posture; to set up; to make upright; as, to raise a mast or flagstaff.
• To cause to spring up from recumbent position, from a state of quiet, or the like; to awaken; to arouse
• To rouse to action; to stir up; to incite to tumult, struggle, or war; to excite
• To bring up from the lower world; to call up, as a spirit from the world of spirits; to recall from death; to give life to
• To cause to arise, grow up, or come into being or to appear; to give to; to originate, produce, cause, effect, or the like.
• To form by the accumulation of materials or constituent parts; to build up; to erect; as, to raise a lofty structure, a wall, a heap of stones
• To bring together; to collect; to levy; to get together or obtain for use or service; as, to raise money, troops, and the like
• To cause to grow; to procure to be produced, bred, or propagated; to grow; as, to raise corn, barley, hops, etc.; toraise cattle.
• To bring into being; to produce; to cause to arise, come forth, or appear; — often with up
• To give rise to; to set agoing; to occasion; to start; to originate; as, to raise a smile or a blush
• To give vent or utterance to; to utter; to strike up
• To bring to notice; to submit for consideration; as, to raise a point of order; to raise an objection
• To cause to rise, as by the effect of leaven; to make light and spongy, as bread.
(Naut.) To cause (the land or any other object) to seem higher by drawing nearer to it; as, to raise Sandy Hook light.
• To let go; as in the command, Raise tacks and sheets, i. e., Let go tacks and sheets.
(Law) To create or constitute; as, to raise a use that is, to create it.
Raised
a.
• Lifted up; showing above the surroundings; as, raised or embossed metal work.
• Leavened; made with leaven, or yeast; — used of bread, cake, etc., as distinguished from that made with cream of tartar, soda, etc. See Raise, v. t., 4.
Raiser
n.
• One who, or that which, raises (in various senses of the verb).
Raisin
n.
• A grape, or a bunch of grapes.
• A grape dried in the sun or by artificial heat.
Raising
n.
• The act of lifting, setting up, elevating, exalting, producing, or restoring to life.
• Specifically, the operation or work of setting up the frame of a building; as, to help at a raising.
• The operation of embossing sheet metal, or of forming it into cup-shaped or hollow articles, by hammering, stamping, or spinning.
Raisonne
a.
• Arranged systematically, or according to classes or subjects; as, a catalogue raisonne. See under Catalogue.
Raivel
n.
(Weaving) A separator.
Raj
n.
• Reign; rule.
Raja
n.
• Same as Rajah.
Rajah
n.
• A native prince or king; also, a landholder or person of importance in the agricultural districts.
Rajahship
n.
• The office or dignity of a rajah.
Rake
n.
• An implement consisting of a headpiece having teeth, and a long handle at right angles to it, — used for collecting hay, or other light things which are spread over a large surface, or for breaking and smoothing the earth.
• A toothed machine drawn by a horse, — used for collecting hay or grain; a horserake.
(Mining) A fissure or mineral vein traversing the strata vertically, or nearly so; — called also rake-vein.
v. t.
• To collect with a rake; as, to rake hay; — often with up; as, he raked up the fallen leaves.
• To collect or draw together with laborious industry; to gather from a wide space; to scrape together; as, to rake together wealth; to rake together slanderous tales; to rake together the rabble of a town.
• To pass a rake over; to scrape or scratch with a rake for the purpose of collecting and clearing off something, or for stirring up the soil; as, to rake a lawn; to rake a flower bed.
• To search through; to scour; to ransack.
• To scrape or scratch across; to pass over quickly and lightly, as a rake does.
(Mil.) To enfilade; to fire in a direction with the length of; in naval engagements, to cannonade, as a ship, on the stern or head so that the balls range the whole length of the deck.
v. i.
• To use a rake, as for searching or for collecting; to scrape; to search minutely.
• To pass with violence or rapidity; to scrape along.
n.
• To inclination of anything from a perpendicular direction; as, the rake of a roof, a staircase, etc.
• (Naut.
v. i.
• To incline from a perpendicular direction; as, a mast rakes aft.
n.
• A loose, disorderly, vicious man; a person addicted to lewdness and other scandalous vices; a debauchee; a roue.
v. i.
• To walk about; to gad or ramble idly.
• To act the rake; to lead a dissolute, debauched life.
Rakehell
n.
• A lewd, dissolute fellow; a debauchee; a rake.
Rakel
a.
• Hasty; reckless; rash.
Raker
n.
• One who, or that which, rakes
• A person who uses a rake
• A machine for raking grain or hay by horse or other power
• A gun so placed as to rake an enemy's ship.
(Zool.) See Gill rakers, under 1st Gill.
Rakery
n.
• Debauchery; lewdness.
Rakeshame
n.
• A vile, dissolute wretch.
Rakestale
n.
• The handle of a rake.
Raking
n.
• The act or process of using a rake; the going over a space with a rake.
• A space gone over with a rake; also, the work done, or the quantity of hay, grain, etc., collected, by going once over a space with a rake.
Rakish
a.
• Dissolute; lewd; debauched.
a.
(Naut.) Having a saucy appearance indicative of speed and dash.
Rakishly
adv.
• In a rakish manner.
Rakishness
n.
• The quality or state of being rakish.
Rale
n.
(Med.) An adventitious sound, usually of morbid origin, accompanying the normal respiratory sounds. See Rhonchus.
Rallentando
a.
(Mus.) Slackening; — a direction to perform a passage with a gradual decrease in time and force; ritardando.
Ralliance
n.
• The act of rallying.
Ralline
a.
(Zool.) Pertaining to the rails.
Rally
v. t.
• To collect, and reduce to order, as troops dispersed or thrown into confusion; to gather again; to reunite.
v. i.
• To come into orderly arrangement; to renew order, or united effort, as troops scattered or put to flight; to assemble; to unite.
• To collect one's vital powers or forces; to regain health or consciousness; to recuperate.
• To recover strength after a decline in prices; — said of the market, stocks, etc.
n.
• The act or process of rallying (in any of the senses of that word).
• A political mass meeting.
v. t.
• To attack with raillery, either in good humor and pleasantry, or with slight contempt or satire.
v. i.
• To use pleasantry, or satirical merriment.
n.
• Good-humored raillery.
Ralph
n.
• A name sometimes given to the raven.
Ralstonite
n.
(Min.) A fluoride of alumina and soda occurring with the Greenland cryolite in octahedral crystals.
Ram
n.
• The male of the sheep and allied animals. In some parts of England a ram is called a tup.
(Astron.) Aries, the sign of the zodiac which the sun enters about the 21st of March.
• The constellation Aries, which does not now, as formerly, occupy the sign of the same name.
• An engine of war used for butting or battering.
• In ancient warfare, a long beam suspended by slings in a framework, and used for battering the walls of cities; a battering-ram
• A heavy steel or iron beak attached to the prow of a steam war vessel for piercing or cutting down the vessel of an enemy; also, a vessel carrying such a beak.
• A hydraulic ram. See under Hydraulic.
• The weight which strikes the blow, in a pile driver, steam hammer, stamp mill, or the like.
• The plunger of a hydraulic press.
v. t.
• To butt or strike against; to drive a ram against or through; to thrust or drive with violence; to force in; to drive together; to cram; as, to ram an enemy's vessel; to ram piles, cartridges, etc.
• To fill or compact by pounding or driving.
Ramadan
n.
• The ninth Mohammedan month.
• The great annual fast of the Mohammedans, kept during daylight through the ninth month.
Ramage
n.
• Boughs or branches.
• Warbling of birds in trees.
a.
• Wild; untamed.
Ramagious
a.
• Wild; not tame.
Ramal
a.
• Of or pertaining to a ramus, or branch; rameal.
Ramayana
n.
• The more ancient of the two great epic poems in Sanskrit. The hero and heroine are Rama and his wife Sita.
Ramberge
n.
• Formerly, a kind of large war galley.
Ramble
v. i.
• To walk, ride, or sail, from place to place, without any determinate object in view; to roam carelessly or irregularly; to rove; to wander; as, to ramble about the city; to ramble over the world.
• To talk or write in a discursive, aimless way.
• To extend or grow at random.
n.
• A going or moving from place to place without any determinate business or object; an excursion or stroll merely for recreation.
(Coal Mining) A bed of shale over the seam.
Rambler
n.
• One who rambles; a rover; a wanderer.
Rambling
a.
• Roving; wandering; discursive; as, a rambling fellow, talk, or building.
Ramblingly
adv.
• In a rambling manner.
Rambooze
n.
• A beverage made of wine, ale (or milk), sugar, etc.
Rambutan
n.
(Bot.) A Malayan fruit produced by the tree Nephelium lappaceum, and closely related to the litchi nut. It is bright red, oval in shape, covered with coarse hairs (whence the name), and contains a pleasant acid pulp. Called also ramboostan.
Rameal
a.
• Same as Ramal.
Ramean
n.
• A Ramist.
Ramed
a.
• Having the frames, stem, and sternpost adjusted; — said of a ship on the stocks.
Ramee
n.
(Bot.) See Ramie.
Ramekin
n.
• See Ramequin.
Rament
n.
• A scraping; a shaving.
Ramenta
n. pl.
(Bot.) Thin brownish chaffy scales upon the leaves or young shoots of some plants, especially upon the petioles and leaves of ferns.
Ramentaceous
a
(Bot.) Covered with ramenta.
Rameous
a
(Bot.) Ramal.
Ramequin
n.
(Cookery) A mixture of cheese, eggs, etc., formed in a mold, or served on bread.
Ramie
n.
(Bot.) The grasscloth plant (B&oe;hmeria nivea); also, its fiber, which is very fine and exceedingly strong; — called also China grass, and rhea. See Grass-cloth plant, under Grass.
Ramification
n.
• The process of branching, or the development or offshoots from a stem; also, the mode of their arrangement.
• A small branch or offshoot proceeding from a main stock or channel; as, the ramifications of an artery, vein, or nerve.
• A division into principal and subordinate classes, heads, or departments; also, one of the subordinate parts; as, the ramifications a subject or scheme.
• The production of branchlike figures.
Ramiflorous
a.
(Bot.) Flowering on the branches.
Ramiform
a.
(Bot.) Having the form of a branch.
Ramify
v. t.
• To divide into branches or subdivisions; as, to ramify an art, subject, scheme.
v. i.
• To shoot, or divide, into branches or subdivisions, as the stem of a plant.
• To be divided or subdivided, as a main subject.
Ramigerous
a.
(Bot.) Bearing branches; branched.
Ramiparous
a.
(Bot.) Producing branches; ramigerous.
Ramist
n.
• A follower of Pierre Rame, better known as Ramus, a celebrated French scholar, who was professor of rhetoric and philosophy at Paris in the reign of Henry II., and opposed the Aristotelians.
Ramline
n.
• A line used to get a straight middle line, as on a spar, or from stem to stern in building a vessel.
Rammel
n.
• Refuse matter.
Rammer
n.
• One who, or that which, rams or drives.
• An instrument for driving anything force; as, a rammer for driving stones or piles, or for beating the earth to more solidity
• A rod for forcing down the charge of a gun; a ramrod
(Founding) An implement for pounding the sand of a mold to render it compact.
Rammish
a.
• Like a ram; hence, rank; lascivious.
Rammishness
n.
• The quality of being rammish.
Rammy
a.
• Like a ram; rammish.
Ramollescence
n.
• A softening or mollifying.
Ramoon
n.
(Bot.) A small West Indian tree (Trophis Americana) of the Mulberry family, whose leaves and twigs are used as fodder for cattle.
Ramose
a.
• Branched, as the stem or root of a plant; having lateral divisions; consisting of, or having, branches; full of branches; ramifying; branching; branchy.
Ramous
a.
• Ramose.
Ramp
v. i.
• To spring; to leap; to bound; to rear; to prance; to become rampant; hence, to frolic; to romp.
• To move by leaps, or by leaps; hence, to move swiftly or with violence.
• To climb, as a plant; to creep up.
n.
• A leap; a spring; a hostile advance.
• A highwayman; a robber.
• A romping woman; a prostitute.
(Arch.) Any sloping member, other than a purely constructional one, such as a continuous parapet to a staircase.
• A short bend, slope, or curve, where a hand rail or cap changes its direction.
(Fort.) An inclined plane serving as a communication between different interior levels.
Rampacious
a.
• High-spirited; rampageous.
Rampage
n.
• Violent or riotous behavior; a state of excitement, passion, or debauchery; as, to be on the rampage.
v. i.
• To leap or prance about, as an animal; to be violent; to rage.
Rampageous
a.
• Characterized by violence and passion; unruly; rampant.
Rampallian
n.
• A mean wretch.
Rampancy
n.
• The quality or state of being rampant; excessive action or development; exuberance; extravagance.
Rampant
a.
• Ramping; leaping; springing; rearing upon the hind legs; hence, raging; furious.
• Ascending; climbing; rank in growth; exuberant.
(Her.) Rising with fore paws in the air as if attacking; — said of a beast of prey, especially a lion. The right fore leg and right hind leg should be raised higher than the left.
Rampantly
adv.
• In a rampant manner.
Rampart
n.
• That which fortifies and defends from assault; that which secures safety; a defense or bulwark.
(Fort.) A broad embankment of earth round a place, upon which the parapet is raised. It forms the substratum of every permanent fortification.
v. t.
• To surround or protect with, or as with, a rampart or ramparts.
Rampe
n.(Bot.)
Rampier
n.
• See Rampart.
Rampion
n.
(Bot.) A plant (Campanula Rapunculus) of the Bellflower family, with a tuberous esculent root; — also called ramps.
Rampire
n.
• A rampart.
v. t.
• To fortify with a rampire; to form into a rampire.
Rampler
n.
• A rambler.
a.
• Roving; rambling.
Ramrod
n.
• The rod used in ramming home the charge in a muzzle-loading firearm.
Ramshackle
a.
• Loose; disjointed; falling to pieces; out of repair.
v. t.
• To search or ransack; to rummage.
Ramson
n.
(Bot.) A broad-leaved species of garlic (Allium ursinum), common in European gardens; — called also buckram.
Ramsted
n.
(Bot.) A yellow-flowered weed; — so named from a Mr. Ramsted who introduced it into Pennsylvania. See Toad flax. Called also Ramsted weed.
Ramulose
a.
(Nat. Hist.) Having many small branches, or ramuli.
Ramulous
a.
(Nat. Hist.) Ramulose.
Ramulus
n.
(Zool.) A small branch, or branchlet, of corals, hydroids, and similar organisms.
Ramus
n.
(Nat. Hist.) A branch; a projecting part or prominent process; a ramification.
Ramuscule
n.
(Nat. Hist.) A small ramus, or branch.
Ran
• imp. of Run.
n.
• Open robbery.
n.
(Naut.) Yarns coiled on a spun-yarn winch.
Rana
n.
(Zool.) A genus of anurous batrachians, including the common frogs.
Ranal
a.
(Bot.) Having a general affinity to ranunculaceous plants.
Rance
n.
• A prop or shore.
• A round between the legs of a chair.
Rancescent
a.
• Becoming rancid or sour.
Ranch
v. t.
• To wrench; to tear; to sprain; to injure by violent straining or contortion.
n.
• A tract of land used for grazing and rearing of horses, cattle, or sheep. See Rancho, 2.
Ranchero
n.
• A herdsman; a peasant employed on a ranch or rancho.
• The owner and occupant of a ranch or rancho.
Ranchman
n.
Rancho
n.
• A rude hut, as of posts, covered with branches or thatch, where herdsmen or farm laborers may live or lodge at night.
• A large grazing farm where horses and cattle are raised; — distinguished from hacienda, a cultivated farm or plantation.
Rancid
a.
• Having a rank smell or taste, from chemical change or decomposition; musty; as, rancid oil or butter.
Rancidity
n.
• The quality or state of being rancid; a rancid scent or flavor, as of old oil.
Rancidly
adv.
• In a rancid manner.
Rancidness
n.
• The quality of being rancid.
Rancor
n.
• The deepest malignity or spite; deep-seated enmity or malice; inveterate hatred.
Rancorous
a.
• Full of rancor; evincing, or caused by, rancor; deeply malignant; implacably spiteful or malicious; intensely virulent.
Rancorously
adv.
• In a rancorous manner.
Rand
n.
• A border; edge; margin.
• A long, fleshy piece, as of beef, cut from the flank or leg; a sort of steak.
• A thin inner sole for a shoe; also, a leveling slip of leather applied to the sole before attaching the heel.
v. i.
• To rant; to storm.
Randan
n.
• The product of a second sifting of meal; the finest part of the bran.
n.
• A boat propelled by three rowers with four oars, the middle rower pulling two.
Randing
n.
(Shoemaking) The act or process of making and applying rands for shoes.
(Mil.) A kind of basket work used in gabions.
Random
n.
• Force; violence.
• A roving motion; course without definite direction; want of direction, rule, or method; hazard; chance; — commonly used in the phrase at random, that is, without a settled point of direction; at hazard.
• Distance to which a missile is cast; range; reach; as, the random of a rifle ball.
(Mining) The direction of a rake-vein.
a.
• Going at random or by chance; done or made at hazard, or without settled direction, aim, or purpose; hazarded without previous calculation; left to chance; haphazard; as, a random guess.
Randomly
adv.
• In a random manner.
Randon
n.
• Random.
v. i.
• To go or stray at random.
Ranedeer
n.
• See Reindeer.
Ranee
n.
• Same as Rani.
Ranforce
n.
• See Re&eum;nforce.
Rang
• imp. of Ring, v. t. & i.
Range
v. t.
• To set in a row, or in rows; to place in a regular line or lines, or in ranks; to dispose in the proper order; to rank; as, to range soldiers in line.
• To place (as a single individual) among others in a line, row, or order, as in the ranks of an army; — usually, reflexively and figuratively, (in the sense) to espouse a cause, to join a party, etc.
• To separate into parts; to sift.
• To dispose in a classified or in systematic order; to arrange regularly; as, to range plants and animals in genera and species.
• To rove over or through; as, to range the fields.
• To sail or pass in a direction parallel to or near; as, to range the coast.
(Biol.) To be native to, or to live in; to frequent.
v. i.
• To rove at large; to wander without restraint or direction; to roam.
• To have range; to change or differ within limits; to be capable of projecting, or to admit of being projected, especially as to horizontal distance; as, the temperature ranged through seventy degrees Fahrenheit; the gun ranges three miles; the shot ranged four miles.
• To be placed in order; to be ranked; to admit of arrangement or classification; to rank.
• To have a certain direction; to correspond in direction; to be or keep in a corresponding line; to trend or run; — often followed by with; as, the front of a house ranges with the street; to range along the coast.
(Biol.) To be native to, or live in, a certain district or region; as, the peba ranges from Texas to Paraguay.
n.
• A series of things in a line; a row; a rank; as, a range of buildings; a range of mountains.
• An aggregate of individuals in one rank or degree; an order; a class.
• The step of a ladder; a rung.
• A kitchen grate.
• Am extended cooking apparatus of cast iron, set in brickwork, and affording conveniences for various ways cooking; also, a kind of cooking stove.
• A bolting sieve to sift meal.
• A wandering or roving; a going to and fro; an excursion; a ramble; an expedition.
• That which may be ranged over; place or room for excursion; especially, a region of country in which cattle or sheep may wander and pasture.
• Extent or space taken in by anything excursive; compass or extent of excursion; reach; scope; discursive; as, the range of one's voice, or authority.
(Biol.) The region within which a plant or animal naturally lives.
(Gun.) The horizontal distance to which a shot or other projectile is carried.
• Sometimes, less properly, the trajectory of a shot or projectile.
• A place where shooting, as with cannons or rifles, is practiced.
• In the public land system of the United States, a row or line of townships lying between two succession meridian lines six miles apart.
(Naut.) See Range of cable, below.
Rangement
n.
• Arrangement.
Ranger
n.
• One who ranges; a rover; sometimes, one who ranges for plunder; a roving robber.
• That which separates or arranges; specifically, a sieve.
• A dog that beats the ground in search of game.
• One of a body of mounted troops, formerly armed with short muskets, who range over the country, and often fight on foot.
• The keeper of a public park or forest; formerly, a sworn officer of a forest, appointed by the king's letters patent, whose business was to walk through the forest, recover beasts that had strayed beyond its limits, watch the deer, present trespasses to the next court held for the forest, etc.
Rangership
n.
• The office of the keeper of a forest or park.
Rangle
v. i.
• To range about in an irregular manner.
Rani
n.
• A queen or princess; the wife of a rajah.
Ranine
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the frogs and toads.
(Anat.) Pertaining to, or designating, a swelling under the tongue; also, pertaining to the region where the swelling occurs; — applied especially to branches of the lingual artery and lingual vein.
Rank
a.
• Luxuriant in growth; of vigorous growth; exuberant; grown to immoderate height; as, rank grass; rank weeds.
• Raised to a high degree; violent; extreme; gross; utter; as, rank heresy.
• Causing vigorous growth; producing luxuriantly; very rich and fertile; as, rank land.
• Strong-scented; rancid; musty; as, oil of a rank smell; rank-smelling rue.
• Strong to the taste.
• Inflamed with venereal appetite.
adv.
• Rankly; stoutly; violently.
n.
• A row or line; a range; an order; a tier; as, a rank of osiers.
(Mil.) A line of soldiers ranged side by side; — opposed to file. See 1st File, 1 (a).
• Grade of official standing, as in the army, navy, or nobility; as, the rank of general; the rank of admiral.
• An aggregate of individuals classed together; a permanent social class; an order; a division; as, ranks and orders of men; the highest and the lowest ranks of men, or of other intelligent beings.
• Degree of dignity, eminence, or excellence; position in civil or social life; station; degree; grade; as, a writer of the first rank; a lawyer of high rank.
• Elevated grade or standing; high degree; high social position; distinction; eminence; as, a man of rank.
v. t.
• To place abreast, or in a line.
• To range in a particular class, order, or division; to class; also, to dispose methodically; to place in suitable classes or order; to classify.
• To take rank of; to outrank.
v. i.
• To be ranged; to be set or disposed, an in a particular degree, class, order, or division.
• To have a certain grade or degree of elevation in the orders of civil or military life; to have a certain degree of esteem or consideration; as, he ranks with the first class of poets; he ranks high in public estimation.
Ranker
n.
• One who ranks, or disposes in ranks; one who arranges.
Rankle
v. i.
• To become, or be, rank; to grow rank or strong; to be inflamed; to fester; — used literally and figuratively.
• To produce a festering or inflamed effect; to cause a sore; — used literally and figuratively; as, a splinter rankles in the flesh; the words rankled in his bosom.
v. t.
• To cause to fester; to make sore; to inflame.
Rankly
adv.
• With rank or vigorous growth; luxuriantly; hence, coarsely; grossly; as, weeds grow rankly.
Rankness
n.
• The condition or quality of being rank.
Rannel
n.
• A prostitute.
Ranny
n.
(Zool.) The erd shrew.
Ransack
v. t.
• To search thoroughly; to search every place or part of; as, to ransack a house.
• To plunder; to pillage completely.
• To violate; to ravish; to defiour.
v. i.
• To make a thorough search.
n.
• The act of ransacking, or state of being ransacked; pillage.
Ransom
n.
• The release of a captive, or of captive, or of captured property, by payment of a consideration; redemption; as, prisoners hopeless of ransom.
• The money or price paid for the redemption of a prisoner, or for goods captured by an enemy; payment for freedom from restraint, penalty, or forfeit.
(O. Eng. Law) A sum paid for the pardon of some great offense and the discharge of the offender; also, a fine paid in lieu of corporal punishment.
v. t.
• To redeem from captivity, servitude, punishment, or forfeit, by paying a price; to buy out of servitude or penalty; to rescue; to deliver; as, to ransom prisoners from an enemy.
• To exact a ransom for, or a payment on.
Ransomable
a.
• Such as can be ransomed.
Ransomer
n.
• One who ransoms or redeems.
Ransomless
a.
• Incapable of being ransomed; without ransom.
Rant
v. i.
• To rave in violent, high-sounding, or extravagant language, without dignity of thought; to be noisy, boisterous, and bombastic in talk or declamation; as, a ranting preacher.
n.
• High-sounding language, without importance or dignity of thought; boisterous, empty declamation; bombast; as, the rant of fanatics.
Ranter
n.
• A noisy talker; a raving declaimer.
(Eccl. Hist.) One of a religious sect which sprung up in 1645; — called also Seekers. See Seeker.
• One of the Primitive Methodists, who seceded from the Wesleyan Methodists on the ground of their deficiency in fervor and zeal; — so called in contempt.
Ranterism
n.
(Eccl. Hist.) The practice or tenets of the Ranters.
Rantingly
adv.
• In a ranting manner.
Rantipole
n.
• A wild, romping young person.
a.
• Wild; roving; rakish.
v. i.
• To act like a rantipole.
Rantism
n.
(Eccl. Hist.) Ranterism.
Ranty
a.
• Wild; noisy; boisterous.
Ranula
n.
(Med.) A cyst formed under the tongue by obstruction of the duct of the submaxillary gland.
Ranunculaceous
a.
(Bot.) Of or pertaining to a natural order of plants (Ranunculaceae), of which the buttercup is the type, and which includes also the virgin's bower, the monkshood, larkspur, anemone, meadow rue, and peony.
Ranunculus
n.
(Bot.) A genus of herbs, mostly with yellow flowers, including crowfoot, buttercups, and the cultivated ranunculi (R. Asiaticus, R. aconitifolius, etc.) in which the flowers are double and of various colors.
Rap
n.
• A lay or skein containing 120 yards of yarn.
v. i.
• To strike with a quick, sharp blow; to knock; as, to rap on the door.
v. t.
• To strike with a quick blow; to knock on.
(Founding) To free (a pattern) in a mold by light blows on the pattern, so as to facilitate its removal.
n.
• A quick, smart blow; a knock.
v. t.
• To snatch away; to seize and hurry off.
• To hasten.
• To seize and bear away, as the mind or thoughts; to transport out of one's self; to affect with ecstasy or rapture; as, rapt into admiration.
• To exchange; to truck.
n.
• A popular name for any of the tokens that passed current for a half-penny in Ireland in the early part of the eighteenth century; any coin of trifling value.
Rapaces
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Accipitres.
Rapacious
a.
• Given to plunder; disposed or accustomed to seize by violence; seizing by force.
• Accustomed to seize food; subsisting on prey, or animals seized by violence,; as, a tiger is a rapacious animal; a rapacious bird.
• Avaricious; grasping; extortionate; also, greedy; ravenous; voracious; as, rapacious usurers; a rapacious appetite.
Rapacity
n.
• The quality of being rapacious; rapaciousness; ravenousness; as, the rapacity of pirates; the rapacity of wolves.
• The act or practice of extorting or exacting by oppressive injustice; exorbitant greediness of gain.
Raparee
n.
• See Rapparee.
Rape
n.
• Fruit, as grapes, plucked from the cluster.
• The refuse stems and skins of grapes or raisins from which the must has been expressed in wine making.
• A filter containing the above refuse, used in clarifying and perfecting malt, vinegar, etc.
n.
• The act of seizing and carrying away by force; violent seizure; robbery.
(Law) Sexual connection with a woman without her consent. See Age of consent, under Consent, n.
• That which is snatched away.
• Movement, as in snatching; haste; hurry.
v. t.
• To commit rape upon; to ravish.
v. i.
• To rob; to pillage.
n.
• One of six divisions of the county of Sussex, England, intermediate between a hundred and a shire.
n.
(Bot.) A name given to a variety or to varieties of a plant of the turnip kind, grown for seeds and herbage. The seeds are used for the production of rape oil, and to a limited extent for the food of cage birds.
Rapeful
a.
• Violent.
• Given to the commission of rape.
Rapfully
adv.
• Violently.
Raphaelesque
a.
• Like Raphael's works; in Raphael's manner of painting.
Raphaelism
n.
• The principles of painting introduced by Raphael, the Italian painter.
Raphaelite
n.
• One who advocates or adopts the principles of Raphaelism.
Raphany
n.
(Med.) A convulsive disease, attended with ravenous hunger, not uncommon in Sweden and Germany. It was so called because supposed to be caused by eating corn with which seeds of jointed charlock (Raphanus raphanistrum) had been mixed, but the condition is now known to be a form of ergotism.
Raphe
n.
(Anat.) A line, ridge, furrow, or band of fibers, especially in the median line; as, the raphe of the tongue.
(Bot.) Same as Rhaph.
Raphides
n. pl.
(Bot.) See Rhaphides.
Rapid
a.
• Very swift or quick; moving with celerity; fast; as, a rapid stream; a rapid flight; a rapid motion.
• Advancing with haste or speed; speedy in progression; in quick sequence; as, rapid growth; rapid improvement; rapid recurrence; rapid succession.
• Quick in execution; as, a rapid penman.
n.
• The part of a river where the current moves with great swiftness, but without actual waterfall or cascade; — usually in the plural; as, the Lachine rapids in the St. Lawrence.
Rapidity
n.
• The quality or state of being rapid; swiftness; celerity; velocity; as, the rapidity of growth or improvement.
Rapidly
adv.
• In a rapid manner.
Rapidness
n.
• Quality of being rapid; rapidity.
Rapier
n.
• A straight sword, with a narrow and finely pointed blade, used only for thrusting.
Rapiered
a.
• Wearing a rapier.
Rapilli
n. pl.
(Min.) Lapilli.
Rapine
n.
• The act of plundering; the seizing and carrying away of things by force; spoliation; pillage; plunder.
• Ravishment; rape.
v. t.
• To plunder.
Rapinous
a.
• Given to rapine.
Rappage
n.
(Founding) The enlargement of a molt caused by rapping the pattern.
Rapparee
n.
• A wild Irish plunderer, esp. one of the 17th century; — so called from his carrying a half-pike, called a rapary.
Rapped
• imp. & p. p. of Rap, to strike.
• imp. & p. p. of Rap, to snatch away.
Rappee
n.
• A pungent kind of snuff made from the darker and ranker kinds of tobacco leaves.
Rappel
n.
(Mil.) The beat of the drum to call soldiers to arms.
Rapper
n.
• One who, or that which, raps or knocks; specifically, the knocker of a door.
• A forcible oath or lie.
Rapport
n.
• Relation; proportion; conformity; correspondence; accord.
Rapscallion
n.
• A rascal; a good-for-nothing fellow.
Rapt
• imp. & p. p. of Rap, to snatch away.
a.
• Snatched away; hurried away or along.
• Transported with love, admiration, delight, etc.; enraptured.
n.
• An ecstasy; a trance.
• Rapidity.
v. i.
• To transport or ravish.
• To carry away by force.
Rapter
n.
• A raptor.
Raptor
n.
• A ravisher; a plunderer.
Raptores
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Accipitres. Called also Raptatores.
Raptorial
a.
(Zool.) Rapacious; living upon prey; — said especially of certain birds.
• Adapted for seizing prey; — said of the legs, claws, etc., of insects, birds, and other animals.
• Of or pertaining to the Raptores. See Illust. (f) of Aves.
Raptorious
a.
(Zool.) Raptorial.
Rapture
n.
• A seizing by violence; a hurrying along; rapidity with violence.
• The state or condition of being rapt, or carried away from one's self by agreeable excitement; violence of a pleasing passion; extreme joy or pleasure; ecstasy.
• A spasm; a fit; a syncope; delirium.
v. t.
• To transport with excitement; to enrapture.
Rapturist
n.
• An enthusiast.
Rapturize
v. i. & i.
• To put, or be put, in a state of rapture.
Rapturous
a.
• Ecstatic; transporting; ravishing; feeling, expressing, or manifesting rapture; as, rapturous joy, pleasure, or delight; rapturous applause.
Rapturously
adv.
• In a rapturous manner.
Rare
a.
• Early.
a.
• Nearly raw; partially cooked; not thoroughly cooked; underdone; as, rare beef or mutton.
a.
• Not frequent; seldom met with or occurring; unusual; as, a rare event.
• Of an uncommon nature; unusually excellent; valuable to a degree seldom found.
• Thinly scattered; dispersed.
• Characterized by wide separation of parts; of loose texture; not thick or dense; thin; as, a rare atmosphere at high elevations.
Rarebit
n.
• A dainty morsel; a Welsh rabbit. See Welsh rabbit, under Rabbit.
Rarefaction
n.
• The act or process of rarefying; the state of being rarefied; — opposed to condensation; as, the rarefaction of air.
Rarefiable
a.
• Capable of being rarefied.
Rarefy
v. t.
• To make rare, thin, porous, or less dense; to expand or enlarge without adding any new portion of matter to; — opposed to condense.
v. i.
• To become less dense; to become thin and porous.
Rarely
adv.
• In a rare manner or degree; seldom; not often; as, things rarely seen.
• Finely; excellently; with rare skill. See 3d Rare, 2.
Rareness
n.
• The state or quality of being rare.
Rareripe
a.
• Early ripe; ripe before others, or before the usual season.
n.
• An early ripening fruit, especially a kind of freestone peach.
Rarification
n.
• See Rarefaction.
Rarity
n.
• The quality or state of being rare; rareness; thinness; as, the rarity (contrasted with the density) of gases.
• That which is rare; an uncommon thing; a thing valued for its scarcity.
Ras
n.
• See 2d Reis.
Rasante
a.
(Fort.) Sweeping; grazing; — applied to a style of fortification in which the command of the works over each other, and over the country, is kept very low, in order that the shot may more effectually sweep or graze the ground before them.
Rascal
n.
• One of the rabble; a low, common sort of person or creature; collectively, the rabble; the common herd; also, a lean, ill-conditioned beast, esp. a deer.
a.
• Of or pertaining to the common herd or common people; low; mean; base.
Rascaldom
n.
• State of being a rascal; rascality; domain of rascals; rascals, collectively.
Rascaless
n.
• A female rascal.
Rascality
n.
• The quality or state of being rascally, or a rascal; mean trickishness or dishonesty; base fraud.
• The poorer and lower classes of people.
Rascallion
n.
• A low, mean wretch
Rascally
a.
• Like a rascal; trickish or dishonest; base; worthless; — often in humorous disparagement, without implication of dishonesty.
Rase
v. t.
• To rub along the surface of; to graze.
• To rub or scratch out; to erase.
• To level with the ground; to overthrow; to destroy; to raze.
v. i.
• To be leveled with the ground; to fall; to suffer overthrow.
n.
• A scratching out, or erasure.
• A slight wound; a scratch.
(O. Eng. Law) A way of measuring in which the commodity measured was made even with the top of the measuring vessel by rasing, or striking off, all that was above it.
Rash
v. t.
• To pull off or pluck violently.
• To slash; to hack; to slice.
n.
(Med.) A fine eruption or efflorescence on the body, with little or no elevation.
n.
• An inferior kind of silk, or mixture of silk and worsted.
a.
• Sudden in action; quick; hasty.
• Requiring sudden action; pressing; urgent.
• Esp., overhasty in counsel or action; precipitate; resolving or entering on a project or measure without due deliberation and caution; opposed to prudent; said of persons; as, a rash statesman or commander.
• Uttered or undertaken with too much haste or too little reflection; as, rash words; rash measures.
• So dry as to fall out of the ear with handling, as corn.
v. t.
• To prepare with haste.
Rasher
n.
• A thin slice of bacon.
(Zool.) A California rockfish (Sebastichthys miniatus).
Rashful
a.
• Rash; hasty; precipitate.
Rashling
n.
• A rash person.
Rashly
adv.
• In a rush manner; with precipitation.
Rashness
n.
• The quality of state of being rash.
Raskolnik
n.
(Eccl.) One of the separatists or dissenters from the established or Greek church in Russia.
Rasorable
a.
• Ready for the razor; fit to be shaved.
Rasores
n. pl.
(Zool.) An order of birds; the Gallinae.
Rasorial
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Rasores, or gallinaceous birds, as the peacock, domestic fowl, patridge, and the like.
Rasour
n.
• Rasor.
Rasp
v. t.
• To rub or file with a rasp; to rub or grate with a rough file; as, to rasp wood to make it smooth; to rasp bones to powder.
• Hence, figuratively: To grate harshly upon; to offend by coarse or rough treatment or language; as, some sounds rasp the ear; his insults rasped my temper.
n.
• A coarse file, on which the cutting prominences are distinct points raised by the oblique stroke of a sharp punch, instead of lines raised by a chisel, as on the true file.
• The raspberry.
Raspatorium
n.
• See Raspatory.
Raspatory
n.
• A surgeon's rasp.
Raspberry
n
(Bot.) The thimble-shaped fruit of the Rubus Idaeus and other similar brambles; as, the black, the red and the white raspberry.
• The shrub bearing this fruit.
Rasper
n.
• One who, or which, rasps; a scraper.
Raspis
n.
• The raspberry.
Raspy
a.
• Like a rasp, or the sound made by a rasp; grating.
Rasse
n.
(Zool.) A carnivore (Viverricula Mallaccensis) allied to the civet but smaller, native of China and the East Indies. It furnishes a perfume resembling that of the civet, which is highly prized by the Javanese. Called also Malacca weasel, and lesser civet.
Rasure
n.
• The act of rasing, scraping, or erasing; erasure; obliteration.
• A mark by which a letter, word, or any part of a writing or print, is erased, effaced, or obliterated; an erasure.
Rat
n.
(Zool.) One of the several species of small rodents of the genus Mus and allied genera, larger than mice, that infest houses, stores, and ships, especially the Norway, or brown, rat (M. Alexandrinus). These were introduced into Anerica from the Old World.
• A round and tapering mass of hair, or similar material, used by women to support the puffs and rolls of their natural hair.
• One who deserts his party or associates; hence, in the trades, one who works for lower wages than those prescribed by a trades union.
v. i.
• In English politics, to desert one's party from interested motives; to forsake one's associates for one's own advantage; in the trades, to work for less wages, or on other conditions, than those established by a trades union.
• To catch or kill rats.
Rata
n.
(Bot.) A New Zealand forest tree (Metrosideros robusta), also, its hard dark red wood, used by the Maoris for paddles and war clubs.
Ratability
n.
• The quality or state of being ratable.
Ratable
a.
• Capable of being rated, or set at a certain value.
• Liable to, or subjected by law to, taxation; as, ratable estate.
• Made at a proportionate rate; as, ratable payments.
Ratafia
n.
• A spirituous liquor flavored with the kernels of cherries, apricots, peaches, or other fruit, spiced, and sweetened with sugar; — a term applied to the liqueurs called noyau, cura&cced;ao, etc.
Ratan
n.
• See Rattan.
Ratany
n.
(Bot.) Same as Rhatany.
Rataplan
n.
• The iterative sound of beating a drum, or of a galloping horse.
Ratch
n.
(Zool.) Same as Rotche.
n.
• A ratchet wheel, or notched bar, with which a pawl or chick works.
Ratchel
n.
• Gravelly stone.
Ratchet
n.
• A pawl, click, or detent, for holding or propelling a ratchet wheel, or ratch, etc.
• A mechanism composed of a ratchet wheel, or ratch, and pawl. See Ratchet wheel, below, and 2d Ratch.
Rate
v. t. & i.
• To chide with vehemence; to scold; to censure violently.
n.
• Established portion or measure; fixed allowance.
• That which is established as a measure or criterion; degree; standard; rank; proportion; ratio; as, a slow rate of movement; rate of interest is the ratio of the interest to the principal, per annum.
• Variation; prise fixed with relation to a standard; cost; charge; as, high or low rates of transportation.
• A tax or sum assessed by authority on property for public use, according to its income or value; esp., in England, a local tax; as, parish rates; town rates.
• Order; arrangement.
• Ratification; approval.
(Horol.) The gain or loss of a timepiece in a unit of time; as, daily rate; hourly rate; etc.
(Naut.) The order or class to which a war vessel belongs, determined according to its size, armament, etc.; as, first rate, second rate, etc.
• The class of a merchant vessel for marine insurance, determined by its relative safety as a risk, as A1, A2, etc.
v. t.
• To set a certain estimate on; to value at a certain price or degree.
• To assess for the payment of a rate or tax.
• To settle the relative scale, rank, position, amount, value, or quality of; as, to rate a ship; to rate a seaman; to rate a pension.
• To ratify.
v. i.
• To be set or considered in a class; to have rank; as, the ship rates as a ship of the line.
• To make an estimate.
Rateable
a.
• See Ratable.
Ratel
n.
(Zool.) Any carnivore of the genus Mellivora, allied to the weasels and the skunks; — called also honey badger.
Ratepayer
n.
• One who pays rates or taxes.
Rater
n.
• One who rates or estimates.
n.
• One who rates or scolds.
Ratfish
n.
(Zool.) Same as Rat-tail.
Rath
n.
• A hill or mound.
• A kind of ancient fortification found in Ireland.
Rather
a.
• Prior; earlier; former.
adv.
• Earlier; sooner; before.
• More readily or willingly; preferably.
• On the other hand; to the contrary of what was said or suggested; instead.
• Of two alternatives conceived of, by preference to, or as more likely than, the other; somewhat.
• More properly; more correctly speaking.
• In some degree; somewhat; as, the day is rather warm; the house is rather damp.
Rathripe
a.
• Rareripe, or early ripe.
n.
• A rareripe.
Ratification
n.
• The act of ratifying; the state of being ratified; confirmation; sanction; as, the ratification of a treaty.
Ratifier
n.
• One who, or that which, ratifies; a confirmer.
Ratify
v. t.
• To approve and sanction; to make valid; to establish; to settle; especially, to give sanction to, as something done by an agent or servant; as, to ratify an agreement, treaty, or contract; to ratify a nomination.
Ratihabition
n.
• Confirmation or approbation, as of an act or contract.
Ratio
n.
(Math.) The relation which one quantity or magnitude has to another of the same kind. It is expressed by the quotient of the division of the first by the second; thus, the ratio of 3 to 6 is expressed by a to b by a/b; or (less commonly) the second is made the dividend; as, a:b = b/a.
• Hence, fixed relation of number, quantity, or degree; rate; proportion; as, the ratio of representation in Congress.
Ratiocinate
v. i.
• To reason, esp. deductively; to offer reason or argument.
Ratiocination
n.
• The process of reasoning, or deducing conclusions from premises; deductive reasoning.
Ratiocinative
a.
• Characterized by, or addicted to, ratiocination; consisting in the comparison of proportions or facts, and the deduction of inferences from the comparison; argumentative; as, a ratiocinative process.
Ratiocinatory
a.
• Ratiocinative.
Ration
n.
• A fixed daily allowance of provisions assigned to a soldier in the army, or a sailor in the navy, for his subsistence.
• Hence, a certain portion or fixed amount dealt out; an allowance; an allotment.
v. t.
• To supply with rations, as a regiment.
Rational
a.
• Relating to reason; not physical; mental.
• Having reason, or the faculty of reasoning; endowed with reason or understanding; reasoning.
• Agreeable to reason; not absurd, preposterous, extravagant, foolish, fanciful, or the like; wise; judicious; as, rational conduct; a rational man.
(Chem.) Expressing the type, structure, relations, and reactions of a compound; graphic; — said of formulae. See under Formula.
n.
• A rational being.
Rationale
n.
• An explanation or exposition of the principles of some opinion, action, hypothesis, phenomenon, or like; also, the principles themselves.
Rationalism
n.
(Theol.) The doctrine or system of those who deduce their religious opinions from reason or the understanding, as distinct from, or opposed to, revelation.
(Philos.) The system that makes rational power the ultimate test of truth; — opposed to sensualism, or sensationalism, and empiricism.
Rationalist
n.
• One who accepts rationalism as a theory or system; also, disparagingly, a false reasoner. See Citation under Reasonist.
Rationality
n.
• The quality or state of being rational; agreement with reason; possession of reason; due exercise of reason; reasonableness.
Rationalization
n.
• The act or process of rationalizing.
Rationalize
v. t.
• To make rational; also, to convert to rationalism.
• To interpret in the manner of a rationalist.
• To form a rational conception of.
(Alg.) To render rational; to free from radical signs or quantities.
v. i.
• To use, and rely on, reason in forming a theory, belief, etc., especially in matters of religion: to accord with the principles of rationalism.
Rationally
adv.
• In a rational manner.
Rationalness
n.
• The quality or state of being rational; rationality.
Ratitae
n. pl.
(Zool.) An order of birds in which the wings are small, rudimentary, or absent, and the breastbone is destitute of a keel. The ostrich, emu, and apteryx are examples.
Ratitate
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Ratitae.
Ratite
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Ratitae.
n.
• One of the Ratitae.
Raton
n.
• A small rat.
Ratoon
n.
• Same as Rattoon, n.
• A rattan cane.
v. i.
• Same as Rattoon, v. i.
Ratsbane
n.
• Rat poison; white arsenic.
Ratsbaned
a.
• Poisoned by ratsbane.
Rattan
n.
(Bot. ) One of the long slender flexible stems of several species of palms of the genus Calamus, mostly East Indian, though some are African and Australian. They are exceedingly tough, and are used for walking sticks, wickerwork, chairs and seats of chairs, cords and cordage, and many other purposes.
Ratteen
n.
• A thick woolen stuff quilled or twilled.
Ratten
v. t.
• To deprive feloniously of the tools used in one's employment (as by breaking or stealing them), for the purpose of annoying; as, to ratten a mechanic who works during a strike.
Ratter
n.
• One who, or that which, rats, as one who deserts his party.
• Anything which catches rats; esp., a dog trained to catch rats; a rat terrier. See Terrier.
Rattinet
n.
• A woolen stuff thinner than ratteen.
Ratting
n.
• The conduct or practices of one who rats. See Rat, v. i., 1.
• The low sport of setting a dog upon rats confined in a pit to see how many he will kill in a given time.
Rattle
v. i.
• To make a quick succession of sharp, inharmonious noises, as by the collision of hard and not very sonorous bodies shaken together; to clatter.
• To drive or ride briskly, so as to make a clattering; as, we rattled along for a couple of miles.
• To make a clatter with a voice; to talk rapidly and idly; to clatter; — with on or away; as, she rattled on for an hour.
v. t.
• To cause to make a ratting or clattering sound; as, to rattle a chain.
• To assail, annoy, or stun with a ratting noise
• Hence, to disconcert; to confuse; as, to rattle one's judgment; to rattle a player in a game.
• To scold; to rail at.
n.
• A rapid succession of sharp, clattering sounds; as, the rattle of a drum.
• Noisy, rapid talk.
• An instrument with which a ratting sound is made; especially, a child's toy that rattle when shaken.
• A noisy, senseless talker; a jabberer.
• A scolding; a sharp rebuke.
(Zool.) Any organ of an animal having a structure adapted to produce a ratting sound.
• The noise in the throat produced by the air in passing through mucus which the lungs are unable to expel; — chiefly observable at the approach of death, when it is called the death rattle. See R&acir;le.
Rattlebox
n.
• A toy that makes a rattle sound; a rattle.
(Bot.) An American herb (Crotalaria sagittalis), the seeds of which, when ripe, rattle in the inflated pod.
• Any species of Crotalaria, a genus of yellow-flowered herbs, with inflated, many-seeded pods.
Rattlehead
n.
• An empty, noisy talker.
Rattlemouse
n.
• A bat.
Rattlepate
n.
• A rattlehead.
Rattler
n.
• One who, or that which, rattles.
Rattlesnake
n.
(Zool.) Any one of several species of venomous American snakes belonging to the genera Crotalus and Caudisona, or Sistrurus. They have a series of horny interlocking joints at the end of the tail which make a sharp ratting sound when shaken. The common rattlesnake of the Northern United States (Crotalus horridus), and the diamond rattlesnake of the south (C. adamanteus), are the best known. See Illust. of Fang.
Rattletrap
n.
• Any machine or vehicle that does not run smoothly.
Rattleweed
n.
(Bot.) Any plant of the genus Astragalus. See Milk vetch.
Rattlewings
n.
(Zool.) The golden-eye.
Rattlewort
n.
(Bot.) Same as Rattlebox.
Rattlings
n. pl.
(Naut.) Ratlines.
Rattoon
n.
• One of the stems or shoots of sugar cane of the second year's growth from the root, or later. See Plant-cane.
v. i.
• To sprout or spring up from the root, as sugar cane of the previous year's planting.
Raucid
a.
• Hoarse; raucous
Raucity
n.
• Harshness of sound; rough utterance; hoarseness; as, the raucity of a trumpet, or of the human voice.
Raucous
a.
• Hoarse; harsh; rough; as, a raucous, thick tone.
Raught
• imp. & p. p. of Reach.
• imp. & p. p. of Reck.
Raunch
v. t.
• See Ranch.
Raunsoun
n.
• Ransom.
Ravage
n.
• Desolation by violence; violent ruin or destruction; devastation; havoc; waste; as, the ravage of a lion; the ravages of fire or tempest; the ravages of an army, or of time.
v. t.
• To lay waste by force; to desolate by violence; to commit havoc or devastation upon; to spoil; to plunder; to consume.
Ravager
n.
• One who, or that which, ravages or lays waste; spoiler.
Rave
n.
• One of the upper side pieces of the frame of a wagon body or a sleigh.
v. i.
• To wander in mind or intellect; to be delirious; to talk or act irrationally; to be wild, furious, or raging, as a madman.
• To rush wildly or furiously.
• To talk with unreasonable enthusiasm or excessive passion or excitement; — followed by about, of, or on; as, he raved about her beauty.
v. t.
• To utter in madness or frenzy; to say wildly; as, to rave nonsense.
Ravehook
n.
(Shipbuilding) A tool, hooked at the end, for enlarging or clearing seams for the reception of oakum.
Ravel
v. t.
• To separate or undo the texture of; to take apart; to untwist; to unweave or unknit; — often followed by out; as, to ravel a twist; to ravel out a sticking.
• To undo the intricacies of; to disentangle.
• To pull apart, as the threads of a texture, and let them fall into a tangled mass; hence, to entangle; to make intricate; to involve.
v. i.
• To become untwisted or unwoven; to be disentangled; to be relieved of intricacy.
• To fall into perplexity and confusion.
• To make investigation or search, as by picking out the threads of a woven pattern.
Raveler
n.
• One who ravels.
Ravelin
n.
(Fort.) A detached work with two embankments with make a salient angle. It is raised before the curtain on the counterscarp of the place. Formerly called demilune and half-moon.
Raveling
n.
• The act of untwisting, or of disentangling.
• That which is raveled out; esp., a thread detached from a texture.
Raven
n.
(Zool.) A large black passerine bird (Corvus corax), similar to the crow, but larger. It is native of the northern part of Europe, Asia and America, and is noted for its sagacity.
a.
• Of the color of the raven; jet black; as, raven curls; raven darkness.
n.
• Rapine; rapacity.
• Prey; plunder; food obtained by violence.
v. t.
• To obtain or seize by violence.
• To devoir with great eagerness.
v. i.
• To prey with rapacity; to be greedy; to show rapacity.
Ravenala
n.
(Bot.) A genus of plants related to the banana.
Ravener
n.
• One who, or that which, ravens or plunders.
• A bird of prey, as the owl or vulture.
Ravening
n.
• Eagerness for plunder; rapacity; extortion.
a.
• Greedily devouring; rapacious; as, ravening wolves.
Ravenous
a.
• Devouring with rapacious eagerness; furiously voracious; hungry even to rage; as, a ravenous wolf or vulture.
• Eager for prey or gratification; as, a ravenous appetite or desire.
Raver
n.
• One who raves.
Ravin
n.
• Ravenous.
Ravine
n.
• A torrent of water.
• A deep and narrow hollow, usually worn by a stream or torrent of water; a gorge; a mountain cleft.
Raving
a.
• Talking irrationally and wildly; as, a raving lunatic.
Ravish
v. t.
• To seize and carry away by violence; to snatch by force.
• To transport with joy or delight; to delight to ecstasy.
• To have carnal knowledge of (a woman) by force, and against her consent; to rape.
Ravisher
n.
• One who ravishes (in any sense).
Ravishing
a.
• Rapturous; transporting.
Ravishingly
adv.
• In a ravishing manner.
Ravishment
n.
• The act of carrying away by force or against consent; abduction; as, the ravishment of children from their parents, or a ward from his guardian, or of a wife from her husband.
• The state of being ravished; rapture; transport of delight; ecstasy.
• The act of ravishing a woman; rape.
Ravissant
a.
(Her.) In a half-raised position, as if about to spring on prey.
Raw
a.
• Not altered from its natural state; not prepared by the action of heat; as, raw sienna; specifically, not cooked; not changed by heat to a state suitable for eating; not done; as, raw meat.
• Hence: Unprepared for use or enjoyment; immature; unripe; unseasoned; inexperienced; unpracticed; untried; as, raw soldiers; a raw recruit.
• Not worked in due form; in the natural state; untouched by art; unwrought.
• Not distilled; as, raw water
• Not spun or twisted; as, raw silk or cotton
• Not mixed or diluted; as, raw spirits
• Not tried; not melted and strained; as, raw tallow
• Not tanned; as, raw hides
• Not trimmed, covered, or folded under; as, the raw edge of a piece of metal or of cloth.
• Not covered; bare.
• Bald
• Deprived of skin; galled; as, a raw sore
• Sore, as if by being galled
• Disagreeably damp or cold; chilly; as, a raw wind.
n.
• A raw, sore, or galled place; a sensitive spot; as, to touch one on the raw.
Rawbone
a.
• Rawboned.
Rawboned
a.
• Having little flesh on the bones; gaunt.
Rawhead
n.
• A specter mentioned to frighten children; as, rawhead and bloodybones.
Rawhide
n.
• A cowhide, or coarse riding whip, made of untanned (or raw) hide twisted.
Rawish
a.
• Somewhat raw.
Rawly
adv.
• In a raw manner; unskillfully; without experience.
• Without proper preparation or provision.
Rawness
n.
• The quality or state of being raw.
Ray
v. t.
• To array.
• To mark, stain, or soil; to streak; to defile.
n.
• Array; order; arrangement; dress.
n.
• One of a number of lines or parts diverging from a common point or center, like the radii of a circle; as, a star of six rays.
(Bot.) A radiating part of the flower or plant; the marginal florets of a compound flower, as an aster or a sunflower; one of the pedicels of an umbel or other circular flower cluster; radius. See Radius.
(Zool.) One of the radiating spines, or cartilages, supporting the fins of fishes.
• One of the spheromeres of a radiate, especially one of the arms of a starfish or an ophiuran.
(Physics) A line of light or heat proceeding from a radiant or reflecting point; a single element of light or heat propagated continuously; as, a solar ray; a polarized ray.
• One of the component elements of the total radiation from a body; any definite or limited portion of the spectrum; as, the red ray; the violet ray. See Illust. under Light.
• Sight; perception; vision; — from an old theory of vision, that sight was something which proceeded from the eye to the object seen.
(Geom.) One of a system of diverging lines passing through a point, and regarded as extending indefinitely in both directions. See Half-ray.
v. t.
• To mark with long lines; to streak.
• To send forth or shoot out; to cause to shine out; as, to ray smiles.
v. t.
• To shine, as with rays.
n.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous elasmobranch fishes of the order Raiae, including the skates, torpedoes, sawfishes, etc.
• In a restricted sense, any of the broad, flat, narrow-tailed species, as the skates and sting rays. See Skate.
Rayah
n.
• A person not a Mohammedan, who pays the capitation tax.
Rayless
a.
• Destitute of rays; hence, dark; not illuminated; blind; as, a rayless sky; rayless eyes.
Rayon
n.
• Ray; beam.
Rayonnant
a.
(Her.) Darting forth rays, as the sun when it shines out.
Raze
n.
• A Shakespearean word (used once) supposed to mean the same as race, a root.
v. t.
• To erase; to efface; to obliterate.
• To subvert from the foundation; to lay level with the ground; to destroy; to demolish.
Razed
a.
• Slashed or striped in patterns.
Razee
n.
(Naut.) An armed ship having her upper deck cut away, and thus reduced to the next inferior rate, as a seventy-four cut down to a frigate.
Razoe
v. t.
• To cut down to a less number of decks, and thus to an inferior rate or glass, as a ship; hence, to prune or abridge by cutting off or retrenching parts; as, to razee a book, or an article.
Razor
n.
• A keen-edged knife of peculiar shape, used in shaving the hair from the face or the head.
(Zool.) A task of a wild boar.
Razorback
n.
(Zool.) The rorqual.
Razorbill
n.
(Zool.) A species of auk (Alca torda) common in the Arctic seas. See Auk, and Illust. in Appendix.
• See Cutwater, 3.
Razure
n.
• The act of erasing or effacing, or the state of being effaced; obliteration. See Rasure.
• An erasure; a change made by erasing.
Razzia
n.
• A plundering and destructive incursion; a foray; a rai.
Re
(Mus.) A syllable applied in solmization to the second tone of the diatonic scale of C; in the American system, to the second tone of any diatonic scale.
Reabsorb
v. t.
• To absorb again; to draw in, or imbibe, again what has been effused, extravasated, or thrown off; to swallow up again; as, to reabsorb chyle, lymph, etc.; — used esp. of fluids.
Reabsorption
n.
• The act or process of rearbsorbing.
Reaccess
n.
• A second access or approach; a return.
Reaccuse
v. t.
• To accuse again.
Reach
n.
• An effort to vomit.
v. t.
• To extend; to stretch; to thrust out; to put forth, as a limb, a member, something held, or the like.
• Hence, to deliver by stretching out a member, especially the hand; to give with the hand; to pass to another; to hand over; as, to reach one a book.
• To attain or obtain by stretching forth the hand; too extend some part of the body, or something held by one, so as to touch, strike, grasp, or the like; as, to reach an object with the hand, or with a spear.
• To strike, hit, or tough with a missile; as, to reach an object with an arrow, a bullet, or a shell.
• Hence, to extend an action, effort, or influence to; to penetrate to; to pierce, or cut, as far as.
• To extend to; to stretch out as far as; to touch by virtue of extent; as, his hand reaches the river.
• To arrive at by effort of any kind; to attain to; to gain; to be advanced to.
• To understand; to comprehend.
• To overreach; to deceive.
v. t.
• To stretch out the hand.
• To strain after something; to make efforts.
• To extend in dimension, time, amount, action, influence, etc., so as to touch, attain to, or be equal to, something.
(Naut.) To sail on the wind, as from one point of tacking to another, or with the ind nearly abeam.
n.
• The act of stretching or extending; extension; power of reaching or touching with the person, or a limb, or something held or thrown; as, the fruit is beyond my reach; to be within reach of cannon shot.
• The power of stretching out or extending action, influence, or the like; power of attainment or management; extent of force or capacity.
• Extent; stretch; expanse; hence, application; influence; result; scope.
• An extended portion of land or water; a stretch; a straight portion of a stream or river, as from one turn to another; a level stretch, as between locks in a canal; an arm of the sea extending up into the land.
• An article to obtain an advantage.
• The pole or rod which connects the hind axle with the forward bolster of a wagon.
Reachable
a.
• Being within reach.
Reacher
n.
• One who reaches.
• An exaggeration.
Reachless
a.
• Being beyond reach; lofty.
React
v. t.
• To act or perform a second time; to do over again; as, to react a play; the same scenes were reacted at Rome.
v. i.
• To return an impulse or impression; to resist the action of another body by an opposite force; as, every body reacts on the body that impels it from its natural state.
• To act upon each other; to exercise a reciprocal or a reverse effect, as two or more chemical agents; to act in opposition.
Reaction
n.
• Any action in resisting other action or force; counter tendency; movement in a contrary direction; reverse action.
(Chem.) The mutual or reciprocal action of chemical agents upon each other, or the action upon such chemical agents of some form of energy, as heat, light, or electricity, resulting in a chemical change in one or more of these agents, with the production of new compounds or the manifestation of distinctive characters. See Blowpipe reaction, Flame reaction, under Blowpipe, and Flame.
(Med.) An action included by vital resistance to some other action; depression or exhaustion of vital force consequent on overexertion or overstimulation; heightened activity and overaction succeeding depression or shock.
(Mech.) The force which a body subjected to the action of a force from another body exerts upon the latter body in the opposite direction.
(Politics) Backward tendency or movement after revolution, reform, or great progress in any direction.
Reactionary
a.
• Being, causing, or favoring reaction; as, reactionary movements.
n.
• One who favors reaction, or seeks to undo political progress or revolution.
Reactionist
n.
• A reactionary.
Reactive
a.
• Having power to react; tending to reaction; of the nature of reaction.
Read
n.
• Rennet. See 3d Reed.
v. t.
• To advise; to counsel. See Rede.
• To interpret; to explain; as, to read a riddle.
• To tell; to declare; to recite.
• To go over, as characters or words, and utter aloud, or recite to one's self inaudibly; to take in the sense of, as of language, by interpreting the characters with which it is expressed; to peruse; as, to read a discourse; to read the letters of an alphabet; to read figures; to read the notes of music, or to read music; to read a book.
• Hence, to know fully; to comprehend.
• To discover or understand by characters, marks, features, etc.; to learn by observation.
• To make a special study of, as by perusing textbooks; as, to read theology or law.
v. t.
• To give advice or counsel.
• To tell; to declare.
• To perform the act of reading; to peruse, or to go over and utter aloud, the words of a book or other like document.
• To study by reading; as, he read for the bar.
• To learn by reading.
• To appear in writing or print; to be expressed by, or consist of, certain words or characters; as, the passage reads thus in the early manuscripts.
• To produce a certain effect when read; as, that sentence reads queerly.
n.
• Saying; sentence; maxim; hence, word; advice; counsel. See Rede.
• Reading.
• imp. & p. p. of Read, v. t. & i.
a.
• Instructed or knowing by reading; versed in books; learned.
Readability
n.
• The state of being readable; readableness.
Readable
a.
• Such as can be read; legible; fit or suitable to be read; worth reading; interesting.
Readdress
v. t.
• To address a second time; — often used reflexively.
Readept
v. t.
• To regain; to recover.
Readeption
n.
• A regaining; recovery of something lost.
Reader
n.
• One who reads.
• One whose distinctive office is to read prayers in a church.
(University of Oxford, Eng.) One who reads lectures on scientific subjects.
• A proof reader.
• One who reads manuscripts offered for publication and advises regarding their merit
• One who reads much; one who is studious.
• A book containing a selection of extracts for exercises in reading; an elementary book for practice in a language; a reading book.
Readership
n.
• The office of reader.
Readily
adv.
• In a ready manner; quickly; promptly.
• Without delay or objection; without reluctance; willingly; cheerfully.
Readiness
n.
• The state or quality of being ready; preparation; promptness; aptitude; willingness.
Reading
n.
• The act of one who reads; perusal; also, printed or written matter to be read.
• Study of books; literary scholarship; as, a man of extensive reading.
• A lecture or prelection; public recital.
• The way in which anything reads; force of a word or passage presented by a documentary authority; lection; version.
• Manner of reciting, or acting a part, on the stage; way of rendering.
• An observation read from the scale of a graduated instrument; as, the reading of a barometer.
a.
• Of or pertaining to the act of reading; used in reading.
• Addicted to reading; as, a reading community.
Readjourn
v. t.
• To adjourn a second time; to adjourn again.
Readjournment
n.
• The act of readjourning; a second or repeated adjournment.
Readjust
v. t.
• To adjust or settle again; to put in a different order or relation; to rearrange.
Readjuster
n.
• One who, or that which, readjusts; in some of the States of the United States, one who advocates a refunding, and sometimes a partial repudiation, of the State debt without the consent of the State's creditors.
Readjustment
n.
• A second adjustment; a new or different adjustment.
Readmission
n.
• The act of admitting again, or the state of being readmitted; as, the readmission fresh air into an exhausted receiver; the readmission of a student into a seminary.
Readmit
v. t.
• To admit again; to give entrance or access to again.
Readmittance
n.
• Allowance to enter again; a second admission.
Readopt
v. t.
• To adopt again.
Readorn
v. t.
• To adorn again or anew.
Readvance
v. i.
• To advance again.
Readvertency
n.
• The act of adverting to again, or of reviewing.
Ready
a.
• Prepared for what one is about to do or experience; equipped or supplied with what is needed for some act or event; prepared for immediate movement or action; as, the troops are ready to march; ready for the journey.
• Fitted or arranged for immediate use; causing no delay for lack of being prepared or furnished.
• Prepared in mind or disposition; not reluctant; willing; free; inclined; disposed.
• Not slow or hesitating; quick in action or perception of any kind; dexterous; prompt; easy; expert; as, a ready apprehension; ready wit; a ready writer or workman.
• Offering itself at once; at hand; opportune; convenient; near; easy.
• On the point; about; on the brink; near; — with a following infinitive.
(Mil.) A word of command, or a position, in the manual of arms, at which the piece is cocked and held in position to execute promptly the next command, which is, aim.
adv.
• In a state of preparation for immediate action; so as to need no delay.
n.
• Ready money; cash; — commonly with the; as, he was supplied with the ready.
v. t.
• To dispose in order.
Reaffirm
v. t.
• To affirm again.
Reafforest
v. t.
• To convert again into the forest, as a region of country.
Reafforestation
n.
• The act or process of converting again into a forest.
Reagent
n.
(Chem.) A substance capable of producing with another a reaction, especially when employed to detect the presence of other bodies; a test.
Reaggravation
n.
(R. C. Ch.) The last monitory, published after three admonitions and before the last excommunication.
Reagree
v. t.
• To agree again.
Reak
n.
• A rush.
n.
• A prank.
Real
n.
• A small Spanish silver coin; also, a denomination of money of account, formerly the unit of the Spanish monetary system.
a.
• Royal; regal; kingly.
a.
• Actually being or existing; not fictitious or imaginary; as, a description of real life.
• True; genuine; not artificial; counterfeit, or factitious; often opposed to ostensible; as, the real reason; real Madeira wine; real ginger.
• Relating to things, not to persons.
(Alg.) Having an assignable arithmetical or numerical value or meaning; not imaginary.
(Law) Pertaining to things fixed, permanent, or immovable, as to lands and tenements; as, real property, in distinction from personal or movable property.
n.
• A realist.
Realgar
n.
(Min.) Arsenic sulphide, a mineral of a brilliant red color; red orpiment. It is also an artificial product.
Realism
n.
(Philos.) An opposed to nominalism, the doctrine that genera and species are real things or entities, existing independently of our conceptions. According to realism the Universal exists ante rem (Plato), or in re (Aristotle).
• As opposed to idealism, the doctrine that in sense perception there is an immediate cognition of the external object, and our knowledge of it is not mediate and representative.
(Art & Lit.) Fidelity to nature or to real life; representation without idealization, and making no appeal to the imagination; adherence to the actual fact.
Realist
n.
(Philos.) One who believes in realism; esp., one who maintains that generals, or the terms used to denote the genera and species of things, represent real existences, and are not mere names, as maintained by the nominalists.
(Art. & Lit.) An artist or writer who aims at realism in his work. See Realism, 2.
Realistic
a.
• Of or pertaining to the realists; in the manner of the realists; characterized by realism rather than by imagination.
Realistically
adv.
• In the realistic manner.
Reality
n.
• The state or quality of being real; actual being or existence of anything, in distinction from mere appearance; fact.
• That which is real; an actual existence; that which is not imagination, fiction, or pretense; that which has objective existence, and is not merely an idea.
• Loyalty; devotion.
(Law) See 2d Realty, 2.
Realizable
a.
• Capable of being realized.
Realization
n.
• The act of realizing, or the state of being realized.
Realize
v. t.
• To make real; to convert from the imaginary or fictitious into the actual; to bring into concrete existence; to accomplish; as, to realize a scheme or project.
• To cause to seem real; to impress upon the mind as actual; to feel vividly or strongly; to make one's own in apprehension or experience.
• To convert into real property; to make real estate of; as, to realize his fortune.
• To acquire as an actual possession; to obtain as the result of plans and efforts; to gain; to get; as, to realize large profits from a speculation.
• To convert into actual money; as, to realize assets.
v. t.
• To convert any kind of property into money, especially property representing investments, as shares in stock companies, bonds, etc.
Realizer
n.
• One who realizes.
Realizing
a.
• Serving to make real, or to impress on the mind as a reality; as, a realizing view of the danger incurred.
Reallege
v. t.
• To allege again.
Realliance
n.
• A renewed alliance.
Really
adv.
• Royally.
adv.
• In a real manner; with or in reality; actually; in truth.
Realm
n.
• A royal jurisdiction or domain; a region which is under the dominion of a king; a kingdom.
• Hence, in general, province; region; country; domain; department; division; as, the realm of fancy.
Realmless
a.
• Destitute of a realm.
Realness
n.
• The quality or condition of being real; reality.
Realty
n.
• Royalty.
• Loyalty; faithfulness.
n.
• Realty.
(Law) Immobility, or the fixed, permanent nature of real property; as, chattels which savor of the realty; — so written in legal language for reality.
• Real estate; a piece of real property.
Ream
n.
• Cream; also, the cream or froth on ale.
v. i.
• To cream; to mantle.
v. t.
• To stretch out; to draw out into thongs, threads, or filaments.
n.
• A bundle, package, or quantity of paper, usually consisting of twenty quires or 480 sheets.
v. t.
• To bevel out, as the mouth of a hole in wood or metal; in modern usage, to enlarge or dress out, as a hole, with a reamer.
Reame
n.
• Realm.
Reamer
n.
• One who, or that which, reams; specifically, an instrument with cutting or scraping edges, used, with a twisting motion, for enlarging a round hole, as a bore of a cannon, etc.
Reamputation
n.
(Surg.) The second of two amputations performed upon the same member.
Reanimate
v. t.
• To animate anew; to restore to animation or life; to infuse new life, vigor, spirit, or courage into; to revive; to reinvigorate; as, to reanimate a drowned person; to reanimate disheartened troops; to reanimate languid spirits.
Reanimation
n.
• The act or operation of reanimating, or the state of being reanimated; reinvigoration; revival.
Reannex
v. t.
• To annex again or anew; to reunite.
Reannexation
n.
• Act of reannexing.
Reanswer
v. t. & i.
• To answer in return; to repay; to compensate; to make amends for.
Reap
v. t.
• To cut with a sickle, scythe, or reaping machine, as grain; to gather, as a harvest, by cutting.
• To gather; to obtain; to receive as a reward or harvest, or as the fruit of labor or of works; — in a good or a bad sense; as, to reap a benefit from exertions.
• To clear or a crop by reaping; as, to reap a field.
• To deprive of the beard; to shave.
v. i.
• To perform the act or operation of reaping; to gather a harvest.
n.
• A bundle of grain; a handful of grain laid down by the reaper as it is cut.
Reaper
n.
• One who reaps.
• A reaping machine.
Reapparel
v. t.
• To clothe again.
Reappear
v. i.
• To appear again.
Reappearance
v. i.
• A second or new appearance; the act or state of appearing again.
Reapplication
n.
• The act of reapplying, or the state of being reapplied.
Reapply
v. t. & i.
• To apply again.
Reappoint
v. t.
• To appoint again.
Reappointment
n.
• The act of reappointing, or the state of being reappointed.
Reapportion
v. t.
• To apportion again.
Reapportionment
n.
• A second or a new apportionment.
Reapproach
v. i. & t.
• To approach again or anew.
Rear
adv.
• Early; soon.
n.
• The back or hindmost part; that which is behind, or last on order; — opposed to front.
• Specifically, the part of an army or fleet which comes last, or is stationed behind the rest.
a.
• Being behind, or in the hindmost part; hindmost; as, the rear rank of a company.
v. t.
• To place in the rear; to secure the rear of.
v. t.
• To raise; to lift up; to cause to rise, become erect, etc.; to elevate; as, to rear a monolith.
• To erect by building; to set up; to construct; as, to rear defenses or houses; to rear one government on the ruins of another.
• To lift and take up.
• To bring up to maturity, as young; to educate; to instruct; to foster; as, to rear offspring.
• To breed and raise; as, to rear cattle.
• To rouse; to strip up.
v. i.
• To rise up on the hind legs, as a horse; to become erect.
Rearer
n.
• One he, or that which, rears.
Reargue
v. t.
• To argue anew or again.
Reargument
n.
• An arguing over again, as of a motion made in court.
Rearly
adv.
• Early.
Rearmost
a.
• Farthest in the rear; last.
Rearrange
v. t.
• To arrange again; to arrange in a different way.
Rearrangement
n.
• The act of rearranging, or the state of being rearranged.
Rearward
n.
• The last troop; the rear of an army; a rear guard. Also used figuratively.
a. & adv.
• At or toward the rear.
Reascend
v. i.
• To rise, mount, or climb again.
v. t.
• To ascend or mount again; to reach by ascending again.
Reascension
n.
• The act of reascending; a remounting.
Reascent
n.
• A returning ascent or ascension; acclivity.
Reason
n.
• A thought or a consideration offered in support of a determination or an opinion; a just ground for a conclusion or an action; that which is offered or accepted as an explanation; the efficient cause of an occurrence or a phenomenon; a motive for an action or a determination; proof, more or less decisive, for an opinion or a conclusion; principle; efficient cause; final cause; ground of argument.
• The faculty of capacity of the human mind by which it is distinguished from the intelligence of the inferior animals; the higher as distinguished from the lower cognitive faculties, sense, imagination, and memory, and in contrast to the feelings and desires. Reason comprises conception, judgment, reasoning, and the intuitional faculty. Specifically, it is the intuitional faculty, or the faculty of first truths, as distinguished from the understanding, which is called the discursive or ratiocinative faculty.
• Due exercise of the reasoning faculty; accordance with, or that which is accordant with and ratified by, the mind rightly exercised; right intellectual judgment; clear and fair deductions from true principles; that which is dictated or supported by the common sense of mankind; right conduct; right; propriety; justice.
(Math.) Ratio; proportion.
v. t.
• To exercise the rational faculty; to deduce inferences from premises; to perform the process of deduction or of induction; to ratiocinate; to reach conclusions by a systematic comparison of facts.
• Hence: To carry on a process of deduction or of induction, in order to convince or to confute; to formulate and set forth propositions and the inferences from them; to argue.
• To converse; to compare opinions.
v. t.
• To arrange and present the reasons for or against; to examine or discuss by arguments; to debate or discuss; as, I reasoned the matter with my friend.
• To support with reasons, as a request.
• To persuade by reasoning or argument; as, to reason one into a belief; to reason one out of his plan.
• To overcome or conquer by adducing reasons; — with down; as, to reason down a passion.
• To find by logical process; to explain or justify by reason or argument; — usually with out; as, to reason out the causes of the librations of the moon.
Reasonable
a.
• Having the faculty of reason; endued with reason; rational; as, a reasonable being.
• Governed by reason; being under influence of reason; thinking, speaking or acting rationally, or according to the dictates of reason; agreeable to reason; just; rational; as, the measure must satisfy all reasonable men.
• Not excessive or immoderate; within due limits; proper; as, a reasonable demand, amount, price.
adv.
• Reasonable; tolerably.
Reasonableness
n.
• Quality of being reasonable.
Reasonably
adv.
• In a reasonable manner.
• Moderately; tolerably.
Reasoner
n.
• One who reasons or argues; as, a fair reasoner; a close reasoner; a logical reasoner.
Reasoning
n.
• The act or process of adducing a reason or reasons; manner of presenting one's reasons.
• That which is offered in argument; proofs or reasons when arranged and developed; course of argument.
Reasonist
n.
• A rationalist.
Reasonless
a.
• Destitute of reason; as, a reasonless man or mind.
• Void of reason; not warranted or supported by reason; unreasonable.
Reassemblage
n.
• Assemblage a second time or again.
Reassemble
v. t. & i.
• To assemble again.
Reassert
v. t.
• To assert again or anew; to maintain after an omission to do so.
Reassertion
n.
• A second or renewed assertion of the same thing.
Reassessment
n.
• A renewed or second assessment.
Reassign
v. t.
• To assign back or again; to transfer back what has been assigned.
Reassignment
n.
• The act of reassigning.
Reassimilate
v. t. & i.
• To assimilate again.
Reassociate
v. t. & i.
• To associate again; to bring again into close relatoins.
Reassume
v. t.
• To assume again or anew; to resume.
Reassurance
n.
• Assurance or confirmation renewed or repeated.
(Law) Same as Reinsurance.
Reassure
v. t.
• To assure anew; to restore confidence to; to free from fear or terror.
• To reinsure.
Reassurer
n.
• One who reassures.
Reasty
a.
• Rusty and rancid; — applied to salt meat.
Reata
n.
• A lariat.
Reattach
v. t.
• To attach again.
Reattachment
n.
• The act of reattaching; a second attachment.
Reattain
v. t.
• To attain again.
Reattainment
n.
• The act of reattaining.
Reattempt
v. t.
• To attempt again.
Reaume
n.
• Realm.
Reaumur
a.
• Of or pertaining to Rene Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur; conformed to the scale adopted by Reaumur in graduating the thermometer he invented.
n.
• A Reaumur thermometer or scale.
Reave
v. t.
• To take away by violence or by stealth; to snatch away; to rob; to despoil; to bereave. .
Reaver
n.
• One who reaves.
Reawake
v. i.
• To awake again.
Rebanish
v. t.
• To banish again.
Rebaptisation
n.
• A second baptism.
Rebaptism
n.
• A second baptism.
Rebaptize
v. t.
• To baptize again or a second time.
Rebaptizer
n.
• One who rebaptizes.
Rebarbarize
v. t.
• To reduce again to barbarism.
Rebate
v. t.
• To beat to obtuseness; to deprive of keenness; to blunt; to turn back the point of, as a lance used for exercise.
• To deduct from; to make a discount from, as interest due, or customs duties.
v. i.
• To abate; to withdraw.
n.
• Diminution.
(Com.) Deduction; abatement; as, a rebate of interest for immediate payment; a rebate of importation duties.
n.
(Arch.) A restangular longitudinal recess or groove, cut in the corner or edge of any body; a rabbet. See Rabbet.
• A piece of wood hafted into a long stick, and serving to beat out mortar.
• An iron tool sharpened something like a chisel, and used for dressing and polishing wood.
• A kind of hard freestone used in making pavements.
v. t.
• To cut a rebate in. See Rabbet, v.
Rebatement
n.
• Same as 3d Rebate, v.
Rebato
n.
• Same as Rabato.
Rebec
n.
(Mus.) An instrument formerly used which somewhat resembled the violin, having three strings, and being played with a bow.
• A contemptuous term applied to an old woman.
Rebel
a.
• Pertaining to rebels or rebellion; acting in revolt; rebellious; as, rebel troops.
n.
• One who rebels.
v. i.
• To renounce, and resist by force, the authority of the ruler or government to which one owes obedience. See Rebellion.
• To be disobedient to authority; to assume a hostile or insubordinate attitude; to revolt.
Rebeldom
n.
• A region infested by rebels; rebels, considered collectively; also, conduct o quality characteristic of rebels.
Rebeller
n.
• One who rebels; a rebel.
Rebellion
n.
• The act of rebelling; open and avowed renunciation of the authority of the government to which one owes obedience, and resistances to its officers and laws, either by levying war, or by aiding others to do so; an organized uprising of subjects for the purpose of coercing or overthrowing their lawful ruler or government by force; revolt; insurrection.
• Open resistances to, or defiance of, lawful authority.
Rebellious
a.
• Engaged in rebellion; disposed to rebel of the nature of rebels or of rebellion; resisting government or lawful authority by force.
Rebellow
v. i.
• To bellow again; to repeat or echo a bellow.
Rebiting
n.
(Etching) The act or process of deepening worn lines in an etched plate by submitting it again to the action if acid.
Rebloom
v. i.
• To bloom again.
Reblossom
v. i.
• To blossom again.
Reboant
a.
• Rebellowing; resounding loudly.
Reboation
n.
• Repetition of a bellow.
Reboil
v. t. & i.
• To boil, or to cause to boil, again.
• Fig.: To make or to become hot.
Reborn
p. p.
• Born again.
Rebound
v. i.
• To spring back; to start back; to be sent back or reverberated by elastic force on collision with another body; as, a rebounding echo.
• To give back an echo.
• To bound again or repeatedly, as a horse.
v. t.
• To send back; to reverberate.
n.
• The act of rebounding; resilience.
Rebrace
v. t.
• To brace again.
Rebreathe
v. t.
• To breathe again.
Rebucous
a.
• Rebuking.
Rebuff
n.
• Repercussion, or beating back; a quick and sudden resistance.
• Sudden check; unexpected repulse; defeat; refusal; repellence; rejection of solicitation.
v. t.
• To beat back; to offer sudden resistance to; to check; to repel or repulse violently, harshly, or uncourteously.
Rebuild
v. t.
• To build again, as something which has been demolished; to construct anew; as, to rebuild a house, a wall, a wharf, or a city.
Rebuilder
n.
• One who rebuilds.
Rebukable
a.
• Worthy of rebuke or reprehension; reprehensible.
Rebuke
v. t.
• To check, silence, or put down, with reproof; to restrain by expression of disapprobation; to reprehend sharply and summarily; to chide; to reprove; to admonish.
n.
• A direct and pointed reproof; a reprimand; also, chastisement; punishment.
• Check; rebuff.
Rebukeful
a.
• Containing rebuke; of the nature of rebuke.
Rebuker
n.
• One who rebukes.
Rebukingly
adv.
• By way of rebuke.
Rebullition
n.
• The act of boiling up or effervescing.
Rebury
v. t.
• To bury again.
Rebus
n.
• A mode of expressing words and phrases by pictures of objects whose names resemble those words, or the syllables of which they are composed; enigmatical representation of words by figures; hence, a peculiar form of riddle made up of such representations.
(Her.) A pictorial suggestion on a coat of arms of the name of the person to whom it belongs. See Canting arms, under Canting.
v. t.
• To mark or indicate by a rebus.
Rebut
v. t.
• To drive or beat back; to repulse.
(Law) To contradict, meet, or oppose by argument, plea, or countervailing proof.
v. i.
• To retire; to recoil.
(Law) To make, or put in, an answer, as to a plaintiff's surrejoinder.
Rebuttable
a.
• Capable of being rebutted.
Rebuttal
n.
(Law) The giving of evidence on the part of a plaintiff to destroy the effect of evidence introduced by the defendant in the same suit.
Rebutter
n.
(Law) The answer of a defendant in matter of fact to a plaintiff's surrejoinder.
Recadency
n.
• A falling back or descending a second time; a relapse.
Recalcitrant
a.
• Kicking back; recalcitrating; hence, showing repugnance or opposition; refractory.
Recalcitrate
v. t.
• To kick against; to show repugnance to; to rebuff.
v. i.
• To kick back; to kick against anything; hence, to express repugnance or opposition.
Recalcitration
n.
• A kicking back again; opposition; repugnance; refractoriness.
Recall
v. t.
• To call back; to summon to return; as, to recall troops; to recall an ambassador.
• To revoke; to annul by a subsequent act; to take back; to withdraw; as, to recall words, or a decree.
• To call back to mind; to revive in memory; to recollect; to remember; as, to recall bygone days.
n.
• A calling back; a revocation.
(Mil.) A call on the trumpet, bugle, or drum, by which soldiers are recalled from duty, labor, etc.
Recallable
a.
• Capable of being recalled.
Recallment
n.
• Recall.
Recant
v. t.
• To withdraw or repudiate formally and publicly (opinions formerly expressed); to contradict, as a former declaration; to take back openly; to retract; to recall.
v. i.
• To revoke a declaration or proposition; to unsay what has been said; to retract; as, convince me that I am wrong, and I will recant.
Recantation
n.
• The act of recanting; a declaration that contradicts a former one; that which is thus asserted in contradiction; retraction.
Recanter
n.
• One who recants.
Recapacitate
v. t.
• To qualify again; to confer capacity on again.
Recapitulate
v. t.
• To repeat, as the principal points in a discourse, argument, or essay; to give a summary of the principal facts, points, or arguments of; to relate in brief; to summarize.
v. i.
• To sum up, or enumerate by heads or topics, what has been previously said; to repeat briefly the substance.
Recapitulation
n.
• The act of recapitulating; a summary, or concise statement or enumeration, of the principal points, facts, or statements, in a preceding discourse, argument, or essay.
Recapitulator
n.
• One who recapitulates.
Recapitulatory
a.
• Of the nature of a recapitulation; containing recapitulation.
Recapper
n.
(Firearms) A tool used for applying a fresh percussion cap or primer to a cartridge shell in reloading it.
Recaption
n.
(Law) The act of retaking, as of one who has escaped after arrest; reprisal; the retaking of one's own goods, chattels, wife, or children, without force or violence, from one who has taken them and who wrongfully detains them.
Recaptor
n.
• One who recaptures; one who takes a prize which had been previously taken.
Recapture
n.
• The act of retaking or recovering by capture; especially, the retaking of a prize or goods from a captor.
• That which is captured back; a prize retaken.
v. t.
• To capture again; to retake.
Recarbonize
v. t.
(Metal.) To restore carbon to; as, to recarbonize iron in converting it into steel.
Recarnify
v. t.
• To convert again into flesh.
Recarriage
n.
• Act of carrying back.
Recarry
v. t.
• To carry back.
Recast
v. t.
• To throw again.
• To mold anew; to cast anew; to throw into a new from a shape; to reconstruct; as, to recast cannon; to recast an argument or a play.
• To compute, or cast up, a second time.
Recche
v. i.
• To reck.
Reccheles
a.
• Reckless.
Recede
v. i.
• To move back; to retreat; to withdraw.
• To withdraw a claim or pretension; to desist; to relinquish what had been proposed or asserted; as, to recede from a demand or proposition.
v. t.
• To cede back; to grant or yield again to a former possessor; as, to recede conquered territory.
Receipt
n.
• The act of receiving; reception.
• Reception, as an act of hospitality.
• Capability of receiving; capacity.
• Place of receiving.
• Hence, a recess; a retired place.
• A formulary according to the directions of which things are to be taken or combined; a recipe; as, a receipt for making sponge cake.
• A writing acknowledging the taking or receiving of goods delivered; an acknowledgment of money paid.
• That which is received; that which comes in, in distinction from what is expended, paid out, sent away, and the like; — usually in the plural; as, the receipts amounted to a thousand dollars.
v. t.
• To give a receipt for; as, to receipt goods delivered by a sheriff.
• To put a receipt on, as by writing or stamping; as, to receipt a bill.
v. i.
• To give a receipt, as for money paid.
Receiptment
n.
(O. Eng. Law) The receiving or harboring a felon knowingly, after the commission of a felony.
Receiptor
n.
• One who receipts; specifically (Law), one who receipts for property which has been taken by the sheriff.
Receit
n.
• Receipt.
Receivability
n.
• The quality of being receivable; receivableness.
Receivable
a.
• Capable of being received.
Receive
v. t.
• To take, as something that is offered, given, committed, sent, paid, or the like; to accept; as, to receive money offered in payment of a debt; to receive a gift, a message, or a letter.
• Hence: To gain the knowledge of; to take into the mind by assent to; to give admission to; to accept, as an opinion, notion, etc.; to embrace.
• To allow, as a custom, tradition, or the like; to give credence or acceptance to.
• To give admittance to; to permit to enter, as into one's house, presence, company, and the like; as, to receive a lodger, visitor, ambassador, messenger, etc.
• To admit; to take in; to hold; to contain; to have capacity fro; to be able to take in.
• To be affected by something; to suffer; to be subjected to; as, to receive pleasure or pain; to receive a wound or a blow; to receive damage.
• To take from a thief, as goods known to be stolen.
(Lawn Tennis) To bat back (the ball) when served.
v. i.
• To receive visitors; to be at home to receive calls; as, she receives on Tuesdays.
(Lawn Tennis) To return, or bat back, the ball when served; as, it is your turn to receive.
Receivedness
n.
• The state or quality of being received, accepted, or current; as, the receivedness of an opinion.
Receiver
n.
• One who takes or receives in any manner.
(Law) A person appointed, ordinarily by a court, to receive, and hold in trust, money or other property which is the subject of litigation, pending the suit; a person appointed to take charge of the estate and effects of a corporation, and to do other acts necessary to winding up its affairs, in certain cases.
• One who takes or buys stolen goods from a thief, knowing them to be stolen.
(Chem.) A vessel connected with an alembic, a retort, or the like, for receiving and condensing the product of distillation.
• A vessel for receiving and containing gases.
(Pneumatics) The glass vessel in which the vacuum is produced, and the objects of experiment are put, in experiments with an air pump. Cf. Bell jar, and see Illust. of Air pump.
(Steam Engine) A vessel for receiving the exhaust steam from the high-pressure cylinder before it enters the low-pressure cylinder, in a compound engine.
• A capacious vessel for receiving steam from a distant boiler, and supplying it dry to an engine.
• That portion of a telephonic apparatus, or similar system, at which the message is received and made audible; — opposed to transmitter.
Receivership
n.
• The state or office of a receiver.
Recelebrate
v. t.
• To celebrate again, or anew.
Recency
n.
• The state or quality of being recent; newness; new state; late origin; lateness in time; freshness; as, the recency of a transaction, of a wound, etc.
Recense
v. t.
• To review; to revise.
Recension
n.
• The act of reviewing or revising; review; examination; enumeration.
• Specifically, the review of a text (as of an ancient author) by an editor; critical revisal and establishment.
• The result of such a work; a text established by critical revision; an edited version.
Recensionist
n.
• One who makes recensions; specifically, a critical editor.
Recent
a.
• Of late origin, existence, or occurrence; lately come; not of remote date, antiquated style, or the like; not already known, familiar, worn out, trite, etc.; fresh; novel; new; modern; as, recent news.
(Geol.) Of or pertaining to the present or existing epoch; as, recent shells.
Recenter
v. t.
• To center again; to restore to the center.
Recently
adv.
• Newly; lately; freshly; not long since; as, advices recently received.
Recentness
n.
• Quality or state of being recent.
Receptacle
n.
• That which serves, or is used, fro receiving and containing something, as a basket, a vase, a bag, a reservoir; a repository.
(Bot.) The apex of the flower stalk, from which the organs of the flower grow, or into which they are inserted. See Illust. of Flower, and Ovary.
• The dilated apex of a pedicel which serves as a common support to a head of flowers.
• An intercellular cavity containing oil or resin or other matters.
• A special branch which bears the fructification in many cryptogamous plants.
Receptacular
a.
(Bot.) Pertaining to the receptacle, or growing on it; as, the receptacular chaff or scales in the sunflower.
Receptaculum
n.
(Anat.) A receptacle; as, the receptaculum of the chyle.
Receptary
a.
• Generally or popularly admitted or received.
n.
• That which is received.
Receptibility
n.
• The quality or state of being receptible; receivableness.
• A receptible thing.
Receptible
a.
• Such as may be received; receivable.
Reception
n.
• The act of receiving; receipt; admission; as, the reception of food into the stomach; the reception of a letter; the reception of sensation or ideas; reception of evidence.
• The state of being received.
• The act or manner of receiving, esp. of receiving visitors; entertainment; hence, an occasion or ceremony of receiving guests; as, a hearty reception; an elaborate reception.
• Acceptance, as of an opinion or doctrine.
• A retaking; a recovery.
Receptive
a.
• Having the quality of receiving; able or inclined to take in, absorb, hold, or contain; receiving or containing; as, a receptive mind.
Receptiveness
n.
• The quality of being receptive.
Receptivity
n.
• The state or quality of being receptive.
(Kantian Philos.) The power or capacity of receiving impressions, as those of the external senses.
Receptory
n.
• Receptacle.
Recess
n.
• A withdrawing or retiring; a moving back; retreat; as, the recess of the tides.
• The state of being withdrawn; seclusion; privacy.
• Remission or suspension of business or procedure; intermission, as of a legislative body, court, or school.
• Part of a room formed by the receding of the wall, as an alcove, niche, etc.
• A place of retirement, retreat, secrecy, or seclusion.
• Secret or abstruse part; as, the difficulties and recesses of science.
(Bot. & Zool.) A sinus.
v. t.
• To make a recess in; as, to recess a wall.
n.
• A decree of the imperial diet of the old German empire.
Recessed
a.
• Having a recess or recesses; as, a recessed arch or wall.
• Withdrawn; secluded.
Recession
n.
• The act of receding or withdrawing, as from a place, a claim, or a demand.
n.
• The act of ceding back; restoration; repeated cession; as, the recession of conquered territory to its former sovereign.
Recessional
a.
• Of or pertaining to recession or withdrawal.
Recessive
a.
• Going back; receding.
Rechabite
n.
(Jewish Hist.) One of the descendants of Jonadab, the son of Rechab, all of whom by his injunction abstained from the use of intoxicating drinks and even from planting the vine. Jer. xxxv. 2-19. Also, in modern times, a member of a certain society of abstainers from alcoholic liquors.
Rechange
v. t. & i.
• To change again, or change back.
Recharge
v. t. & i.
• To charge or accuse in return.
• To attack again; to attack anew.
Recharter
n.
• A second charter; a renewal of a charter.
v. t.
• To charter again or anew; to grant a second or another charter to.
Rechase
v. t.
• To chase again; to chase or drive back.
Recheat
n.
(Sporting) A strain given on the horn to call back the hounds when they have lost track of the game.
v. i.
• To blow the recheat.
Recherche
a.
• Sought out with care; choice. Hence: of rare quality, elegance, or attractiveness; peculiar and refined in kind.
Rechless
a.
• Reckless.
Rechoose
v. t.
• To choose again.
Recidivate
v. i.
• To baskslide; to fall again.
Recidivation
n.
• A falling back; a backsliding.
Recidivous
a.
• Tending or liable to backslide or rse to a former condition or habit.
Recipe
n.
• A formulary or prescription for making some combination, mixture, or preparation of materials; a receipt; especially, a prescription for medicine.
Recipiangle
n.
• An instrument with two arms that are pivoted together at one end, and a graduated arc, — used by military engineers for measuring and laying off angles of fortifications.
Recipient
n.
• A receiver; the person or thing that receives; one to whom, or that to which, anything is given or communicated; specifically, the receiver of a still.
a.
• Receiving; receptive.
Reciprocal
a.
• Recurring in vicissitude; alternate.
• Done by each to the other; interchanging or interchanged; given and received; due from each to each; mutual; as, reciprocal love; reciprocal duties.
• Mutually interchangeable.
(Gram.) Reflexive; — applied to pronouns and verbs, but sometimes limited to such pronouns as express mutual action.
(Math.) Used to denote different kinds of mutual relation; often with reference to the substitution of reciprocals for given quantities. See the Phrases below.
n.
• That which is reciprocal to another thing.
(Arith. & Alg.) The quotient arising from dividing unity by any quantity; thus \'ac is the reciprocal of 4; 1/(a + b) is the reciprocal of a + b. The reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction inverted, or the denominator divided by the numerator.
Reciprocality
n.
• The quality or condition of being reciprocal; reciprocalness.
Reciprocally
adv.
• In a reciprocal manner; so that each affects the other, and is equally affected by it; interchangeably; mutually.
(Math.) In the manner of reciprocals.
Reciprocalness
n.
• The quality or condition of being reciprocal; mutual return; alternateness.
Reciprocate
v. i.
• To move forward and backward alternately; to recur in vicissitude; to act interchangeably; to alternate.
v. t.
• To give and return mutually; to make return for; to give in return; to unterchange; to alternate; as, to reciprocate favors.
Reciprocation
n.
• The act of reciprocating; interchange of acts; a mutual giving and returning; as, the reciprocation of kindness.
• Alternate recurrence or action; as, the reciprocation of the sea in the flow and ebb of tides.
Reciprocity
n.
• Mutual action and reaction.
• Reciprocal advantages, obligations, or rights; reciprocation.
Reciprocornous
a.
(Zool.) Having horns turning backward and then forward, like those of a ram.
Reciprocous
a.
• Reciprocal.
Reciprok
a.
• Reciprocal.
Reciproque
a. & n.
• Reciprocal.
Recision
n.
• The act of cutting off.
Recital
n.
• The act of reciting; the repetition of the words of another, or of a document; rehearsal; as, the recital of testimony.
• A telling in detail and due order of the particulars of anything, as of a law, an adventure, or a series of events; narration.
• That which is recited; a story; a narration.
(Mus.) A vocal or instrumental performance by one person; — distinguished from concert; as, a song recital; an organ, piano, or violin recital.
(Law) The formal statement, or setting forth, of some matter of fact in any deed or writing in order to explain the reasons on which the transaction is founded; the statement of matter in pleading introductory to some positive allegation.
Recitation
n.
• The act of reciting; rehearsal; repetition of words or sentences.
• The delivery before an audience of something committed to memory, especially as an elocutionary exhibition; also, that which is so delivered.
(Colleges and Schools) The rehearsal of a lesson by pupils before their instructor.
Recitative
n.
(Mus.) A species of musical recitation in which the words are delivered in manner resembling that of ordinary declamation; also, a piece of music intended for such recitation; — opposed to melisma.
a.
• Of or pertaining to recitation; intended for musical recitation or declamation; in the style or manner of recitative.
Recitativo
n.
(Mus.) Recitative.
Recite
v. t.
• To repeat, as something already prepared, written down, committed to memory, or the like; to deliver from a written or printed document, or from recollection; to rehearse; as, to recite the words of an author, or of a deed or covenant.
• To tell over; to go over in particulars; to relate; to narrate; as, to recite past events; to recite the particulars of a voyage.
• To rehearse, as a lesson to an instructor.
(Law) To state in or as a recital. See Recital, 5.
v. i.
• To repeat, pronounce, or rehearse, as before an audience, something prepared or committed to memory; to rehearse a lesson learned.
n.
• A recital.
Reciter
n.
• One who recites; also, a book of extracts for recitation.
Reck
v. t.
• To make account of; to care for; to heed; to regard.
• To concern; — used impersonally.
v. i.
• To make account; to take heed; to care; to mind; — often followed by of.
Reckless
a.
• Inattentive to duty; careless; neglectful; indifferent.
• Rashly negligent; utterly careless or heedless.
Reckling
a.
• Needing care; weak; feeble; as, a reckling child.
n.
• A weak child or animal.
Reckon
v. t.
• To count; to enumerate; to number; also, to compute; to calculate.
• To count as in a number, rank, or series; to estimate by rank or quality; to place by estimation; to account; to esteem; to repute.
• To charge, attribute, or adjudge to one, as having a certain quality or value.
• To conclude, as by an enumeration and balancing of chances; hence, to think; to suppose; — followed by an objective clause; as, I reckon he won't try that again.
v. i.
• To make an enumeration or computation; to engage in numbering or computing.
• To come to an accounting; to make up accounts; to settle; to examine and strike the balance of debt and credit; to adjust relations of desert or penalty.
Reckoner
n.
• One who reckons or computes; also, a book of calculation, tables, etc., to assist in reckoning.
Reckoning
n.
• The act of one who reckons, counts, or computes; the result of reckoning or counting; calculation.
• An account of time
• Adjustment of claims and accounts; settlement of obligations, liabilities, etc.
• The charge or account made by a host at an inn.
• Esteem; account; estimation.
(Navigation) The calculation of a ship's position, either from astronomical observations, or from the record of the courses steered and distances sailed as shown by compass and log, — in the latter case called dead reckoning (see under Dead); — also used fro dead reckoning in contradistinction to observation.
• The position of a ship as determined by calculation.
Reclaim
v. t.
• To claim back; to demand the return of as a right; to attempt to recover possession of.
v. t.
• To call back, as a hawk to the wrist in falconry, by a certain customary call.
• To call back from flight or disorderly action; to call to, for the purpose of subduing or quieting.
• To reduce from a wild to a tamed state; to bring under discipline; — said especially of birds trained for the chase, but also of other animals.
• Hence: To reduce to a desired state by discipline, labor, cultivation, or the like; to rescue from being wild, desert, waste, submerged, or the like; as, to reclaim wild land, overflowed land, etc.
• To call back to rectitude from moral wandering or transgression; to draw back to correct deportment or course of life; to reform.
• To correct; to reform; — said of things.
• To exclaim against; to gainsay.
v. i.
• To cry out in opposition or contradiction; to exclaim against anything; to contradict; to take exceptions.
• To bring anyone back from evil courses; to reform.
• To draw back; to give way.
n.
• The act of reclaiming, or the state of being reclaimed; reclamation; recovery.
Reclaimable
a.
• That may be reclaimed.
Reclaimant
n.
• One who reclaims; one who cries out against or contradicts.
Reclaimer
n.
• One who reclaims.
Reclaimless
a.
• That can not be reclaimed.
Reclamation
n.
• The act or process of reclaiming.
• Representation made in opposition; remonstrance.
Reclasp
v. i.
• To clasp or unite again.
Reclinant
a.
• Bending or leaning backward.
Reclinate
a.
(Bot.) Reclined, as a leaf; bent downward, so that the point, as of a stem or leaf, is lower than the base.
Reclination
n.
• The act of leaning or reclining, or the state of being reclined.
(Dialing) The angle which the plane of the dial makes with a vertical plane which it intersects in a horizontal line.
(Surg.) The act or process of removing a cataract, by applying the needle to its anterior surface, and depressing it into the vitreous humor in such a way that front surface of the cataract becomes the upper one and its back surface the lower one.
Recline
v. t.
• To cause or permit to lean, incline, rest, etc., to place in a recumbent position; as, to recline the head on the hand.
v. i.
• To lean or incline; as, to recline against a wall.
• To assume, or to be in, a recumbent position; as, to recline on a couch.
a.
• Having a reclining posture; leaning; reclining.
Reclined
a.
(Bot.) Falling or turned downward; reclinate.
Recliner
n.
• One who, or that which, reclines.
Reclining
a.
(Bot.) Bending or curving gradually back from the perpendicular.
• Recumbent.
Reclose
v. t.
• To close again.
Reclothe
v. t.
• To clothe again.
Reclude
v. t.
• To open; to unclose.
Recluse
a.
• Shut up, sequestered; retired from the world or from public notice; solitary; living apart; as, a recluse monk or hermit; a recluse life
n.
• A person who lives in seclusion from intercourse with the world, as a hermit or monk; specifically, one of a class of secluded devotees who live in single cells; usually attached to monasteries.
• The place where a recluse dwells.
v. t.
• To shut; to seclude.
Reclusely
adv.
• In a recluse or solitary manner.
Recluseness
n.
• Quality or state of being recluse.
Reclusion
n.
• A state of retirement from the world; seclusion.
Reclusive
a.
• Affording retirement from society.
Reclusory
n.
• The habitation of a recluse; a hermitage.
Recoct
v. t.
• To boil or cook again; hence, to make over; to vamp up; to reconstruct.
Recoction
n.
• A second coction or preparation; a vamping up.
Recognition
n.
• The act of recognizing, or the state of being recognized; acknowledgment; formal avowal; knowledge confessed or avowed; notice.
Recognitor
n.
(Law) One of a jury impaneled on an assize.
Recognitory
a.
• Pertaining to, or connected with, recognition.
Recognizability
n.
• The quality or condition of being recognizable.
Recognizable
a.
• Capable of being recognized.
Recognizance
n.
(Law) An obligation of record entered into before some court of record or magistrate duly authorized, with condition to do some particular act, as to appear at the same or some other court, to keep the peace, or pay a debt. A recognizance differs from a bond, being witnessed by the record only, and not by the party's seal.
• The verdict of a jury impaneled upon assize.
• A token; a symbol; a pledge; a badge.
• Acknowledgment of a person or thing; avowal; profession; recognition.
Recognization
n.
• Recognition.
Recognize
v. t.
• To know again; to perceive the identity of, with a person or thing previously known; to recover or recall knowledge of.
• To avow knowledge of; to allow that one knows; to consent to admit, hold, or the like; to admit with a formal acknowledgment; as, to recognize an obligation; to recognize a consul.
• To acknowledge acquaintance with, as by salutation, bowing, or the like.
• To show appreciation of; as, to recognize services by a testimonial.
• To review; to reexamine.
• To reconnoiter.
v. i.
(Law) To enter an obligation of record before a proper tribunal; as, A, B recognized in the sum of twenty dollars.
Recognizee
n.
(Law) The person in whose favor a recognizance is made.
Recognizor
n.
(Law) One who enters into a recognizance.
Recognosce
v. t.
• To recognize.
Recoil
v. i.
• To start, roll, bound, spring, or fall back; to take a reverse motion; to be driven or forced backward; to return.
• To draw back, as from anything repugnant, distressing, alarming, or the like; to shrink.
• To turn or go back; to withdraw one's self; to retire.
v. t.
• To draw or go back.
n.
• A starting or falling back; a rebound; a shrinking; as, the recoil of nature, or of the blood.
• The state or condition of having recoiled.
• Specifically, the reaction or rebounding of a firearm when discharged.
Recoiler
n.
• One who, or that which, recoils.
Recoilingly
adv.
• In the manner of a recoil.
Recoilment
n.
• Recoil.
Recoin
v. t.
• To coin anew or again.
Recoinage
n.
• The act of coining anew.
• That which is coined anew.
Recollect
v. t.
• To recover or recall the knowledge of; to bring back to the mind or memory; to remember.
• Reflexively, to compose one's self; to recover self-command; as, to recollect one's self after a burst of anger; — sometimes, formerly, in the perfect participle.
n.
(Eccl.) A friar of the Strict Observance, — an order of Franciscans.
Recollection
n.
• The act of recollecting, or recalling to the memory; the operation by which objects are recalled to the memory, or ideas revived in the mind; reminiscence; remembrance.
• The power of recalling ideas to the mind, or the period within which things can be recollected; remembrance; memory; as, an event within my recollection.
• That which is recollected; something called to mind; reminiscence.
• The act or practice of collecting or concentrating the mind; concentration; self-control.
Recollective
a.
• Having the power of recollecting.
Recollet
n.
(Eccl.) Same as Recollect, n.
Recolonization
n.
• A second or renewed colonization.
Recolonize
v. t.
• To colonize again.
Recombination
n.
• Combination a second or additional time.
Recombine
v. t.
• To combine again.
Recomfort
v. t.
• To comfort again; to console anew; to give new strength to.
Recomfortless
a.
• Without comfort.
Recomforture
n.
• The act of recomforting; restoration of comfort.
Recommence
v. i.
• To commence or begin again.
• To begin anew to be; to act again as.
v. t.
• To commence again or anew.
Recommencement
n.
• A commencement made anew.
Recommend
v. t.
• To commend to the favorable notice of another; to commit to another's care, confidence, or acceptance, with favoring representations; to put in a favorable light before any one; to bestow commendation on; as, he recommended resting the mind and exercising the body.
• To make acceptable; to attract favor to.
• To commit; to give in charge; to commend.
Recommendable
a.
• Suitable to be recommended; worthy of praise; commendable.
Recommendation
n.
• The act of recommending.
• That which recommends, or commends to favor; anything procuring, or tending to procure, a favorable reception, or to secure acceptance and adoption; as, he brought excellent recommendations.
• The state of being recommended; esteem.
Recommendative
n.
• That which recommends; a recommendation.
Recommendatory
a.
• Serving to recommend; recommending; commendatory.
Recommender
n.
• One who recommends.
Recommission
v. t.
• To commission again; to give a new commission to.
Recommit
v. t.
• To commit again; to give back into keeping; specifically, to refer again to a committee; as, to recommit a bill to the same committee.
Recompact
v. t.
• To compact or join anew.
Recompensation
n.
• Recompense.
(Scots Law) Used to denote a case where a set-off pleaded by the defendant is met by a set-off pleaded by the plaintiff.
Recompense
v. t.
• To render an equivalent to, for service, loss, etc.; to requite; to remunerate; to compensate.
• To return an equivalent for; to give compensation for; to atone for; to pay for.
• To give in return; to pay back; to pay, as something earned or deserved.
v. i.
• To give recompense; to make amends or requital.
n.
• An equivalent returned for anything done, suffered, or given; compensation; requital; suitable return.
Recompensement
n.
• Recompense; requital.
Recompenser
n.
• One who recompenses.
Recompensive
a.
• Of the nature of recompense; serving to recompense.
Recompilation
n.
• A new compilation.
Recompile
v. t.
• To compile anew.
Recompilement
n.
• The act of recompiling; new compilation or digest; as, a recompilement of the laws.
Recompose
v. t.
• To compose again; to form anew; to put together again or repeatedly.
• To restore to composure; to quiet anew; to tranquilize; as, to recompose the mind.
Recomposer
n.
• One who recomposes.
Recomposition
n.
• The act of recomposing.
Reconcilable
a.
• Capable of being reconciled; as, reconcilable adversaries; an act reconciable with previous acts.
Reconcile
v. t.
• To cause to be friendly again; to conciliate anew; to restore to friendship; to bring back to harmony; to cause to be no longer at variance; as, to reconcile persons who have quarreled.
• To bring to acquiescence, content, or quiet submission; as, to reconcile one's self to affictions.
• To make consistent or congruous; to bring to agreement or suitableness; — followed by with or to.
• To adjust; to settle; as, to reconcile differences.
v. i.
• To become reconciled.
Reconcilement
n.
• Reconciliation.
Reconciler
n.
• One who reconciles.
Reconciliation
n.
• The act of reconciling, or the state of being reconciled; reconcilenment; restoration to harmony; renewal of friendship.
• Reduction to congruence or consistency; removal of inconsistency; harmony.
Reconciliatory
a.
• Serving or tending to reconcile.
Recondensation
n.
• The act or process of recondensing.
Recondense
v. t.
• To condense again.
Recondite
a.
• Hidden from the mental or intellectual view; secret; abstruse; as, recondite causes of things.
• Dealing in things abstruse; profound; searching; as, recondite studies.
Reconditory
n.
• A repository; a storehouse.
Reconduct
v. t.
• To conduct back or again.
Reconfirm
v. t.
• To confirm anew.
Reconfort
v. t.
• To recomfort; to comfort.
Reconizer
n.
• One who recognizes; a recognizor.
Reconjoin
v. t.
• To join or conjoin anew.
Reconquer
v. t.
• To conquer again; to recover by conquest; as, to reconquer a revolted province.
Reconquest
n.
• A second conquest.
Reconsecrate
v. t.
• To consecrate anew or again.
Reconsecration
n.
• Renewed consecration.
Reconsider
v. t.
• To consider again; as, to reconsider a subject.
(Parliamentary Practice) To take up for renewed consideration, as a motion or a vote which has been previously acted upon.
Reconsideration
n.
• The act of reconsidering, or the state of being reconsidered; as, the reconsideration of a vote in a legislative body.
Reconsolate
v. t.
• To console or comfort again.
Reconsolidate
v. t.
• To consolidate anew or again.
Reconsolidation
n.
• The act or process of reconsolidating; the state of being reconsolidated.
Reconstruct
v. t.
• To construct again; to rebuild; to remodel; to form again or anew.
Reconstruction
n.
• The act of constructing again; the state of being reconstructed.
(U.S. Politics) The act or process of reorganizing the governments of the States which had passed ordinances of secession, and of reestablishing their constitutional relations to the national government, after the close of the Civil War.
Reconstructive
a.
• Reconstructing; tending to reconstruct; as, a reconstructive policy.
Recontinuance
n.
• The act or state of recontinuing.
Recontinue
v. t. & i.
• To continue anew.
Reconvene
v. t. & i.
• To convene or assemble again; to call or come together again.
Reconvention
n.
(Civil Law) A cross demand; an action brought by the defendant against the plaintiff before the same judge.
Reconversion
n.
• A second conversion.
Reconvert
v. t.
• To convert again.
n.
• A person who has been reconverted.
Reconvertible
a.
(Chem.) Capable of being reconverted; convertible again to the original form or condition.
Reconvey
v. t.
• To convey back or to the former place; as, to reconvey goods.
• To transfer back to a former owner; as, to reconvey an estate.
Reconveyance
n.
• Act of reconveying.
Recopy
v. t.
• To copy again.
Record
v. t.
• To recall to mind; to recollect; to remember; to meditate.
• To repeat; to recite; to sing or play.
• To preserve the memory of, by committing to writing, to printing, to inscription, or the like; to make note of; to write or enter in a book or on parchment, for the purpose of preserving authentic evidence of; to register; to enroll; as, to record the proceedings of a court; to record historical events.
v. i.
• To reflect; to ponder.
• To sing or repeat a tune.
n.
• A writing by which same act or event, or a number of acts or events, is recorded; a register; as, a record of the acts of the Hebrew kings; a record of the variations of temperature during a certain time; a family record.
• An official contemporaneous writing by which the acts of some public body, or public officer, are recorded; as, a record of city ordinances; the records of the receiver of taxes.
• An authentic official copy of a document which has been entered in a book, or deposited in the keeping of some officer designated by law.
• An official contemporaneous memorandum stating the proceedings of a court of justice; a judicial record.
• The various legal papers used in a case, together with memoranda of the proceedings of the court; as, it is not permissible to allege facts not in the record.
• Testimony; witness; attestation.
• That which serves to perpetuate a knowledge of acts or events; a monument; a memorial.
• That which has been, or might be, recorded; the known facts in the course, progress, or duration of anything, as in the life of a public man; as, a politician with a good or a bad record.
• That which has been publicly achieved in any kind of competitive sport as recorded in some authoritative manner, as the time made by a winning horse in a race.
Recordance
n.
• Remembrance.
Recordation
n.
• Remembrance; recollection; also, a record.
Recorder
n.
• One who records; specifically, a person whose official duty it is to make a record of writings or transactions.
• The title of the chief judical officer of some cities and boroughs; also, of the chief justice of an East Indian settlement. The Recorder of London is judge of the Lord Mayor's Court, and one of the commissioners of the Central Criminal Court.
(Mus.) A kind of wind instrument resembling the flageolet.
Recordership
n.
• The office of a recorder.
Recording
a.
• Keeping a record or a register; as, a recording secretary; — applied to numerous instruments with an automatic appliance which makes a record of their action; as, a recording gauge or telegraph.
Recorporification
n.
• The act of investing again with a body; the state of being furnished anew with a body.
Recouch
v. i.
• To retire again to a couch; to lie down again.
Recount
v. t.
• To count or reckon again.
n.
• A counting again, as of votes.
v. t.
• To tell over; to relate in detail; to recite; to tell or narrate the particulars of; to rehearse; to enumerate; as, to recount one's blessings.
Recountment
n.
• Recital.
Recouper
n.
• One who recoups.
Recoupment
n.
• The act of recouping.
Recourse
n.
• A coursing back, or coursing again, along the line of a previous coursing; renewed course; return; retreat; recurence.
• Recurrence in difficulty, perplexity, need, or the like; access or application for aid; resort.
• Access; admittance.
v. i.
• To return; to recur.
• To have recourse; to resort.
Recourseful
a.
• Having recurring flow and ebb; moving alternately.
Recover
v. t.
• To cover again.
v. t.
• To get or obtain again; to get renewed possession of; to win back; to regain.
• To make good by reparation; to make up for; to retrieve; to repair the loss or injury of; as, to recover lost time.
• To restore from sickness, faintness, or the like; to bring back to life or health; to cure; to heal.
• To overcome; to get the better of, — as a state of mind or body.
• To rescue; to deliver.
• To gain by motion or effort; to obtain; to reach; to come to.
(Law) To gain as a compensation; to obtain in return for injury or debt; as, to recover damages in trespass; to recover debt and costs in a suit at law; to obtain title to by judgement in a court of law; as, to recover lands in ejectment or common recovery; to gain by legal process; as, to recover judgement against a defendant.
v. i.
• To regain health after sickness; to grow well; to be restored or cured; hence, to regain a former state or condition after misfortune, alarm, etc.; — often followed by of or from; as, to recover from a state of poverty; to recover from fright.
• To make one's way; to come; to arrive.
(Law) To obtain a judgement; to succeed in a lawsuit; as, the plaintiff has recovered in his suit.
n.
• Recovery.
Recoverable
a.
• Capable of being recovered or regained; capable of being brought back to a former condition, as from sickness, misfortune, etc.; obtainable from a debtor or possessor; as, the debt is recoverable; goods lost or sunk in the ocean are not recoverable.
Recoveree
n.
(Law) The person against whom a judgment is obtained in common recovery.
Recoverer
n.
• One who recovers.
Recoveror
n.
(Law) The demandant in a common recovery after judgment.
Recovery
n.
• The act of recovering, regaining, or retaking possession.
• Restoration from sickness, weakness, faintness, or the like; restoration from a condition of mistortune, of fright, etc.
(Law) The obtaining in a suit at law of a right to something by a verdict and judgment of court.
• The getting, or gaining, of something not previously had.
• In rowing, the act of regaining the proper position for making a new stroke.
Recreance
n.
• Recreancy.
Recreancy
n.
• The quality or state of being recreant.
Recreant
a.
• Crying for mercy, as a combatant in the trial by battle; yielding; cowardly; mean-spirited; craven.
• Apostate; false; unfaithful.
n.
• One who yields in combat, and begs for mercy; a mean-spirited, cowardly wretch.
Recreate
v. t.
• To give fresh life to; to reanimate; to revive; especially, to refresh after wearying toil or anxiety; to relieve; to cheer; to divert; to amuse; to gratify.
v. i.
• To take recreation.
Recreation
n.
• The act of recreating, or the state of being recreated; refreshment of the strength and spirits after toil; amusement; diversion; sport; pastime.
n.
• A forming anew; a new creation or formation.
Recreative
a.
• Tending to recreate or refresh; recreating; giving new vigor or animation; reinvigorating; giving relief after labor or pain; amusing; diverting.
Recrement
n.
• Superfluous matter separated from that which is useful; dross; scoria; as, the recrement of ore.
(Med.) Excrement.
• A substance secreted from the blood and again absorbed by it.
Recremental
a.
• Recrementitious.
Recrementitial
a.
(Med.) Of the nature of a recrement. See Recrement,2 (b).
Recrementitious
a.
• Of or pertaining to recrement; consisting of recrement or dross.
Recriminate
v. i.
• To return one charge or accusation with another; to chargeback fault or crime upon an accuser.
v. t.
• To accuse in return.
Recrimination
n.
• The act of recriminating; an accusation brought by the accused against the accuser; a counter accusation.
Recriminative
a.
• Recriminatory.
Recriminator
n.
• One who recriminates.
Recriminatory
a.
• Having the quality of recrimination; retorting accusation; recriminating.
Recross
v. t.
• To cross a second time.
Recrudency
n.
• Recrudescence.
Recrudescent
a.
• Growing raw, sore, or painful again.
• Breaking out again after temporary abatement or supression; as, a recrudescent epidemic.
Recruit
v. t.
• To repair by fresh supplies, as anything wasted; to remedy lack or deficiency in; as, food recruits the flesh; fresh air and exercise recruit the spirits.
• Hence, to restore the wasted vigor of; to renew in strength or health; to reinvigorate.
• To supply with new men, as an army; to fill up or make up by enlistment; as, he recruited two regiments; the army was recruited for a campaign; also, to muster; to enlist; as, he recruited fifty men.
v. i.
• To gain new supplies of anything wasted; to gain health, flesh, spirits, or the like; to recuperate; as, lean cattle recruit in fresh pastures.
• To gain new supplies of men for military or other service; to raise or enlist new soldiers; to enlist troops.
n.
• A supply of anything wasted or exhausted; a reenforcement.
• Specifically, a man enlisted for service in the army; a newly enlisted soldier.
Recruiter
n.
• One who, or that which, recruits.
Recruitment
n.
• The act or process of recruiting; especially, the enlistment of men for an army.
Recrystallization
n.
(Chem. & Min.) The process or recrystallizing.
Recrystallize
v. i. & t.
(Chem. & Min.) To crystallize again.
Rectal
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the rectum; in the region of the rectum.
Rectangle
n.
(Geom.) A four-sided figure having only right angles; a right-angled parallelogram.
a.
• Rectangular.
Rectangled
a.
• Rectangular.
Rectangular
a.
• Right-angled; having one or more angles of ninety degrees.
Rectangularity
n.
• The quality or condition of being rectangular, or right-angled.
Rectifiable
a.
• Capable of being rectified; as, a rectifiable mistake.
(Math.) Admitting, as a curve, of the construction of a straight le equal in length to any definite portion of the curve.
Rectification
n.
• The act or operation of rectifying; as, the rectification of an error; the rectification of spirits.
(Geom.) The determination of a straight line whose length is equal a portion of a curve.
Rectificator
n.
(Chem.) That which rectifies or refines; esp., a part of a distilling apparatus in which the more volatile portions are separated from the less volatile by the process of evaporation and condensation; a rectifier.
Rectifier
n.
• One who, or that which, rectifies.
• Specifically: (a) (Naut.) An instrument used for determining and rectifying the variations of the compass on board ship. (b) (Chem.) A rectificator.
Rectify
v. t.
• To make or set right; to correct from a wrong, erroneous, or false state; to amend; as, to rectify errors, mistakes, or abuses; to rectify the will, the judgment, opinions; to rectify disorders.
(Chem.) To refine or purify by repeated distillation or sublimation, by which the fine parts of a substance are separated from the grosser; as, to rectify spirit of wine.
(Com.) To produce ( as factitious gin or brandy) by redistilling low wines or ardent spirits (whisky, rum, etc.), flavoring substances, etc., being added.
Rectilinearity
n.
• The quality or state of being rectilinear.
Rectilineous
a.
• Rectilinear.
Rectinerved
a.
(Bot.) Having the veins or nerves straight; — said of leaves.
Rection
n.
(Gram.) See Government, n., 7.
Rectirostral
a.
(Zool.) Having a straight beak.
Rectiserial
a.
(Bot.) Arranged in exactly vertical ranks, as the leaves on stems of many kinds; — opposed to curviserial.
Rectitis
n.
(Med.) Proctitis.
Rectitude
n.
• Straightness.
• Rightness of principle or practice; exact conformity to truth, or to the rules prescribed for moral conduct, either by divine or human laws; uprightness of mind; uprightness; integrity; honesty; justice.
• Right judgment.
Recto
n.
(Law) A writ of right.
n.
(Print.) The right-hand page; — opposed to verso.
Rector
n.
• A ruler or governor.
(Ch. of Eng.) A clergyman who has the charge and cure of a parish, and has the tithes, etc.; the clergyman of a parish where the tithes are not impropriate. See the Note under Vicar.
(Prot. Epis. Ch.) A clergyman in charge of a parish.
• The head master of a public school.
• The chief elective officer of some universities, as in France and Scotland; sometimes, the head of a college; as, the Rector of Exeter College, or of Lincoln College, at Oxford.
(R.C.CH.) The superior officer or chief of a convent or religious house; and among the Jesuits the superior of a house that is a seminary or college.
Rectoral
a.
• Pertaining to a rector or governor.
Rectorate
n.
• The office, rank, or station of a rector; rectorship.
Rectoress
n.
• A governess; a rectrix.
• The wife of a rector.
Rectorial
a.
• Pertaining to a rector or a rectory; rectoral.
Rectorship
n.
• Government; guidance.
• The office or rank of a rector; rectorate.
Rectory
n.
• The province of a rector; a parish church, parsonage, or spiritual living, with all its rights, tithes, and glebes.
• A rector's mansion; a parsonage house.
Rectovaginal
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to both the rectum and the vagina.
Rectress
n.
• A rectoress.
Rectrix
n.
• A governess; a rectoress.
(Zool.) One of the quill feathers of the tail of a bird.
Rectum
n.
(Anat.) The terminal part of the large intestine; — so named because supposed by the old anatomists to be straight. See Illust. under Digestive.
Rectus
n.
(Anat.) A straight muscle; as, the recti of the eye.
Recubation
n.
• Recumbence.
Recule
v. i.
• To recoil.
Recumb
v. i.
• To lean; to recline; to repose.
Recumbence
n.
• The act of leaning, resting, or reclining; the state of being recumbent.
Recumbency
n.
• Recumbence.
Recumbent
a.
• Leaning; reclining; lying; as, the recumbent posture of the Romans at their meals. Hence, figuratively; Resting; inactive; idle.
Recuperable
a.
• Recoverable.
Recuperate
v. i.
• To recover health; to regain strength; to convalesce.
v. t.
• To recover; to regain; as, to recuperate the health or strength.
Recuperation
n..
• Recovery, as of anything lost, especially of the health or strength.
Recuperator
n.
(Steel Manuf.) Same as Regenerator.
Recur
v. i.
• To come back; to return again or repeatedly; to come again to mind.
• To occur at a stated interval, or according to some regular rule; as, the fever will recur to-night.
• To resort; to have recourse; to go for help.
Recure
v. t.
• To arrive at; to reach; to attain.
• To recover; to regain; to repossess.
• To restore, as from weariness, sickness; or the like; to repair.
• To be a cure for; to remedy.
n.
• Cure; remedy; recovery.
Recureless
a.
• Incapable of cure.
Recurrent
a.
• Returning from time to time; recurring; as, recurrent pains.
(Anat.) Running back toward its origin; as, a recurrent nerve or artery.
Recursant
a.
(Her.) Displayed with the back toward the spectator; — said especially of an eagle.
Recursion
n.
• The act of recurring; return.
Recurvate
a.
(Bot.) Recurved.
v. t.
• To bend or curve back; to recurve.
Recurvation
n.
• The act of recurving, or the state of being recurved; a bending or flexure backward.
Recurve
v. t.
• To curve in an opposite or unusual direction; to bend back or down.
Recurved
a.
• Curved in an opposite or uncommon direction; bent back; as, a bird with a recurved bill; flowers with recurved petals.
Recurviroster
n.
(Zool.) A bird whose beak bends upward, as the avocet.
Recurvirostral
a.
(Zool.) Having the beak bent upwards.
Recurvity
n.
• Recurvation.
Recurvous
a.
• Recurved.
Recusancy
n.
• The state of being recusant; nonconformity.
Recusant
a.
• Obstinate in refusal; specifically, in English history, refusing to acknowledge the supremacy of the king in the churc, or to conform to the established rites of the church; as, a recusant lord.
n.
• One who is obstinate in refusal; one standing out stubbornly against general practice or opinion.
(Eng. Hist.) A person who refuses to acknowledge the supremacy of the king in matters of religion; as, a Roman Catholic recusant, who acknowledges the supremacy of the pope.
• One who refuses communion with the Church of England; a nonconformist.
Recusative
a.
• Refusing; denying; negative.
Recuse
v. t.
(Law) To refuse or reject, as a judge; to challenge that the judge shall not try the cause.
Recussion
n.
• The act of beating or striking back.
Red
• . imp. & p. p. of Read.
v. t.
• To put on order; to make tidy; also, to free from entanglement or embarrassement; — generally with up; as, to red up a house.
a.
• Of the color of blood, or of a tint resembling that color; of the hue of that part of the rainbow, or of the solar spectrum, which is furthest from the violet part.
n.
• The color of blood, or of that part of the spectrum farthest from violet, or a tint resembling these.
• A red pigment.
(European Politics) An abbreviation for Red Republican. See under Red, a.
(Med.) The menses.
Redact
v. t.
• To reduce to form, as literary matter; to digest and put in shape (matter for publication); to edit.
Redacteur
n.
• See Redactor.
Redaction
n.
• The act of redacting; work produced by redacting; a digest.
Redactor
n.
• One who redacts; one who prepares matter for publication; an editor.
Redan
n.
(Fort.) A work having two parapets whose faces unite so as to form a salient angle toward the enemy.
• A step or vertical offset in a wall on uneven ground, to keep the parts level.
Redargue
v. t.
• To disprove; to refute; toconfute; to reprove; to convict.
Redargution
n.
• The act of redarguing; refutation.
Redargutory
a.
• Pertaining to, or containing, redargution; refutatory.
Redback
n.
(Zool.) The dunlin.
Redbelly
n.
(Zool.) The char.
Redbird
n.
(Zool.) The cardinal bird.
• The summer redbird (Piranga rubra).
• The scarlet tanager. See Tanager.
Redbreast
n.
(Zool.) The European robin.
• The American robin. See Robin.
• The knot, or red-breasted snipe; — called also robin breast, and robin snipe. See Knot.
(Zool.) The long-eared pondfish. See Pondfish.
Redbud
n.
(Bot.) A small ornamental leguminous tree of the American species of the genus Cercis. See Judas tree, under Judas.
Redcap
n.
(Zool) The European goldfinch.
• A specter having long teeth, popularly supposed to haunt old castles in Scotland.
Redcoat
n.
• One who wears a red coat; specifically, a red-coated British soldier.
Redde
• obs. imp. of Read, or Rede.
Redden
v. t.
• To make red or somewhat red; to give a red color to.
v. i.
• To grow or become red; to blush.
Reddendum
n.
(Law) A clause in a deed by which some new thing is reserved out of what had been granted before; the clause by which rent is reserved in a lease.
Reddish
a.
• Somewhat red; moderately red.
Reddition
n.
• Restoration: restitution: surrender.
• Explanation; representation.
Redditive
a.
(Gram.) Answering to an interrogative or inquiry; conveying a reply; as, redditive words.
Reddle
n.
(Min.) Red chalk. See under Chalk.
Reddour
n.
• Rigor; violence.
Rede
v. t.
• To advise or counsel.
• To interpret; to explain.
n.
• Advice; counsel; suggestion.
• A word or phrase; a motto; a proverb; a wise saw.
Redeem
v. t.
• To purchase back; to regain possession of by payment of a stipulated price; to repurchase.
(Law) To recall, as an estate, or to regain, as mortgaged property, by paying what may be due by force of the mortgage.
(Com.) To regain by performing the obligation or condition stated; to discharge the obligation mentioned in, as a promissory note, bond, or other evidence of debt; as, to redeem bank notes with coin.
• To ransom, liberate, or rescue from captivity or bondage, or from any obligation or liability to suffer or to be forfeited, by paying a price or ransom; to ransom; to rescue; to recover; as, to redeem a captive, a pledge, and the like.
(Theol.) Hence, to rescue and deliver from the bondage of sin and the penalties of God's violated law.
• To make good by performing fully; to fulfill; as, to redeem one's promises.
• To pay the penalty of; to make amends for; to serve as an equivalent or offset for; to atone for; to compensate; as, to redeem an error.
Redeemability
n.
• Redeemableness.
Redeemable
a.
• Capable of being redeemed; subject to repurchase; held under conditions permitting redemption; as, a pledge securing the payment of money is redeemable.
• Subject to an obligation of redemtion; conditioned upon a promise of redemtion; payable; due; as, bonds, promissory notes, etc. , redeemabble in gold, or in current money, or four months after date.
Redeemableness
n.
• The quality or state of being redeemable; redeemability.
Redeemer
n.
• One who redeems.
• Specifically, the Savior of the world, Jesus Christ.
Redeless
a.
• Without rede or counsel.
Redeliberate
v. t. & i.
• To deliberate again; to reconsider.
Redeliver
v. t.
• To deliver or give back; to return.
• To deliver or liberate a second time or again.
• To report; to deliver the answer of.
Redeliverance
n.
• A second deliverance.
Redelivery
n.
• Act of delivering back.
• A second or new delivery or liberation.
Redemand
v. t.
• To demand back; to demand again.
n.
• A demanding back; a second or renewed demand.
Redemise
v. t.
• To demise back; to convey or transfer back, as an estate.
n.
(Law) The transfer of an estate back to the person who demised it; reconveyance; as, the demise and redemise of an estate. See under Demise.
Redemonstrate
v. t.
• To demonstrate again, or anew.
Redemptible
a.
• Redeemable.
Redemptionary
n.
• One who is, or may be, redeemed.
Redemptioner
n.
• One who redeems himself, as from debt or servitude.
• Formerly, one who, wishing to emigrate from Europe to America, sold his services for a stipulated time to pay the expenses of his passage.
Redemptionist
n.
(R.C.Ch.) A monk of an order founded in 1197; — so called because the order was especially devoted to the redemption of Christians held in captivity by the Mohammedans. Called also Trinitarian.
Redemptive
a.
• Serving or tending to redeem; redeeming; as, the redemptive work of Christ.
Redemptorist
n.
(R.C.Ch.) One of the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, founded in Naples in 1732 by St. Alphonsus Maria de Liquori. It was introduced onto the United States in 1832 at Detroit. The Fathers of the Congregation devote themselves to preaching to the neglected, esp. in missions and retreats, and are forbidden by their rule to engage in the instruction of youth.
Redemptory
a.
• Paid for ransom; serving to redeem.
Redempture
n.
• Redemption.
Redented
a.
• Formed like the teeth of a saw; indented.
Redeposit
v. t.
• To deposit again.
Redescend
v. i.
• To descend again.
Redeye
n.
(Zool.) The rudd.
• Same as Redfish.
• The goggle-eye, or fresh-water rock bass.
Redfin
n.
(Zool.) A small North American dace (Minnilus cornutus, or Notropis megalops). The male, in the breeding season, has bright red fins. Called also red dace, and shiner. Applied also to Notropis ardens, of the Mississippi valley.
Redfinch
n.
(Zool.) The European linnet.
Redfish
n.
(Zool.) The blueback salmon of the North Pacific; — called also nerka. See Blueback.
• The rosefish.
• A large California labroid food fish (Trochocopus pulcher); — called also fathead.
• The red bass, red drum, or drumfish. See the Note under Drumfish.
Redhead
n.
• A person having red hair.
(Zool.) An American duck (Aythya Americana) highly esteemed as a game bird. It is closely allied to the canvasback, but is smaller and its head brighter red. Called also red-headed duck. American poachard, grayback, and fall duck. See Illust. under Poachard.
• The red-headed woodpecker. See Woodpecker.
(Bot.) A kind of milkweed (Asclepias Curassavica) with red flowers. It is used in medicine.
Redhibition
n.
(Civil Law) The annulling of a sale, and the return by the buyer of the article sold, on account of some defect.
Redhibitory
a.
(Civil Law) Of or pertaining to redhibition; as, a redhibitory action or fault.
Redhoop
n.
(Zool.) The male of the European bullfinch.
Redhorn
n.
(Zool.) Any species of a tribe of butterflies (Fugacia) including the common yellow species and the cabbage butterflies. The antennae are usually red.
Redia
n.
(Zool.) A kind of larva, or nurse, which is prroduced within the sporocyst of certain trematodes by asexual generation. It in turn produces, in the same way, either another generation of rediae, or else cercariae within its own body. Called also proscolex, and nurse. See Illustration in Appendix.
Redient
a.
• Returning.
Redigest
v. t.
• To digest, or reduce to form, a second time.
Rediminish
v. t.
• To diminish again.
Redingot
n.
• A long plain double-breasted outside coat for women.
Redintegrate
a.
• Restored to wholeness or a perfect state; renewed.
v. t.
• To make whole again; a renew; to restore to integrity or soundness.
Redintegration
n.
• Restoration to a whole or sound state; renewal; renovation.
(Chem.) Restoration of a mixed body or matter to its former nature and state.
(Psychology) The law that objects which have been previously combined as part of a single mental state tend to recall or suggest one another; — adopted by many philosophers to explain the phenomena of the association of ideas.
Redirect
a.
(Law) Applied to the examination of a witness, by the party calling him, after the cross-examination.
Redisburse
v. t.
• To disburse anew; to give, or pay, back.
Rediscover
v. t.
• To discover again.
Redispose
v. t.
• To dispose anew or again; to readjust; to rearrange.
Redisseize
v. t.
(Law) To disseize anew, or a second time.
Redisseizin
n.
(Law) A disseizin by one who once before was adjudged to have dassezed the same person of the same lands, etc.; also, a writ which lay in such a case.
Redisseizor
n.
(Law) One who redisseizes.
Redissolve
v. t.
• To dissolve again.
Redistill
v. t.
• To distill again.
Redistrainer
n.
• One who distrains again.
Redistribute
v. t.
• To distribute again.
Redistrict
v. t.
• To divide into new districts.
Redition
n.
• Act of returning; return.
Redivide
v. t.
• To divide anew.
Redly
adv.
• In a red manner; with redness.
Redmouth
n.
(Zool.) Any one of several species of marine food fishes of the genus Diabasis, or Haemulon, of the Southern United States, having the inside of the mouth bright red. Called also flannelmouth, and grunt.
Redness
n.
• The quality or state of being red; red color.
Redolent
a.
• Diffusing odor or fragrance; spreading sweet scent; scented; odorous; smelling; — usually followed by of.
Redouble
v. t.
• To double again or repeatedly; to increase by continued or repeated additions; to augment greatly; to multiply.
n.
v. i.
• To become greatly or repeatedly increased; to be multiplied; to be greatly augmented; as, the noise redoubles.
Redoubt
n.
(Fort.) A small, and usually a roughly constructed, fort or outwork of varying shape, commonly erected for a temporary purpose, and without flanking defenses, — used esp. in fortifying tops of hills and passes, and positions in hostile territory.
• In permanent works, an outwork placed within another outwork. See F and i in Illust. of Ravelin.
v. t.
• To stand in dread of; to regard with fear; to dread.
Redoubtable
a.
• Formidable; dread; terrible to foes; as, a redoubtable hero; hence, valiant; — often in contempt or burlesque.
Redoubted
a.
• Formidable; dread.
Redoubting
n.
• Reverence; honor.
Redound
v. i.
• To roll back, as a wave or flood; to be sent or driven back; to flow back, as a consequence or effect; to conduce; to contribute; to result.
• To be in excess; to remain over and above; to be redundant; to overflow.
n.
• The coming back, as of consequence or effect; result; return; requital.
• Rebound; reverberation.
Redowa
n.
• A Bohemian dance of two kinds, one in triple time, like a waltz, the other in two-four time, like a polka. The former is most in use.
Redpole
n.
(Zool.) Same as Redpoll.
Redpoll
n.
(Zool.) Any one of several species of small northern finches of the genus Acanthis (formerly Agiothus), native of Europe and America. The adults have the crown red or rosy. The male of the most common species (A. linarius) has also the breast and rump rosy. Called also redpoll linnet. See Illust. under Linnet.
• The common European linnet.
• The American redpoll warbler (Dendroica palmarum).
Redraft
v. t.
• To draft or draw anew.
n.
• A second draft or copy.
(Com.) A new bill of exchange which the holder of a protected bill draws on the drawer or indorsers, in order to recover the amount of the protested bill with costs and charges.
Redraw
v. t.
• To draw again; to make a second draft or copy of; to redraft.
v. i.
(Com.) To draw a new bill of exchange, as the holder of a protested bill, on the drawer or indorsers.
Redress
v. t.
• To dress again.
v. t.
• To put in order again; to set right; to emend; to revise.
• To set right, as a wrong; to repair, as an injury; to make amends for; to remedy; to relieve from.
• To make amends or compensation to; to relieve of anything unjust or oppressive; to bestow relief upon.
n.
• The act of redressing; a making right; reformation; correction; amendment.
• A setting right, as of wrong, injury, or opression; as, the redress of grievances; hence, relief; remedy; reparation; indemnification.
• One who, or that which, gives relief; a redresser.
Redressal
n.
• Redress.
Redresser
n.
• One who redresses.
Redressible
a.
• Such as may be redressed.
Redressive
a.
• Tending to redress.
Redressless
a.
• Not having redress; such as can not be redressed; irremediable.
Redressment
n.
• The act of redressing; redress.
Redroot
n.
(Bot.) A name of several plants having red roots, as the New Jersey tea (see under Tea), the gromwell, the bloodroot, and the Lachnanthes tinctoria, an endogenous plant found in sandy swamps from Rhode Island to Florida.
Redsear
v. i.
• To be brittle when red-hot; to be red-short.
Redshank
n.
(Zool.) A common Old World limicoline bird (Totanus calidris), having the legs and feet pale red. The spotted redshank (T. fuscus) is larger, and has orange-red legs. Called also redshanks, redleg, and clee.
• The fieldfare.
• A bare-legged person; — a contemptuous appellation formerly given to the Scotch Highlanders, in allusion to their bare legs.
Redskin
n.
• A common appellation for a North American Indian; — so called from the color of the skin.
Redstart
n.
(Zool.) A small, handsome European singing bird (Ruticilla phoenicurus), allied to the nightingale; — called also redtail, brantail, fireflirt, firetail. The black redstart is P.tithys. The name is also applied to several other species of Ruticilla amnd allied genera, native of India.
• An American fly-catching warbler (Setophaga ruticilla). The male is black, with large patches of orange-red on the sides, wings, and tail. The female is olive, with yellow patches.
Redstreak
n.
• A kind of apple having the skin streaked with red and yellow, — a favorite English cider apple.
• Cider pressed from redstreak apples.
Redtail
n.
(Zool.) The red-tailed hawk.
• The European redstart.
Redthroat
n.
(Zool.) A small Australian singing bird (Phyrrholaemus brunneus). The upper parts are brown, the center of the throat red.
Redtop
n.
(Bot.) A kind of grass (Agrostis vulgaris) highly valued in the United States for pasturage and hay for cattle; — called also English grass, and in some localities herd's grass. See Illustration in Appendix. The tall redtop is Triodia seslerioides.
Redub
v. t.
• To refit; to repair, or make reparation for; hence, to repay or requite.
Reduce
v. t.
• To bring or lead back to any former place or condition.
• To bring to any inferior state, with respect to rank, size, quantity, quality, value, etc.; to diminish; to lower; to degrade; to impair; as, to reduce a sergeant to the ranks; to reduce a drawing; to reduce expenses; to reduce the intensity of heat.
• To bring to terms; to humble; to conquer; to subdue; to capture; as, to reduce a province or a fort.
• To bring to a certain state or condition by grinding, pounding, kneading, rubbing, etc.; as, to reduce a substance to powder, or to a pasty mass; to reduce fruit, wood, or paper rags, to pulp.
• To bring into a certain order, arrangement, classification, etc.; to bring under rules or within certain limits of descriptions and terms adapted to use in computation; as, to reduce animals or vegetables to a class or classes; to reduce a series of observations in astronomy; to reduce language to rules.
(Arith.) To change, as numbers, from one denomination into another without altering their value, or from one denomination into others of the same value; as, to reduce pounds, shillings, and pence to pence, or to reduce pence to pounds; to reduce days and hours to minutes, or minutes to days and hours.
• To change the form of a quantity or expression without altering its value; as, to reduce fractions to their lowest terms, to a common denominator, etc.
(Chem.) To bring to the metallic state by separating from impurities; hence, in general, to remove oxygen from; to deoxidize; to combine with, or to subject to the action of, hydrogen; as, ferric iron is reduced to ferrous iron; or metals are reduced from their ores; — opposed to oxidize.
(Med.) To restore to its proper place or condition, as a displaced organ or part; as, to reduce a dislocation, a fracture, or a hernia.
Reducement
n.
• Reduction.
Reducent
a.
• Tending to reduce.
n.
• A reducent agent.
Reducer
n.
• One who, or that which, reduces.
Reducible
a.
• Capable of being reduced.
Reducibleness
n.
• Quality of being reducible.
Reducing
• a & n. from Reduce.
Reduct
v. t..
• To reduce.
Reductibility
n.
• The quality of being reducible; reducibleness.
Reduction
n.
• The act of reducing, or state of being reduced; conversion to a given state or condition; diminution; conquest; as, the reduction of a body to powder; the reduction of things to order; the reduction of the expenses of government; the reduction of a rebellious province.
(Arith. & Alq.) The act or process of reducing. See Reduce, v. t., 6. and To reduce an equation, To reduce an expression, under Reduce, v. t.
(Astron.) The correction of observations for known errors of instruments, etc.
• The preparation of the facts and measurements of observations in order to deduce a general result.
• The process of making a copy of something, as a figure, design, or draught, on a smaller scale, preserving the proper proportions.
(Logic) The bringing of a syllogism in one of the so-called imperfect modes into a mode in the first figure.
(Chem. & Metal.) The act, process, or result of reducing; as, the reduction of iron from its ores; the reduction of aldehyde from alcohol.
(Med.) The operation of restoring a dislocated or fractured part to its former place.
Reductive
a.
• Tending to reduce; having the power or effect of reducing.
n.
• A reductive agent.
Reductively
adv.
• By reduction; by consequence.
Reduit
n.
(Fort.) A central or retired work within any other work.
Redundant
a.
• Exceeding what is natural or necessary; superabundant; exuberant; as, a redundant quantity of bile or food.
• Using more worrds or images than are necessary or useful; pleonastic.
Redundantly
adv.
• In a refundant manner.
Reduplicate
a.
• Double; doubled; reduplicative; repeated.
(Bot.) Valvate with the margins curved outwardly; — said of the stivation of certain flowers.
v. t.
• To redouble; to multiply; to repeat.
(Gram.) To repeat the first letter or letters of (a word). See Reduplication,3.
Reduplication
n.
• The act of doubling, or the state of being doubled.
(Pros.) A figure in which the first word of a verse is the same as the last word of the preceding verse.
(Philol.) The doubling of a stem or syllable (more or less modified), with the effect of changing the time expressed, intensifying the meaning, or making the word more imitative; also, the syllable thus added; as, L. tetuli; poposci.
Reduvid
n.
(Zool.) Any hemipterous insect of the genus Redivius, or family Reduvidae. They live by sucking the blood of other insects, and some species also attack man.
Redweed
n.
(Bot.) The red poppy (Papaver Rhoeas).
Redwing
n.
(Zool.) A European thrush (Turdus iliacus). Its under wing coverts are orange red. Called also redwinged thrush. (b) A North American passerine bird (Agelarius ph&oe;niceus) of the family Icteridae. The male is black, with a conspicuous patch of bright red, bordered with orange, on each wing. Called also redwinged blackbird, red-winged troupial, marsh blackbird, and swamp blackbird.
Redwithe
n.
(Bot.) A west Indian climbing shrub (Combretum Jacquini) with slender reddish branchlets.
Redwood
n.
(Bot.) A gigantic coniferous tree (Sequoia sempervirens) of California, and its light and durable reddish timber. See Sequoia.
• An East Indian dyewood, obtained from Pterocarpus santalinus, Caesalpinia Sappan, and several other trees.
Ree
n.
• See Rei.
v. t.
• To riddle; to sift; to separate or throw off.
Reebok
n.
(Zool.) The peele.
Reecho
v. i.
• To give echoes; to return back, or be reverberated, as an echo; to resound; to be resonant.
n.
• The echo of an echo; a repeated or second echo.
Reechy
a.
• Smoky; reeky; hence, begrimed with dirt.
Reed
a.
• Red.
v. & n.
• Same as Rede.
n.
• The fourth stomach of a ruminant; rennet.
n.
(Bot.) A name given to many tall and coarse grasses or grasslike plants, and their slender, often jointed, stems, such as the various kinds of bamboo, and especially the common reed of Europe and North America (Phragmites communis).
• A musical instrument made of the hollow joint of some plant; a rustic or pastoral pipe.
• An arrow, as made of a reed.
• Straw prepared for thatching a roof.
(Mus.) A small piece of cane or wood attached to the mouthpiece of certain instruments, and set in vibration by the breath. In the clarinet it is a single fiat reed; in the oboe and bassoon it is double, forming a compressed tube.
• One of the thin pieces of metal, the vibration of which produce the tones of a melodeon, accordeon, harmonium, or seraphine; also attached to certain sets or registers of pipes in an organ.
(Weaving) A frame having parallel flat stripe of metal or reed, between which the warp threads pass, set in the swinging lathe or batten of a loom for beating up the weft; a sley. See Batten.
(Mining) A tube containing the train of powder for igniting the charge in blasting.
(Arch.) Same as Reeding.
Reedbird
n.
(Zool.) The bobolink.
• One of several small Asiatic singing birds of the genera Sch&oe;nicola and Eurycercus; — called also reed babbler.
Reedbuck
n.
(Zool.) See Rietboc.
Reeded
a.
• Civered with reeds; reedy.
• Formed with channels and ridges like reeds.
Reeden
a.
• Consisting of a reed or reeds.
Reedification
n.
• The act reedifying; the state of being reedified.
Reedify
v. t.
• To edify anew; to build again after destruction.
Reeding
n.
(Arch.) A small convex molding; a reed (see Illust. (i) of Molding); one of several set close together to decorate a surface; also, decoration by means of reedings; — the reverse of fluting.
• The nurling on the edge of a coin; — commonly called milling.
Reedless
a.
• Destitute of reeds; as, reedless banks.
Reedling
n.
(Zool.) The European bearded titmouse (Panurus biarmicus); — called also reed bunting, bearded pinnock, and lesser butcher bird.
Reedwork
n.
(Mus.) A collective name for the reed stops of an organ.
Reedy
a.
• Abounding with reeds; covered with reeds.
• Having the quality of reed in tone, that is, and thin^ as some voices.
Reef
n.
• A chain or range of rocks lying at or near the surface of the water. See Coral reefs, under Coral.
(Mining.) A large vein of auriferous quartz; — so called in Australia. Hence, any body of rock yielding valuable ore.
n.
(Naut.) That part of a sail which is taken in or let out by means of the reef points, in order to adapt the size of the sail to the force of the wind.
v. t.
(Naut.) To reduce the extent of (as a sail) by roiling or folding a certain portion of it and making it fast to the yard or spar.
Reefer
n.
(Naut.) One who reefs; — a name often given to midshipmen.
• A close-fitting lacket or short coat of thick cloth.
Reefing
n.
(Naut.) The process of taking in a reef.
Reefy
a.
• Full of reefs or rocks.
Reek
n.
• A rick.
n.
• Vapor; steam; smoke; fume.
v. i.
• To emit vapor, usually that which is warm and moist; to be full of fumes; to steam; to smoke; to exhale.
Reeky
a.
• Soiled with smoke or steam; smoky; foul.
• Emitting reek.
Reel
n.
• A lively dance of the Highlanders of Scotland; also, the music to the dance; — often called Scotch reel.
n.
• A frame with radial arms, or a kind of spool, turning on an axis, on which yarn, threads, lines, or the like, are wound; as, a log reel, used by seamen; an angler's reel; a garden reel.
• A machine on which yarn is wound and measured into lays and hanks, — for cotton or linen it is fifty-four inches in circuit; for worsted, thirty inches.
(Agric.) A device consisting of radial arms with horizontal stats, connected with a harvesting machine, for holding the stalks of grain in position to be cut by the knives.
v. t.
• To roll.
• To wind upon a reel, as yarn or thread.
v. i.
• To incline, in walking, from one side to the other; to stagger.
• To have a whirling sensation; to be giddy.
n.
• The act or motion of reeling or staggering; as, a drunken reel.
Reelect
v. t.
• To elect again; as, to reelect the former governor.
Reelection
n.
• Election a second time, or anew; as, the reelection of a former chief.
Reeler
n.
• One who reels.
(Zool.) The grasshopper warbler; — so called from its note.
Reeligible
a.
• Eligble again; capable of reelection; as, reeligible to the same office.
Reem
n.
(Zool.) The Hebrew name of a horned wild animal, probably the Urus.
v. t.
(Naut.) To open (the seams of a vessel's planking) for the purpose of calking them.
Reembark
v. t. & i.
• To put, or go, on board a vessel again; to embark again.
Reembarkation
n.
• A putting, or going, on board a vessel again.
Reembody
v. t.
• To embody again.
Reembrace
v. i.
• To embrace again.
Reemerge
v. i.
• To emerge again.
Reemergence
n.
• Act of remerging.
Reenacment
n.
• The enacting or passing of a law a second time; the renewal of a law.
Reenact
v. t.
• To enact again.
Reenaction
n.
• The act of renacting; the state of being renacted.
Reencourage
v. t.
• To encourage again.
Reendow
v. t.
• To endow again.
Reenforce
v. t.
• To strengthen with new force, assistance, material, or support; as, to reenforce an argument; to reenforce a garment; especially, to strengthen with additional troops, as an army or a fort, or with additional ships, as a fleet.
n.
• Something which reenforces or strengthens. Specifically: (a) That part of a cannon near the breech which is thicker than the rest of the piece, so as better to resist the force of the exploding powder. See Illust. of Cannon. (b) An additional thickness of canvas, cloth, or the like, around an eyelet, buttonhole, etc.
Reenforcement
n.
• The act of reenforcing, or the state of being reenforced.
• That which reenforces; additional force; especially, additional troops or force to augment the strength of any army, or ships to strengthen a navy or fleet.
Reengage
v. t. & i.
• To engage a second time or again.
Reengagement
n.
• A renewed or repeated engagement.
Reengrave
v. t.
• To engrave anew.
Reenjoy
v. i.
• To enjoi anew.
Reenjoyment
n.
• Renewed enjoiment.
Reenkindle
v. t.
• To enkindle again.
Reenlist
v. t. & i.
• To enlist again.
Reenlistment
n.
• A renewed enlistment.
Reenslave
v. t.
• To enslave again.
Reenter
v. t.
• To enter again.
(Engraving) To cut deeper, as engraved lines on a plate of metal, when the engraving has not been deep enough, or the plate has become worn in printing.
v. i.
• To enter anew or again.
Reentering
n.
(Calico Printing.) The process of applying additional colors, by applications of printing blocks, to patterns already partly colored.
Reenthrone
v. t.
• To enthrone again; to replace on a throne.
Reenthronement
n.
• A second enthroning.
Reentrance
n.
• The act entereing again; rentry.
Reentrant
a.
• Reentering; pointing or directed inwardds; as, a rentrant angle.
Reentry
n.
• A second or new entry; as, a reentry into public life.
(Law) A resuming or retaking possession of what one has lately foregone; — applied especially to land; the entry by a lessor upon the premises leased, on failure of the tenant to pay rent or perform the covenants in the lease.
Reerect
v. t.
• To erect again.
Reermouse
n.
(Zool.) See Rearmouse.
Reestablish
v. t.
• To establish anew; to fix or confirm again; to restore; as, to reestablish a covenant; to reestablish health.
Reestablisher
n.
• One who establishes again.
Reestablishment
n.
• The act reestablishing; the state of being reestablished.
Reestate
v. t.
• To reestablish.
Reeve
n.
(Zool.) The female of the ruff.
v. t.
(Naut.) To pass, as the end of a pope, through any hole in a block, thimble, cleat, ringbolt, cringle, or the like.
n.
• an officer, steward, bailiff, or governor; — used chiefly in compounds; as, shirereeve, now written sheriff; portreeve, etc.
Reexaminable
a.
• Admitting of being reexamined or reconsidered.
Reexamination
n.
• A repeated examination. See under Examination.
Reexamine
v. t.
• To examine anew.
Reexchange
v. t.
• To exchange anew; to reverse (a previous exchange).
n.
• A renewed exchange; a reversal of an exchange.
(Com.) The expense chargeable on a bill of exchange or draft which has been dishonored in a foreign country, and returned to the country in which it was made or indorsed, and then taken up.
Reexhibit
v. t.
• To exhibit again.
Reexpel
v. t.
• To expel again.
Reexperience
n.
• A renewed or repeated experience.
Reexport
v. t.
• To export again, as what has been imported.
n/
• Any commodity reexported; — chiefly in the ptural.
Reexportation
n.
• The act of reexporting, or of exporting an import.
Reezed
a.
• Grown rank; rancid; rusty.
Refaction
n.
• Recompense; atonemet; retribution.
Refar
v. t.
• To go over again; to repeat.
Refashion
v. t.
• To fashion anew; to form or mold into shape a second time.
Refashionment
n.
• The act of refashioning, or the state of being refashioned.
Refasten
v. t.
• To fasten again.
Refect
v. t.
• To restore after hunger or fatique; to refresh.
Refection
n.
• Refreshment after hunger or fatique; a repast; a lunch.
Refective
a.
• Refreshing; restoring.
n.
• That which refreshes.
Refectory
n.
• A room for refreshment; originally, a dining hall in monasteries or convents.
Refel
v. t.
• To refute; to disprove; as, to refel the tricks of a sophister.
Refer
v. t.
• To carry or send back.
• Hence: To send or direct away; to send or direct elsewhere, as for treatment, aid, infirmation, decision, etc.; to make over, or pass over, to another; as, to refer a student to an author; to refer a beggar to an officer; to refer a bill to a committee; a court refers a matter of fact to a commissioner for investigation, or refers a question of law to a superior tribunal.
• To place in or under by a mental or rational process; to assign to, as a class, a cause, source, a motive, reason, or ground of explanation; as, he referred the phenomena to electrical disturbances.
v. i.
• To have recourse; to apply; to appeal; to betake one's self; as, to refer to a dictionary.
• To have relation or reference; to relate; to point; as, the figure refers to a footnote.
• To carry the mind or throught; to direct attention; as, the preacher referrd to the late election.
• To direct inquiry for information or a quarantes of any kind, as in respect to one's integrity, capacity, pecuniary ability, and the like; as, I referred to his employer for the truth of his story.
Referable
a.
• Capable of being referred, or considered in relation to something else; assignable; ascribable.
Referee
n.
• One to whom a thing is referred; a person to whom a matter in dispute has been referred, in order that he may settle it.
Reference
n.
• The act of referring, or the state of being referred; as, reference to a chart for quidance.
• That which refers to something; a specific direction of the attention; as, a reference in a text-book.
• Relation; regard; respect.
• One who, or that which, is referred to.
• One of whom inquires can be made as to the integrity, capacity, and the like, of another
• A work, or a passage in a work, to which one is referred.
(Law) The act of submitting a matter in dispute to the judgment of one or more persons for decision.
(Equity) The process of sending any matter, for inquiry in a cause, to a master or other officer, in order that he may ascertain facts and report to the court.
• Appeal.
Referendary
n.
• One to whose decision a cause is referred; a referee.
• An officer who delivered the royal answer to petitions.
• Formerly, an officer of state charged with the duty of procuring and dispatching diplomas and decrees.
Referendum
n.
• A diplomatic agent's note asking for instructions from his government concerning a particular matter or point.
• The right to approve or reject by popular vote a meassure passed upon by a legislature.
Referential
a.
• Containing a reference; pointing to something out of itself; as, notes for referential use.
Referment
n.
• The act of referring; reference.
v. t. & i.
• To ferment, or cause to ferment, again.
Referrer
n.
• One who refers.
Referrible
a.
• Referable.
Reffurnishment
n.
• The act of refurnishing, or state of being refurnished.
Refigure
v. t.
• To figure again.
Refill
v. t. & i.
• To fill, or become full, again.
Refind
v. t.
• To find again; to get or experience again.
Refine
v. t.
• To reduce to a fine, unmixed, or pure state; to free from impurities; to free from dross or alloy; to separate from extraneous matter; to purify; to defecate; as, to refine gold or silver; to refine iron; to refine wine or sugar.
• To purify from what is gross, coarse, vulgar, inelegant, low, and the like; to make elegant or exellent; to polish; as, to refine the manners, the language, the style, the taste, the intellect, or the moral feelings.
v. i.
• To become pure; to be cleared of feculent matter.
• To improve in accuracy, delicacy, or excellence.
• To affect nicety or subtilty in thought or language.
Refined
a.
• Freed from impurities or alloy; purifed; polished; cultured; delicate; as; refined gold; refined language; refined sentiments.
Refinement
n.
• The act of refining, or the state of being refined; as, the refinement or metals; refinement of ideas.
• That which is refined, elaborated, or polished to excess; an affected subtilty; as, refinements of logic.
Refiner
n.
• One who, or that which, refines.
Refinery
n.
• The building and apparatus for refining or purifying, esp. metals and sugar.
• A furnace in which cast iron is refined by the action of a blast on the molten metal.
Refit
v. t.
• To fit or prepare for use again; to repair; to restore after damage or decay; as, to refit a garment; to refit ships of war.
• To fit out or supply a second time.
v. i.
• To obtain repairs or supplies; as, the fleet returned to refit.
Refitment
n.
• The act of refitting, or the state of being refitted.
Refix
v. t.
• To fix again or anew; to establish anew.
Reflame
v. i.
• To kindle again into flame.
Reflect
v. t.
• To bend back; to give a backwad turn to; to throw back; especially, to cause to return after striking upon any surface; as, a mirror reflects rays of light; polished metals reflect heat.
• To give back an image or likeness of; to mirror.
v. i.
• To throw back light, heat, or the like; to return rays or beams.
• To be sent back; to rebound as from a surface; to revert; to return.
• To throw or turn back the thoughts upon anything; to contemplate. Specifically: To attend earnestly to what passes within the mind; to attend to the facts or phenomena of consciousness; to use attention or earnest thought; to meditate; especially, to think in relation to moral truth or rules.
• To cast reproach; to cause censure or dishonor.
Reflected
a.
• Thrown back after striking a surface; as, reflected light, heat, sound, etc.
• Hence: Not one's own; received from another; as, his glory was reflected glory.
• Bent backward or outward; reflexed.
Reflectent
a.
• Bending or flying back; reflected.
• Reflecting; as, a reflectent body.
Reflectible
a.
• Capable of being reflected, or thrown back; reflexible.
Reflecting
a.
• Throwing back light, heat, etc., as a mirror or other surface.
• Given to reflection or serious consideration; reflective; contemplative; as, a reflecting mind.
Reflectingly
adv.
• With reflection; also, with censure; reproachfully.
Reflection
n.
• The act of reflecting, or turning or sending back, or the state of being reflected.
• The return of rays, beams, sound, or the like, from a surface
• The reverting of the mind to that which has already occupied it; continued consideration; meditation; contemplation; hence, also, that operation or power of the mind by which it is conscious of its own acts or states; the capacity for judging rationally, especially in view of a moral rule or standard
• Shining; brightness, as of the sun.
• That which is produced by reflection.
• An image given back from a reflecting surface; a reflected counterpart.
• A part reflected, or turned back, at an angle; as, the reflection of a membrane
• Result of meditation; thought or opinion after attentive consideration or contemplation; especially, thoughts suggested by truth
• Censure; reproach cast.
(Physiol.) The transference of an excitement from one nerve fiber to another by means of the nerve cells, as in reflex action. See Reflex action, under Reflex.
Reflective
a.
• Throwing back images; as, a reflective mirror.
• Capable of exercising thought or judgment; as, reflective reason.
• Addicted to introspective or meditative habits; as, a reflective person.
(Gram.) Reflexive; reciprocal.
Reflector
n.
• One who, or that which, reflects.
(Physics) Something having a polished surface for reflecting light or heat, as a mirror, a speculum, etc.
• A reflecting telescope.
• A device for reflecting sound.
Reflew
v. i.
• To flow back; to ebb.
Reflex
a.
• Directed back; attended by reflection; retroactive; introspective.
• Produced in reaction, in resistance, or in return.
(Physiol.) Of, pertaining to, or produced by, stimulus or excitation without the necessary intervention of consciousness.
n.
• Reflection; the light reflected from an illuminated surface to one in shade.
(Physiol.) An involuntary movement produced by reflex action.
v. t.
• To reflect.
• To bend back; to turn back.
Reflexed
a.
• Bent backward or outward.
Reflexibility
n.
• The quality or capability of being reflexible; as, the reflexibility of the rays of light.
Reflexible
a.
• Capable of being reflected, or thrown back.
Reflexion
n.
• See Reflection.
Reflexity
n.
• The state or condition of being reflected.
Reflexiv
adv.
• In a reflex manner; reflectively.
Reflexive
a.
• Bending or turned backward; reflective; having respect to something past.
• Implying censure.
(Gram.) Having for its direct object a pronoun which refers to the agent or subject as its antecedent; — said of certain verbs; as, the witness perjured himself; I bethought myself. Applied also to pronouns of this class; reciprocal; reflective.
Refloat
n.
• Reflux; ebb.
Reflorescence
n.
(Bot.) A blossoming anew of a plant after it has apparently ceased blossoming for the season.
Reflourish
v. t. & i.
• To flourish again.
Reflower
v. i. & t.
• To flower, or cause to flower, again.
Refluctuation
n.
• A flowing back; refluence.
Refluent
a.
• Flowing back; returning; ebbing.
Reflueus
a.
• Refluent.
Reflux
a.
• Returning, or flowing back; reflex; as, reflux action.
n.
• A flowing back, as the return of a fluid; ebb; reaction; as, the flux and reflux of the tides.
Refocillate
v. t.
• To refresh; to revive.
Refocillation
n.
• Restoration of strength by refreshment.
Refold
v. t.
• To fold again.
Refoment
v. t.
• To foment anew.
Reforestization
n.
• The act or process of reforestizing.
Reforestize
v. t.
• To convert again into a forest; to plant again with trees.
Reforge
v. t.
• To forge again or anew; hence, to fashion or fabricate anew; to make over.
Reforger
n.
• One who reforges.
Reform
v. t.
• To put into a new and improved form or condition; to restore to a former good state, or bring from bad to good; to change from worse to better; to amend; to correct; as, to reform a profligate man; to reform corrupt manners or morals.
v. i.
• To return to a good state; to amend or correct one's own character or habits; as, a man of settled habits of vice will seldom reform.
n.
• Amendment of what is defective, vicious, corrupt, or depraved; reformation; as, reform of elections; reform of government.
Reformable
a.
• Capable of being reformed.
Reformade
n.
• A reformado.
Reformado
n.
• A monk of a reformed order.
• An officer who, in disgrace, is deprived of his command, but retains his rank, and sometimes his pay.
Reformalize
v. i.
• To affect reformation; to pretend to correctness.
Reformation
n.
• The act of reforming, or the state of being reformed; change from worse to better; correction or amendment of life, manners, or of anything vicious or corrupt; as, the reformation of manners; reformation of the age; reformation of abuses.
• Specifically (Eccl. Hist.), the important religious movement commenced by Luther early in the sixteenth century, which resulted in the formation of the various Protestant churches.
Reformative
a.
• Forming again; having the quality of renewing form; reformatory.
Reformatory
a.
• Tending to produce reformation; reformative.
n.
• An institution for promoting the reformation of offenders.
Reformed
a.
• Corrected; amended; restored to purity or excellence; said, specifically, of the whole body of Protestant churches originating in the Reformation. Also, in a more restricted sense, of those who separated from Luther on the doctrine of consubstantiation, etc., and carried the Reformation, as they claimed, to a higher point. The Protestant churches founded by them in Switzerland, France, Holland, and part of Germany, were called the Reformed churches.
• Amended in character and life; as, a reformed gambler or drunkard.
(Mil.) Retained in service on half or full pay after the disbandment of the company or troop; — said of an officer.
Reformer
n.
• One who effects a reformation or amendment; one who labors for, or urges, reform; as, a reformer of manners, or of abuses.
(Eccl.Hist.) One of those who commenced the reformation of religion in the sixteenth century, as Luther, Melanchthon, Zwingli, and Calvin.
Reformist
n.
• A reformer.
Reformly
adv.
• In the manner of a reform; for the purpose of reform.
Refortification
n.
• A fortifying anew, or a second time.
Refortify
v. t.
• To fortify anew.
Refossion
n.
• The act of digging up again.
Refound
v. t.
• To found or cast anew.
• To found or establish again; to restablish.
• imp. & p. p. of Refind, v. t.
Refounder
n.
• One who refounds.
Refract
v. t.
• To bend sharply and abruptly back; to break off.
• To break the natural course of, as rays of light orr heat, when passing from one transparent medium to another of different density; to cause to deviate from a direct course by an action distinct from reflection; as, a dense medium refrcts the rays of light as they pass into it from a rare medium.
Refractable
a.
• Capable of being refracted.
Refracted
a.
(Bot. & Zool.) Bent backward angularly, as if half-broken; as, a refracted stem or leaf.
• Turned from a direct course by refraction; as, refracted rays of light.
Refracting
a.
• Serving or tending to refract; as, a refracting medium.
Refraction
n.
• The act of refracting, or the state of being refracted.
• The change in the direction of ray of light, heat, or the like, when it enters obliquely a medium of a different density from that through which it has previously moved.
(Astron.) The change in the direction of a ray of light, and, consequently, in the apparent position of a heavenly body from which it emanates, arising from its passage through the earth's atmosphere; — hence distinguished as atmospheric refraction, or astronomical refraction
• The correction which is to be deducted from the apparent altitude of a heavenly body on account of atmospheric refraction, in order to obtain the true altitude.
Refractive
a.
• Serving or having power to refract, or turn from a direct course; pertaining to refraction; as, refractive surfaces; refractive powers.
Refractiveness
n.
• The quality or condition of being refractive.
Refractometer
n.
(Opt.) A contrivance for exhibiting and measuring the refraction of light.
Refractor
n.
• Anything that refracts
(Opt.) A refracting telescope, in which the image to be viewed is formed by the refraction of light in passing through a convex lens
Refractorily
adv.
• In a refractory manner; perversely; obstinately.
Refractoriness
n.
• The quality or condition of being refractory.
Refractory
a.
• Obstinate in disobedience; contumacious; stubborn; unmanageable; as, a refractory child; a refractory beast.
• Resisting ordinary treatment; difficult of fusion, reduction, or the like; — said especially of metals and the like, which do not readily yield to heat, or to the hammer; as, a refractory ore.
n.
• A refractory person.
• Refractoriness.
• OPottery) A piece of ware covered with a vaporable flux and placed in a kiln, to communicate a glaze to the other articles.
Refracture
n.
(Surg.) A second breaking (as of a badly set bone) by the surgeon.
v. t.
(Surg.) To break again, as a bone.
Refragable
a.
• Capable of being refuted; refutable.
Refragate
v. i.
• To oppose.
Refrain
v. t.
• To hold back; to restrain; to keep within prescribed bounds; to curb; to govern.
• To abstain from
v. i.
• To keep one's self from action or interference; to hold aloof; to forbear; to abstain.
n.
• The burden of a song; a phrase or verse which recurs at the end of each of the separate stanzas or divisions of a poetic composition.
Refrainer
n.
• One who refrains.
Refrainment
n.
• Act of refraining.
Reframe
v. t.
• To frame again or anew.
Refrangibility
n.
• The quality of being refrangible.
Refrangible
a.
• Capable of being refracted, or turned out of a direct course, in passing from one medium to another, as rays of light.
Refrenation
n.
• The act of refraining.
Refresh
v. t.
• To make fresh again; to restore strength, spirit, animation, or the like, to; to relieve from fatigue or depression; to reinvigorate; to enliven anew; to reanimate; as, sleep refreshes the body and the mind.
• To make as if new; to repair; to restore.
n.
• The act of refreshing.
Refresher
n.
• One who, or that which, refreshes.
(Law) An extra fee paid to counsel in a case that has been adjourned from one term to another, or that is unusually protracted.
Refreshful
a.
• Full of power to refresh; refreshing.
Refreshing
a.
• Reviving; reanimating.
Refreshment
n.
• The act of refreshing, or the state of being refreshed; restoration of strength, spirit, vigor, or liveliness; relief after suffering; new life or animation after depression.
• That which refreshes; means of restoration or reanimation; especially, an article of food or drink.
Refret
n.
• Refrain.
Refreyd
v. t.
• To chill; to cool.
Refrication
n.
• A rubbing up afresh; a brightening.
Refrigerant
a.
• Cooling; allaying heat or fever.
n.
• That which makes to be cool or cold; specifically, a medicine or an application for allaying fever, or the symptoms of fever; — used also figuratively.
Refrigerate
v. t.
• To cause to become cool; to make or keep cold or cool.
Refrigeration
n.
• The act or process of refrigerating or cooling, or the state of being cooled.
Refrigerative
a.
• Cooling; allaying heat.
n.
• A refrigerant.
Refrigerator
n.
• That which refrigerates or makes cold; that which keeps cool.
• A box or room for keeping food or other articles cool, usually by means of ice
• An apparatus for rapidly cooling heated liquids or vapors, connected with a still, etc.
Refrigeratory
a.
• Mitigating heat; cooling.
n.
• That which refrigerates or cools.
• In distillation, a vessel filled with cold water, surrounding the worm, the vapor in which is thereby condensed
• The chamber, or tank, in which ice is formed, in an ice machine.
Refrigerium
n.
• Cooling refreshment; refrigeration.
Refringency
n.
• The power possessed by a substance to refract a ray; as, different substances have different refringencies.
Refringent
a.
• Pertaining to, or possessing, refringency; refractive; refracting; as, a refringent prism of spar.
Reft
imp. & p. p.
• Bereft.
n.
• A chink; a rift. See Rift.
Refuge
n.
• Shelter or protection from danger or distress.
• That which shelters or protects from danger, or from distress or calamity; a stronghold which protects by its strength, or a sanctuary which secures safety by its sacredness; a place inaccessible to an enemy.
• An expedient to secure protection or defense; a device or contrivance.
v. t.
• To shelter; to protect.
Refugee
n.
• One who flees to a shelter, or place of safety.
• Especially, one who, in times of persecution or political commotion, flees to a foreign power or country for safety; as, the French refugees who left France after the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
Reful
n.
• Refuge.
Refulgent
a.
• Casting a bright light; radiant; brilliant; resplendent; shining; splendid; as, refulgent beams. —
Refund
v. t.
• To fund again or anew; to replace (a fund or loan) by a new fund; as, to refund a railroad loan.
v. t.
• To pour back.
• To give back; to repay; to restore.
• To supply again with funds; to reimburse.
Refunder
n.
• One who refunds.
Refundment
n.
• The act of refunding; also, that which is refunded.
Refurbish
v. t.
• To furbish anew.
Refurnish
v. t.
• To furnish again.
Refusable
a.
• Capable of being refused; admitting of refusal.
Refusal
n.
• The act of refusing; denial of anything demanded, solicited, or offered for acceptance.
• The right of taking in preference to others; the choice of taking or refusing; option; as, to give one the refusal of a farm; to have the refusal of an employment.
Refuse
v. t.
• To deny, as a request, demand, invitation, or command; to decline to do or grant.
(Mil.) To throw back, or cause to keep back (as the center, a wing, or a flank), out of the regular aligment when troops ar about to engage the enemy; as, to refuse the right wing while the left wing attacks.
• To decline to accept; to reject; to deny the request or petition of; as, to refuse a suitor.
• To disown.
v. i.
• To deny compliance; not to comply.
n.
• Refusal.
n.
• That which is refused or rejected as useless; waste or worthless matter.
a.
• Refused; rejected; hence; left as unworthy of acceptance; of no value; worthless.
Refuser
n.
• One who refuses or rejects.
Refusion
n.
• New or repeated melting, as of metals.
• Restoration.
Refutability
n.
• The quality of being refutable.
Refutable
a.
• Admitting of being refuted or disproved; capable of being proved false or erroneous.
Refutal
n.
• Act of refuting; refutation.
Refutation
n.
• The act or process of refuting or disproving, or the state of being refuted; proof of falsehood or error; the overthrowing of an argument, opinion, testimony, doctrine, or theory, by argument or countervailing proof.
Refutatory
a.
• Tending tu refute; refuting.
Refute
v. t.
• To disprove and overthrow by argument, evidence, or countervailing proof; to prove to be false or erroneous; to confute; as, to refute arguments; to refute testimony; to refute opinions or theories; to refute a disputant.
Refuter
n.
• One who, or that which, refutes.
Regain
v. t.
• To gain anew; to get again; to recover, as what has escaped or been lost; to reach again.
Regal
a.
• Of or pertaining to a king; kingly; royal; as, regal authority, pomp, or sway.
n.
(Mus.) A small portable organ, played with one hand, the bellows being worked with the other, — used in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Regale
n.
• A prerogative of royalty.
v. t.
• To enertan in a regal or sumptuous manner; to enrtertain with something that delights; to gratify; to refresh; as, to regale the taste, the eye, or the ear.
v. i.
• To feast; t fare sumtuously.
n.
• A sumptuous repast; a banquet.
Regalement
n.
• The act of regaling; anything which regales; refreshment; entertainment.
Regaler
n.
• One who regales.
Regalia
n. pl.
• That which belongs to royalty. Specifically: (a) The rights and prerogatives of a king. (b) Royal estates and revenues. (c) Ensings, symbols, or paraphernalia of royalty.
• Hence, decorations or insignia of an office or order, as of Freemasons, Odd Fellows,etc.
• Sumptuous food; delicacies.
n.
• A kind of cigar of large size and superior quality; also, the size in which such cigars are classed.
Regalian
a.
• Pertaining to regalia; pertaining to the royal insignia or prerogatives.
Regalism
n.
• The doctrine of royal prerogative or supremacy.
Regality
n.
• Royalty; ssovereignty; sovereign jurisdiction.
• An ensign or badge of royalty.
Regally
adv.
• In a regal or royal manner.
Regard
v. t.
• To keep in view; to behold; to look at; to view; to gaze upon.
• Hence, to look or front toward; to face.
• To look closely at; to observe attentively; to pay attention to; to notice or remark particularly.
• To look upon, as in a certain relation; to hold as an popinion; to consider; as, to regard abstinence from wine as a duty; to regard another as a friend or enemy.
• To consider and treat; to have a certain feeling toward; as, to regard one with favor or dislike.
• To pay respect to; to treat as something of peculiar value, sanctity, or the like; to care for; to esteem.
• To take into consideration; to take account of, as a fact or condition.
• To have relation to, as bearing upon; to respect; to relate to; to touch; as, an argument does not regard the question; — often used impersonally; as, I agree with you as regards this or that.
v. i.
• To look attentively; to consider; to notice.
n.
• A look; aspect directed to another; view; gaze.
• Attention of the mind with a feeling of interest; observation; heed; notice.
• That view of the mind which springs from perception of value, estimable qualities, or anything that excites admiration; respect; esteem; reverence; affection; as, to have a high regard for a person; — often in the plural.
• State of being regarded, whether favorably or otherwise; estimation; repute; note; account.
• Consideration; thought; reflection; heed.
• Matter for conssideration; account; condition.
• Respect; relation; reference.
• Object of sight; scene; view; aspect.
(O.Eng.Law) Supervision; inspection.
Regardable
a.
• Worthy of regard or notice; to be regarded; observable.
Regardant
a.
• Looking behind; looking backward watchfully.
(Her.) Looking behind or backward; as, a lion regardant.
(O.Eng.Law) Annexed to the land or manor; as, a villain regardant.
Regarder
n.
• One who regards.
(Eng. Forest law) An officer appointed to supervise the forest.
Regardful
a.
• Heedful; attentive; observant.
Regarding
prep.
• Concerning; respecting.
Regardless
a.
• Having no regard; heedless; careless; as, regardless of life, consequences, dignity.
• Not regarded; slighted.
Regather
v. t.
• To gather again.
Regatta
n.
• Originally, a gondola race in Venice; now, a rowing or sailing race, or a series of such races.
Regel
n.
(Astron.) See Rigel.
Regelate
v. i.
(Physics) To freeze together again; to undergo regelation, as ice.
Regelation
n.
(Physics) The act or process of freezing anew, or together,as two pieces of ice.
Regence
n.
• Rule.
Regency
n.
• The office of ruler; rule; authority; government.
• Especially, the office, jurisdiction, or dominion of a regent or vicarious ruler, or of a body of regents; deputed or vicarious government.
• A body of men intrusted with vicarious government; as, a regency constituted during a king's minority, absence from the kingdom, or other disability.
Regeneracy
n.
• The state of being regenerated.
Regenerate
a.
• Reproduced.
(Theol.) Born anew; become Christian; renovated in heart; changed from a natural to a spiritual state.
v. t.
• To generate or produce anew; to reproduce; to give new life, strength, or vigor to.
(Theol.) To cause to be spiritually born anew; to cause to become a Christian; to convert from sin to holiness; to implant holy affections in the heart of.
• Hence, to make a radical change for the better in the character or condition of; as, to regenerate society.
Regenerateness
n.
• The quality or state of being rgenerate.
Regeneration
n.
• The act of regenerating, or the state of being regenerated.
(Theol.) The entering into a new spiritual life; the act of becoming, or of being made, Christian; that change by which holy affectations and purposes are substituted for the opposite motives in the heart.
(Biol.) The reproduction of a part which has been removed or destroyed; re-formation; — a process especially characteristic of a many of the lower animals; as, the regeneration of lost feelers, limbs, and claws by spiders and crabs.
(Physiol.) The reproduction or renewal of tissues, cells, etc., which have been used up and destroyed by the ordinary processes of life; as, the continual regeneration of the epithelial cells of the body, or the regeneration of the contractile substance of muscle.
• The union of parts which have been severed, so that they become anatomically perfect; as, the regeneration of a nerve.
Regenerative
a.
• Of or pertaining to regeneration; tending to regenerate; as, regenerative influences.
Regeneratively
adv.
• So as to regenerate.
Regenerator
n.
• One who, or that which, regenerates.
(Mech.) A device used in connection with hot-air engines, gas-burning furnaces, etc., in which the incoming air or gas is heated by being brought into contact with masses of iron, brick, etc., which have been previously heated by the outgoing, or escaping, hot air or gas.
Regeneratory
a.
• Having power to renew; tending to reproduce; regenerating.
Regenesis
n.
• New birth; renewal.
Regent
a.
• Ruling; governing; regnant.
• Exercising vicarious authority.
n.
• One who rules or reigns; a governor; a ruler.
• Especially, one invested with vicarious authority; one who governs a kingdom in the minority, absence, or disability of the sovereign.
• One of a governing board; a trustee or overseer; a superintendent; a curator; as, the regents of the Smithsonian Institution.
(Eng.Univ.) A resident master of arts of less than five years' standing, or a doctor of less than twwo. They were formerly privileged to lecture in the schools.
Regentess
n.
• A female regent.
Regentship
n.
• The office of a regent; regency.
Regerminate
v. i.
• To germinate again.
Regermination
n.
• A germinating again or anew.
Regest
n.
• A register.
Reget
v. t.
• To get again.
Regian
n.
• An upholder of kingly authority; a royalist.
Regible
a.
• Governable; tractable.
Regicidal
a.
• Pertaining to regicide, or to one committing it; having the nature of, or resembling, regicide.
Regicide
n.
• One who kills or who murders a king; specifically (Eng.Hist.), one of the judges who condemned Charles I. to death.
• The killing or the murder of a king.
Regild
v. t.
• To gild anew.
Regime
n.
• Mode or system of rule or management; character of government, or of the prevailing social system.
(Hydraul.) The condition of a river with respect to the rate of its flow, as measured by the volume of water passing different cross sections in a given time, uniform regime being the condition when the flow is equal and uniform at all the cross sections.
Regimen
n.
• Orderly government; system of order; adminisration.
• Any regulation or remedy which is intended to produce beneficial effects by gradual operation
(Med.) a systematic course of diet, etc., pursed with a view to improving or preserving the health, or for the purpose of attaining some particular effect, as a reduction of flesh; — sometimes used synonymously with hygiene.
(Gram.) A syntactical relation between words, as when one depends on another and is regulated by it in respect to case or mood; government
• The word or words governed.
Regiment
n.
• Government; mode of ruling; rule; authority; regimen.
• A region or district governed.
(Mil.) A body of men, either horse, foot, or artillery, commanded by a colonel, and consisting of a number of companies, usually ten.
v. t.
• To form into a regiment or into regiments.
Regimental
a.
• Belonging to, or concerning, a regiment; as, regimental officers, clothing.
Regimentally
adv.
• In or by a regiment or regiments; as, troops classified regimentally.
Regimentals
n. pl.
(Mil.) The uniform worn by the officers and soldiers of a regiment; military dress; — formerly used in the singular in the same sense.
Regiminal
a.
• Of or relating to regimen; as, regiminal rules.
Region
n.
• One of the grand districts or quarters into which any space or surface, as of the earth or the heavens, is conceived of as divided; hence, in general, a portion of space or territory of indefinite extent; country; province; district; tract.
• Tract, part, or space, lying about and including anything; neighborhood; vicinity; sphere.
• The upper air; the sky; the heavens.
• The inhabitants of a district.
• Place; rank; station.
Regional
a.
• Of or pertaining to a particular region; sectional.
Regious
a.
• Regal; royal.
Register
n.
• A written account or entry; an official or formal enumeration, description, or record; a memorial record; a list or roll; a schedule.
(Com.) A record containing a list and description of the merchant vessels belonging to a port or customs district.
• A certificate issued by the collector of customs of a port or district to the owner of a vessel, containing the description of a vessel, its name, ownership, and other material facts. It is kept on board the vessel, to be used as an evidence of nationality or as a muniment of title.
• One who registers or records; a registrar; a recorder; especially, a public officer charged with the duty of recording certain transactions or events; as, a register of deeds.
• That which registers or records.
(Mech.) A contrivance for automatically noting the performance of a machine or the rapidity of a process
(Teleg.) The part of a telegraphic apparatus which records automatically the message received
• A machine for registering automatically the number of persons passing through a gateway, fares taken, etc.; a telltale.
• A lid, stopper, or sliding plate, in a furnace, stove, etc., for regulating the admission of air to the fuel; also, an arrangement containing dampers or shutters, as in the floor or wall of a room or passage, or in a chimney, for admitting or excluding heated air, or for regulating ventilation.
(Print.) The inner part of the mold in which types are cast.
• The correspondence of pages, columns, or lines on the opposite or reverse sides of the sheet.
• The correspondence or adjustment of the several impressions in a design which is printed in parts, as in chromolithographic printing, or in the manufacture of paper hangings. See Register, v. i. 2.
(Mus.) The compass of a voice or instrument; a specified portion of the compass of a voice, or a series of vocal tones of a given compass; as, the upper, middle, or lower register; the soprano register; the tenor register.
• A stop or set of pipes in an organ
v. t.
• T enter in a register; to record formally and distinctly, as for future use or service.
• To enroll; to enter in a list.
v. i.
• To enroll one's name in a register.
(Print.) To correspond in ralative position; as, two pages, columns, etc. , register when the corresponding parts fall in the same line, or when line falls exactly upon line in reverse pages, or (as in chromatic printing) where the various colors of the design are printed consecutively, and perfect adjustment of parts is necessary.
Registering
a.
• Recording; — applied to instruments; having an apparatus which registers; as, a registering thermometer. See Recording.
Registership
n.
• The office of a register.
Registrant
n.
• One who registers; esp., one who , by virtue of securing an official registration, obtains a certain right or title of possession, as to a trade-mark.
Registrar
n.
• One who registers; a recorder; a keeper of records; as, a registrar of births, deaths, and marriages. See Register, n., 3.
Registrarship
n.
• The office of a registrar.
Registrary
n.
• A registrar.
Registrate
v. t.
• To register.
Registration
n.
• The act of registering; registry; enrollment.
(Mus.) The art of selecting and combining the stops or registers of an organ.
Registry
n.
• The act of recording or writing in a register; enrollment; registration.
• The place where a register is kept.
• A record; an account; a register.
Regius
a.
• Of or pertaining to a king; royal.
Regive
v. t.
• To give again; to give back.
Regle
v. t.
• To rule; to govern.
Reglement
n.
• Regulation.
Reglementary
a.
• Regulative.
Reglet
n.
(Arch.) A flat, narrow molding, used chiefly to separate the parts or members of compartments or panels from one another, or doubled, turned, and interlaced so as to form knots, frets, or other ornaments. See Illust. (12) of Column.
(Print.) A strip of wood or metal of the height of a quadrat, used for regulating the space between pages in a chase, and also for spacing out title-pages and other open matter. It is graded to different sizes, and designated by the name of the type that it matches; as, nonpareil reglet, pica reglet, and the like.
Regma
n.
(Bot.) A kind of dry fruit, consisting of three or more cells, each which at length breaks open at the inner angle.
Regmacarp
n
(Bot.) Any dry dehiscent fruit.
Regnal
a.
• Of or pertaining to the reign of a monarch; as, regnal years.
Regnancy
n.
• The condition or quality of being regnant; sovereignty; rule.
Regnant
a.
• Exercising regal authority; reigning; as, a queen regnant.
• Having the chief power; ruling; predominant; prevalent.
Regnative
a.
• Ruling; governing.
Regne
n. & v.
• See Reign.
Regorge
v. t.
• To vomit up; to eject from the stomach; to throw back.
• To swallow again; to swallow back.
Regrade
v. i.
• To retire; to go back.
Regraft
v. t.
• To graft again.
Regrant
v. t.
• To grant back; to grant again or anew.
n.
• The act of granting back to a former proprietor.
• A renewed of a grant; as, the regrant of a monopoly.
Regrate
v. t.
(Masonry) To remove the outer surface of, as of an old hewn stone, so as to give it a fresh appearance.
• To offend; to shock.
v. t.
(Eng.Law) To buy in large quantities, as corn, provisions, etc., at a market or fair, with the intention of selling the same again, in or near the same place, at a higher price, — a practice which was formerly treated as a public offense.
Regrater
n.
• One who regrates.
Regratery
n.
• The act or practice of regrating.
Regratiatory
n.
• A returning or giving of thanks.
Regrator
n.
• One guilty of regrating.
Regrede
v. i.
• To go back; to retrograde, as the apsis of a planet's orbit.
Regredience
n.
• A going back; a retrogression; a return.
Regreet
v. t.
• To greet again; to resalute; to return a salutation to; to greet.
n.
• A return or exchange of salutation.
Regress
n.
• The act of passing back; passage back; return; retrogression. "The progress or regress of man".
• The power or liberty of passing back.
v. i.
• To go back; to return to a former place or state.
Regression
n.
• The act of passing back or returning; retrogression; retrogradation.
Regressive
a.
• Passing back; returning.
• Characterized by retrogression; retrogressive.
Regressively
adv.
• In a regressive manner.
Regret
n
• Pain of mind on account of something done or experienced in the past, with a wish that it had been different; a looking back with dissatisfaction or with longing; grief; sorrow; especially, a mourning on account of the loss of some joy, advantage, or satisfaction.
• Dislike; aversion.
v. t.
• To experience regret on account of; to lose or miss with a sense of regret; to feel sorrow or dissatisfaction on account of (the happening or the loss of something); as, to regret an error; to regret lost opportunities or friends.
Regretful
a.
• Full of regret; indulging in regrets; repining.
Regrow
v. i. & t.
• To grow again.
Regrowth
n.
• The act of regrowing; a second or new growth.
Reguardant
a.
(Her.) Same as Regardant.
Reguerdon
v. t.
• To reward.
Regulable
a.
• Capable of being regulated.
Regular
a.
• Conformed to a rule; agreeable to an established rule, law, principle, or type, or to established customary forms; normal; symmetrical; as, a regular verse in poetry; a regular piece of music; a regular verb; regular practice of law or medicine; a regular building.
• Governed by rule or rules; steady or uniform in course, practice, or occurence; not subject to unexplained or irrational variation; returning at stated intervals; steadily pursued; orderlly; methodical; as, the regular succession of day and night; regular habits.
• Constituted, selected, or conducted in conformity with established usages, rules, or discipline; duly authorized; permanently organized; as, a regular meeting; a regular physican; a regular nomination; regular troops.
• Belonging to a monastic order or community; as, regular clergy, in distinction dfrom the secular clergy.
• Thorough; complete; unmitigated; as, a regular humbug.
(Bot. & Zool.) Having all the parts of the same kind alike in size and shape; as, a regular flower; a regular sea urchin.
(Crystallog.) Same as Isometric.
n.
(R. C. Ch.) A member of any religious order or community who has taken the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, and who has been solemnly recognized by the church.
(Mil.) A soldier belonging to a permanent or standing army; — chiefly used in the plural.
Regularia
n.pl.
(Zool.) A division of Echini which includes the circular, or regular, sea urchins.
Regularity
n.
• The condition or quality of being regular; as, regularity of outline; the regularity of motion.
Regularize
v. t.
• To cause to become regular; to regulate.
Regularly
adv.
• In a regular manner; in uniform order; methodically; in due order or time.
Regularness
n.
• Regularity.
Regulation
n.
• The act of regulating, or the state of being regulated.
• A rule or order prescribed for management or government; prescription; a regulating principle; a governing direction; precept; law; as, the regulations of a society or a school.
Regulative
a.
• Tending to regulate; regulating.
(Metaph.) Necessarily assumed by the mind as fundamental to all other knowledge; furnishing fundamental principles; as, the regulative principles, or principles a priori; the regulative faculty.
Regulato
v. t.
• To adjust by rule, method, or established mode; to direct by rule or restriction; to subject to governing principles or laws.
• To put in good order; as, to regulate the disordered state of a nation or its finances.
• To adjust, or maintain, with respect to a desired rate, degree, or condition; as, to regulate the temperature of a room, the pressure of steam, the speed of a machine, etc.
Regulator
n.
• One who, or that which, regulates.
(Mach.) A contrivance for regulating and controlling motion, as: (a) The lever or index in a watch, which controls the effective length of the hairspring, and thus regulates the vibrations of the balance. (b) The governor of a steam engine. (c) A valve for controlling the admission of steam to the steam chest, in a locomotive.
• A clock, or other timepiece, used as a standard of correct time. See Astronomical clock (a), under Clock.
• A member of a volunteer committee which, in default of the lawful authority, undertakes to preserve order and prevent crimes; also, sometimes, one of a band organized for the comission of violent crimes.
Reguline
a.
(Chem. & Metal.) Of or pertaining to regulus.
Regulize
v. t.
(Old Chem.) To reduce to regulus; to separate, as a metal from extraneous matter; as, to regulize antimony.
Regulus
n.
• A petty king; a ruler of little power or consequence.
(Chem. & Metal.) The button, globule, or mass of metal, in a more or less impure state, which forms in the bottom of the crucible in smelting and reduction of ores.
(Astron.) A star of the first magnitude in the constellation Leo; — called also the Lion's Heart.
Regurgitate
v. t.
• To throw or pour back, as from a deep or hollow place; to pour or throw back in great quantity.
v. i.
• To be thrown or poured back; to rush or surge back.
Regurgitation
n.
• The act of flowing or pouring back by the orifice of entrance
(Med.) the reversal of the natural direction in which the current or contents flow through a tube or cavity of the body.
• The act of swallowing again; reabsorption.
Rehabilitate
v. t.
• To invest or clothe again with some right, authority, or dignity; to restore to a former capacity; to reinstate; to qualify again; to restore, as a delinquent, to a former right, rank, or privilege lost or forfeited; — a term of civil and canon law.
Rehabilitation
n.
• The act of rehabilitating, or the state of being rehabilitated.
Rehash
v. t.
• To hash over again; to prepare or use again; as, to rehash old arguments.
n.
• Something hashed over, or made up from old materials.
Rehear
v. t.
• To hear again; to try a second time; as, to rehear a cause in Chancery.
Rehearsal
n.
• The act of rehearsing; recital; narration; repetition; specifically, a private recital, performance, or season of practice, in preparation for a public exhibition or exercise.
Rehearse
v. t.
• To repeat, as what has been already said; to tell over again; to recite.
• To narrate; to relate; to tell.
• To recite or repeat in private for experiment and improvement, before a public representation; as, to rehearse a tragedy.
• To cause to rehearse; to instruct by rehearsal.
v. i.
• To recite or repeat something for practice.
Rehearser
n.
• One who rehearses.
Reheat
v. t.
• To heat again.
• To revive; to cheer; to cherish.
Rehibition
n.
(Law) The returning of a thing purchased to the seller, on the ground of defect or frand.
Rehibitory
a.
(Law) Of or relating to rehibition; as, a rehibitory action.
Rehire
v. t.
• To hire again.
Rehypothecate
v. t.
(Law) To hypothecate again.
Rei
n.
• A portuguese money of account, in value about one tenth of a cent.
Reichsrath
n.
• The parliament of Austria (exclusive of Hungary, which has its own diet, or parliament). It consists of an Upper and a Lower House, or a House of Lords and a House of Representatives.
Reichsstand
n.
• A free city of the former German empire.
Reichstag
n.
• The Diet, or House of Representatives, of the German empire, which is composed of members elected for a term of three years by the direct vote of the people. See Bundesrath.
Reif
n.
• Robbery; spoil.
Reigle
n.
• A hollow cut or channel for quiding anything; as, the reigle of a side post for a flood gate.
v. t.
• To regulate; to govern.
Reiglement
n.
• Rule; regulation.
Reign
n.
• Royal authority; supreme power; sovereignty; rule; dominion.
• The territory or sphere which is reigned over; kingdom; empire; realm; dominion.
• The time during which a king, queen, or emperor possesses the supreme authority; as, it happened in the reign of Elizabeth.
v. i.
• To possess or exercise sovereign power or authority; to exercise government, as a king or emperor;; to hold supreme power; to rule.
• Hence, to be predominant; to prevail.
• To have superior or uncontrolled dominion; to rule.
Reigner
n.
• One who reigns.
Reillume
v. t.
• To light again; to cause to shine anew; to relume; to reillumine.
Reilluminate
v. t.
• To enlighten again; to reillumine.
Reillumination
n.
• The act or process of enlightening again.
Reillumine
v. t.
• To illumine again or anew; to reillume.
Reim
n.
• A strip of oxhide, deprived of hair, and rendered pliable, — used for twisting into ropes, etc.
Reimbark
v. t. & i.
• See Rembark.
Reimbody
v. t. & i.
• To imbody again.
Reimbursable
a.
• Capable of being repaid; repayable.
Reimburse
v. t.
• To replace in a treasury or purse, as an equivalent for what has been taken, lost, or expended; to refund; to pay back; to restore; as, to reimburse the expenses of a war.
• To make restoration or payment of an equivalent to (a person); to pay back to; to indemnify; — often reflexive; as, to reimburse one's self by successful speculation.
Reimbursement
n.
• The act reimbursing.
Reimburser
n.
• One who reimburses.
Reimplant
v. t.
• To implant again.
Reimport
v. t.
• To import again; to import what has been exported; to bring back.
Reimportation
n.
• The act of reimporting; also, that which is reimported.
Reimportune
v. t.
• To importune again.
Reimpose
v. t.
• To impose anew.
Reimpregnate
v. t.
• To impregnate again or anew.
Reimpress
v. t.
• To impress anew.
Reimpression
n.
• A second or repeated impression; a reprint.
Reimprint
v. t.
• To imprint again.
Reimprison
v. t.
• To imprison again.
Reimprisonment
n.
• The act of reimprisoning, or the state of being reimprisoned.
Rein
n.
• The strap of a bridle, fastened to the curb or snaffle on each side, by which the rider or driver governs the horse.
• Hence, an instrument or means of curbing, restraining, or governing; government; restraint.
v. t.
• To govern or direct with the reins; as, to rein a horse one way or another.
• To restrain; to control; to check.
v. i.
• To be guided by reins.
Reinaugurate
v. t.
• To inaugurate anew.
Reincit
v. t.
• To incite again.
Reincorporate
v. t.
• To incorporate again.
Reincrease
v. t.
• To increase again.
Reincur
v. t.
• To incur again.
Reindeer
n.
(Zool.) Any ruminant of the genus Rangifer, of the Deer family, found in the colder parts of both the Eastern and Western hemispheres, and having long irregularly branched antlers, with the brow tines palmate.
Reinduce
v. t.
• To induce again.
Reinette
n.
(Bot.) A name given to many different kinds of apples, mostly of French origin.
Reinfect
v. t.
• To infect again.
Reinfectious
a.
• Capable of reinfecting.
Reinforce
v. t.
• See Reenforce, v. t.
n.
• See Reenforce, n.
Reinforcement
n.
• See Reenforcement.
Reinfund
v. i.
• To flow in anew.
Reingratiate
v. t.
• To ingratiate again or anew.
Reinhabit
v. t.
• To inhabit again.
Reinless
a.
• Not having, or not governed by, reins; hence, not checked or restrained.
Reins
n. pl.
• The kidneys; also, the region of the kidneys; the loins.
• The inward impulses; the affections and passions; — so called because formerly supposed to have their seat in the part of the body where the kidneys are.
Reinsert
v. t.
• To insert again.
Reinsertion
n.
• The act of reinserting.
Reinspect
v. t.
• To inspect again.
Reinspection
n.
• The act of reinspecting.
Reinspire
v. t.
• To inspire anew.
Reinspirit
v. t.
• To give fresh spirit to.
Reinstall
v. t.
• To install again.
Reinstallment
n.
• A renewed installment.
Reinstate
v. t.
• To place again in possession, or in a former state; to restore to a state from which one had been removed; to instate again; as, to reinstate a king in the possession of the kingdom.
Reinstatement
n.
• The act of reinstating; the state of being reinstated; restablishment.
Reinstation
n.
• Reinstatement.
Reinstruct
v. t.
• To instruct anew.
Reinsurance
n.
• Insurance a second time or again; renewed insurance.
• A contract by which an insurer is insured wholly or in part against the risk he has incurred in insuring somebody else. See Reassurance.
Reinsure
v. t.
• To insure again after a former insuranse has ceased; to renew insurance on.
• To insure, as life or property, in favor of one who has taken an inssurance risk upon it.
Reinsurer
n.
• One who gives reinsurance.
Reintegrate
v. t.
• To renew with regard to any state or quality; to restore; to bring again together into a whole, as the parts off anything; to restablish; as, to reintegrate a nation.
Reintegration
n.
• A renewing, or making whole again. See Redintegration.
Reinter
v. t.
• To inter again.
Reinterrogate
v. t.
• To interrogate again; to question repeatedly.
Reinthrone
v. t.
• See Reenthrone.
Reinthronize
v. t.
• To enthrone again.
Reintroduce
v. t.
• To introduce again.
Reinvest
v. t.
• To invest again or anew.
Reinvestigate
v. t.
• To investigate again.
Reinvestment
n.
• The act of investing anew; a second or repeated investment.
Reinvigorate
v. t.
• To invigorate anew.
Reinvolve
v. t.
• To involve anew.
Reis
n.
• The word is used as a Portuguese designation of money of account, one hundred reis being about equal in value to eleven cents.
n.
• A common title in the East for a person in authority, especially the captain of a ship.
Reissuable
a.
• Capable of being reissued.
Reissue
v. t. & i.
• To issue a second time.
n.
• A second or repeated issue.
Reit
n.
• Sedge; seaweed.
Reiter
n.
• A German cavalry soldier of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
Reiterate
v. t.
• To repeat again and again; to say or do repeatedly; sometimes, to repeat.
a.
• Reiterated; repeated.
Reiteratedly
adv.
• Repeatedly.
Reiteration
n.
• The act of reiterating; that which is reiterated.
Reiterative
n.
(Gram.) A word expressing repeated or reiterated action.
• A word formed from another, or used to form another, by repetition; as, dillydally.
Reiteraut
a.
• Reiterating.
Reiver
n.
• See Reaver.
Reject
v. t.
• To cast from one; to throw away; to discard.
• To refuse to receive or to acknowledge; to decline haughtily or harshly; to repudiate.
• To refuse to grant; as, to reject a prayer or request.
Rejectable
a.
• Capable of being, or that ought to be, rejected.
Rejectamenta
n.pl.
• Things thrown out or away; especially, things excreted by a living organism.
Rejectaneous
a.
• Not chosen orr received; rejected.
Rejecter
n.
• One who rejects.
Rejection
n.
• Act of rejecting, or state of being rejected.
Rejectitious
a.
• Implying or requiring rejection; rejectable.
Rejective
a.
• Rejecting, or tending to reject.
Rejectment
n.
• Act of rejecting; matter rejected, or thrown away.
Rejoice
v. i.
• To feel joy; to experience gladness in a high degree; to have pleasurable satisfaction; to be delighted.
v. t.
• To enjoy.
• To give joi to; to make joyful; to gladden.
n.
• The act of rejoicing.
Rejoicement
n.
• Rejoicing.
Rejoicer
n.
• One who rejoices.
Rejoicing
n.
• Joy; gladness; delight.
• The expression of joy or gladness.
• That which causes to rejoice; occasion of joy.
Rejoicingly
adv.
• With joi or exultation.
Rejoin
v. t.
• To join again; to unite after separation.
• To come, or go, again into the presence of; to join the company of again.
• To state in reply; — followed by an object clause.
v. i.
• To answer to a reply.
(Law) To answer, as the defendant to the plaintiff's replication.
Rejoinder
n.
• An answer to a reply; or, in general, an answer or reply.
(Law) The defendant's answer to the plaintiff's replication.
v. i.
• To make a rejoinder.
Rejoindure
n.
• Act of joining again. "Beguiles our lips of all rejoindure" (i.e., kisses).
Rejoint
v. t.
• To reunite the joints of; to joint anew.
• Specifically (Arch.), to fill up the joints of, as stones in buildings when the mortar has been dislodged by age and the action of the weather.
Rejolt
n.
• A reacting jolt or shock; a rebound or recoil.
v. t.
• To jolt or shake again.
Rejourn
v. t.
• To adjourn; to put off.
Rejournment
n.
• Adjournment.
Rejudge
v. t.
• To judge again; to rexamine; to review; to call to a new trial and decision.
Rejuvenate
v. t.
• To render young again.
Rejuvenation
n.
• Rejuvenescence.
Rejuvenescence
n.
• A renewing of youth; the state of being or growing young again.
(Bot.) A method of cell formation in which the entire protoplasm of an old cell escapes by rupture of the cell wall, and then develops a new cell wall. It is seen sometimes in the formation of zospores, etc.
Rejuvenescency
n.
• Rejuvenescence.
Rejuvenescent
a.
• Becoming, or causing to become, rejuvenated; rejuvenating.
Rejuvenize
v. t.
• To rejuvenate.
Rekindle
v. t. & i.
• To kindle again.
Rekne
v. t.
• To reckon.
Relad
• imp. & p. p. of Relay.
Relade
v. t.
• To lade or load again.
Relais
n.
(Fort.) A narrow space between the foot of the rampart and the scarp of the ditch, serving to receive the earth that may crumble off or be washed down, and prevent its falling into the ditch.
Reland
v. t.
• To land again; to put on land, as that which had been shipped or embarked.
v. i.
• To go on shore after having embarked; to land again.
Relapse
v. i.
• To slip or slide back, in a literal sense; to turn back.
• To slide or turn back into a former state or practice; to fall back from some condition attained; — generally in a bad sense, as from a state of convalescence or amended condition; as, to relaps into a stupor, into vice, or into barbarism; — sometimes in a good sense; as, to relapse into slumber after being disturbed.
(Theol.) To fall from Christian faith into paganism, heresy, or unbelief; to backslide.
n.
• A sliding or falling back, especially into a former bad state, either of body or morals; backsliding; the state of having fallen back.
• One who has relapsed, or fallen back, into error; a backlider; specifically, one who, after recanting error, returns to it again.
Relapser
n.
• One who relapses.
Relapsing
a.
• Marked by a relapse; falling back; tending to return to a former worse state.
Relate
v. t.
• To bring back; to restore.
• To refer; to ascribe, as to a source.
• To recount; to narrate; to tell over.
• To ally by connection or kindred.
v. i.
• To stand in some relation; to have bearing or concern; to pertain; to refer; — with to.
• To make reference; to take account.
Related
p. p. & a.
• Allied by kindred; connected by blood or alliance, particularly by consanguinity; as, persons related in the first or second degree.
• Standing in relation or connection; as, the electric and magnetic forcec are closely related.
• Narrated; told.
(Mus.) Same as Relative, 4.
Relatedness
n.
• The state or condition of being related; relationship; affinity.
Relater
n.
• One who relates or narrates.
Relation
n.
• The act of relating or telling; also, that which is related; recital; account; narration; narrative; as, the relation of historical events.
• The state of being related or of referring; what is apprehended as appertaining to a being or quality, by considering it in its bearing upon something else; relative quality or condition; the being such and such with regard or respect to some other thing; connection; as, the relation of experience to knowledge; the relation of master to servant.
• Reference; respect; regard.
• Connection by consanguinity or affinity; kinship; relationship; as, the relation of parents and children.
• A person connected by cosanguinity or affinity; a relative; a kinsman or kinswoman.
(Law) The carrying back, and giving effect or operation to, an act or proceeding frrom some previous date or time, by a sort of fiction, as if it had happened or begun at that time. In such case the act is said to take effect by relation.
• The act of a relator at whose instance a suit is begun.
Relational
a.
• Having relation or kindred; related.
• Indicating or specifying some relation.
Relationist
n.
• A relative; a relation.
Relationship
n.
• The state of being related by kindred, affinity, or other alliance.
Relative
a.
• Having relation or reference; referring; respecting; standing in connection; pertaining; as, arguments not relative to the subject.
• Arising from relation; resulting from connection with, or reference to, something else; not absolute.
(Gram.) Indicating or expressing relation; refering to an antecedent; as, a relative pronoun.
(Mus.) Characterizing or pertaining to chords and keys, which, by reason of the identify of some of their tones, admit of a natural transition from one to the other.
n.
• One who, or that which, relates to, or is considered in its relation to, something else; a relative object or term; one of two object or term; one of two objects directly connected by any relation.
• A person connected by blood or affinity; strictly, one allied by blood; a relation; a kinsman or kinswoman
(Gram.) A relative prnoun; a word which relates to, or represents, another word or phrase, called its antecedent; as, the relatives " who", "which", "that".
Relatively
adv.
• In a relative manner; in relation or respect to something else; not absolutely.
Relativeness
n
• The state of being relative, or having relation; relativity.
Relativity
n.
• The state of being relative; as, the relativity of a subject.
Relator
n.
• One who relates; a relater.
(Law) A private person at whose relation, or in whose behalf, the attorney-general allows an information in the nature of a quo warranto to be filed.
Relatrix
n.
(Law) A female relator.
Relax
v. t.
• To make lax or loose; to make less close, firm, rigid, tense, or the like; to slacken; to loosen; to open; as, to relax a rope or cord; to relax the muscles or sinews.
• To make less severe or rogorous; to abate the stringency of; to remit in respect to strenuousness, esrnestness, or effort; as, to relax discipline; to relax one's attention or endeavors.
• Hence, to relieve from attention or effort; to ease; to recreate; to divert; as, amusement relaxes the mind.
• To relieve from constipation; to loosen; to open; as, an aperient relaxes the bowels.
v. i.
• To become lax, weak, or loose; as, to let one's grasp relax.
• To abate in severity; to become less rigorous.
• To remit attention or effort; to become less diligent; to unbend; as, to relax in study.
n.
• Relaxation.
a.
• Relaxed; lax; hence, remiss; careless.
Relaxable
a.
• Capable of being relaxed.
Relaxant
n.
(Med.) A medicine that relaxes; a laxative.
Relaxation
n.
• The act or process of relaxing, or the state of being relaxed; as, relaxation of the muscles; relaxation of a law.
• Remission from attention and effort; indulgence in recreation, diversion, or amusement.
Relaxative
a.
• Having the quality of relaxing; laxative.
n.
• A relaxant.
Relay
v. t.
• To lay again; to lay a second time; as, to relay a pavement.
n.
• A supply of anything arranged beforehand for affording relief from time to time, or at successive stages; provision for successive relief. Specifically: (a) A supply of horses placced at stations to be in readiness to relieve others, so that a trveler may proceed without delay. (b) A supply of hunting dogs or horses kept in readiness at certain places to relive the tired dogs or horses, and to continnue the pursuit of the game if it comes that way. (c) A number of men who relieve others in carrying on some work.
(Elec.) In various forms of telegrapfhic apparatus, a megnet which receives the circuit current, and is caused by it to bring into into action the power of a local battery for performing the work of making the record; also, a similar device by which the current in one circuit is made to open or close another circuit in which a current is passing.
Relbun
n.
• The roots of the Chilian plant Calceolaria arachnoidea, — used for dyeing crimson.
Releasable
a.
• That may be released.
Release
v. t.
• To lease again; to grant a new lease of; to let back.
v. t.
• To let loose again; to set free from restraint, confinement, or servitude; to give liberty to, or to set at liberty; to let go.
• To relieve from something that confines, burdens, or oppresses, as from pain, trouble, obligation, penalty.
(Law) To let go, as a legal claim; to discharge or relinquish a right to, as lands or tenements, by conveying to another who has some right or estate in possession, as when the person in remainder releases his right to the tenant in possession; to quit.
• To loosen; to relax; to remove the obligation of; as, to release an ordinance.
n.
• The act of letting loose or freeing, or the state of being let loose or freed; liberation or discharge from restraint of any kind, as from confinement or bondage.
• Relief from care, pain, or any burden.
• Discharge from obligation or responsibility, as from debt, penalty, or claim of any kind; acquittance.
(Law) A giving up or relinquishment of some right or claim; a conveyance of a man's right in lands or tenements to another who has some estate in possession; a quitclaim.
(Steam Engine) The act of opening the exhaust port to allow the steam to escape.
Releasee
n.
• One to whom a release is given.
Releasement
n.
• The act of releasing, as from confinement or obligation.
Releaser
n.
• One who releases, or sets free.
Releasor
n.
• One by whom a release is given.
Relegate
v. t.
• To remove, usually to an inferior position; to consign; to transfer; specifically, to send into exile; to banish.
Relegation
n.
• The act of relegating, or the state of being relegated; removal; banishment; exile.
Relent
v. i.
• To become less rigid or hard; to yield; to dissolve; to melt; to deliquesce.
• To become less severe or intense; to become less hard, harsh, cruel, or the like; to soften in temper; to become more mild and tender; to feel compassion.
v. t.
• To slacken; to abate.
• To soften; to dissolve.
• To mollify ; to cause to be less harsh or severe.
n.
• Stay; stop; delay.
Relentless
a.
• Unmoved by appeals for sympathy or forgiveness; insensible to the distresses of others; destitute of tenderness; unrelenting; unyielding; unpitying; as, a prey to relentless despotism.
Relentment
n.
• The act or process of retenting; the state of having relented.
Relesse
v. t.
• To release.
Relessee
n.
• See Releasee.
Relessor
n.
• See Releasor.
Relevant
a.
• Relieving; lending aid or support.
• Bearing upon, or properly applying to, the case in hand; pertinent; applicable.
(SScots Law) Sufficient to support the cause.
Relevantly
adv.
• In a relevant manner.
Relevation
n.
• A raising or lifting up.
Reliability
n.
• The state or quality of being reliable; reliableness.
Reliable
a.
• Suitable or fit to be relied on; worthy of dependance or reliance; trustworthy.
Reliance
n.
• The act of relying, or the condition or quality of being reliant; dependence; confidence; trust; repose of mind upon what is deemed sufficient support or authority.
• Anything on which to rely; dependence; ground of trust; as, the boat was a poor reliance.
Reliant
a.
• Having, or characterized by, reliance; confident; trusting.
Relic
n.
• That which remains; that which is left after loss or decay; a remaining portion; a remnant.
• The body from which the soul has departed; a corpse; especially, the body, or some part of the body, of a deceased saint or martyr; — usually in the plural when referring to the whole body.
• Hence, a memorial; anything preserved in remembrance; as, relics of youthful days or friendships.
Relicly
adv.
• In the manner of relics.
Relict
n.
• A woman whose husband is dead; a widow.
Relicted
a.
(Law) Left uncovered, as land by recession of water.
Reliction
n.
(Law) A leaving dry; a recession of the sea or other water, leaving dry land; land left uncovered by such recession.
Relief
n.
• The act of relieving, or the state of being relieved; the removal, or partial removal, of any evil, or of anything oppressive or burdensome, by which some ease is obtained; succor; alleviation; comfort; ease; redress.
• Release from a post, or from the performance of duty, by the intervention of others, by discharge, or by relay; as, a relief of a sentry.
• That which removes or lessenc evil, pain, discomfort, uneasiness, etc.; that which gives succor, aid, or comfort; also, the person who relieves from performance of duty by taking the place of another; a relay.
(Feudal Law) A fine or composition which the heir of a deceased tenant paid to the lord for the privilege of taking up the estate, which, on strict feudal principles, had lapsed or fallen to the lord on the death of the tenant.
(Sculp. & Arch.) The projection of a figure above the ground or plane on wwhich it is formed.
(Paint.) The appearance of projection given by shading, shadow, etc., to any figure.
(Fort.) The height to which works are raised above the bottom of the ditch.
(Physical Geog.) The elevations and surface undulations of a country.
Reliefful
a.
• Giving relief.
Reliefless
a.
• Destitute of relief; also, remediless.
Relier
n.
• One who relies.
Relievable
a.
• Capable of being relieved; fitted to recieve relief.
Relieve
v. t.
• To lift up; to raise again, as one who has fallen; to cause to rise.
• To cause to seem to rise; to put in relief; to give prominence or conspicuousness to; to et off by contrast.
• To raise up something in; to introduce a contrast or variety into; to remove the monotony or sameness of.
• To raise or remove, as anything which depresses, weighs down, or cruches; to render less burdensome or afflicting; to allevate; to-abate; to mitigate; to lessen; as, to relieve pain; to relieve the wants of the poor.
• To free, wholly or partly, from any burden, trial, evil, distress, or the like; to give ease, comfort, or consolation to; to give aid, help, or succor to; to support, strengthen, or deliver; as, to relieve a besieged town.
• To release from a post, station, or duty; to put another in place of, or to take the place of, in the bearing of any burden, or discharge of any duty.
• To ease of any imposition, burden, wrong, or oppression, by judicial or legislative interposition, as by the removal of a grievance, by indemnification for losses, or the like; to right.
Reliever
n.
• One who, or that which, relieves.
Relieving
a.
• Serving or tending to relieve.
Relievment
n.
• The act of relieving, or the state of being relieved; relief; release.
Relievo
n.
• See Relief, n., 5.
Relight
v. t.
• To light or kindle anew.
Religion
n.
• The outward act or form by which men indicate their recognition of the existence of a god or of gods having power over their destiny, to whom obedience, service, and honor are due; the feeling or expression of human love, fear, or awe of some superhuman and overruling power, whether by profession of belief, by observance of rites and ceremonies, or by the conduct of life; a system of faith and worship; a manifestation of piety; as, ethical religions; monotheistic religions; natural religion; revealed religion; the religion of the Jews; the religion of idol worshipers.
• Specifically, conformity in faith and life to the precepts inculcated in the Bible, respecting the conduct of life and duty toward God and man; the Christian faith and practice.
(R.C.CH.) A monastic or religious order subject to a regulated mode of life; the religious state; as, to enter religion.
• Strictness of fidelity in conforming to any practice, as if it were an enjoined rule of conduct.
Religionary
a.
• Relating to religion; pious; as, religionary professions.
Religionism
n.
• The practice of, or devotion to, religion.
• Affectation or pretense of religion.
Religionist
n.
• One earnestly devoted or attached to a religion; a religious zealot.
Religionize
v. t.
• To bring under the influence of religion.
Religionless
a.
• Destitute of religion.
Religiosity
n.
• The quality of being religious; religious feeling or sentiment; religiousness.
Religious
a.
• Of or pertaining to religion; concerned with religion; teaching, or setting forth, religion; set apart to religion; as, a religious society; a religious sect; a religious place; religious subjects, books, teachers, houses, wars.
• Possessing, or conforming to, religion; pious; godly; as, a religious man, life, behavior, etc.
• Scrupulously faithful or exact; strict.
• Belonging to a religious order; bound by vows.
n.
• A person bound by monastic vows, or sequestered from secular concern, and devoted to a life of piety and religion; a monk or friar; a nun.
Religiously
adv.
• In a religious manner.
Religiousness
n.
• The quality of being religious.
Relik
n.
• Relic.
Relinquent
a.
• Relinquishing.
n.
• One who relinquishes.
Relinquish
v. t.
• To withdraw from; to leave behind; to desist from; to abandon; to quit; as, to relinquish a pursuit.
• To give up; to renounce a claim to; resign; as, to relinquish a debt.
Relinquisher
n.
• One who relinquishes.
Relinquishment
n.
• The act of relinquishing.
Reliquary
n.
• A depositary, often a small box or casket, in which relics are kept.
Relique
n.
• See Relic.
Reliquiae/
n.pl.
• Remains of the dead; organic remains; relics.
(Bot.) Same as Induviae.
Reliquian
a.
• Of or pertaining to a relic or relics; of the nature of a relic.
Reliquidate
v. t.
• To liquidate anew; to adjust a second time.
Reliquidation
n.
• A second or renewed liquidation; a renewed adjustment.
Relish
v. t.
• To taste or eat with pleasure; to like the flavor of; to partake of with gratification; hence, to enjoy; to be pleased with or gratified by; to experience pleasure from; as, to relish food.
• To give a relish to; to cause to taste agreeably.
v. i.
• To have a pleasing or appetizing taste; to give gratification; to have a flavor.
n.
• A pleasing taste; flavor that gratifies the palate; hence, enjoyable quality; power of pleasing.
• Savor; quality; characteristic tinge.
• A taste for; liking; appetite; fondness.
• That which is used to impart a flavor; specifically, something taken with food to render it more palatable or to stimulate the appetite; a condiment.
n.
(Carp.) The projection or shoulder at the side of, or around, a tenon, on a tenoned piece.
Relishable
a.
• Capable of being relished; agreeable to the taste; gratifying.
Relive
v. i.
• To live again; to revive.
v. t.
• To recall to life; to revive.
Reload
v. t.
• To load again, as a gun.
Reloan
n.
• A second lending of the same thing; a renewal of a loan.
Relocate
v. t.
• To locate again.
Relocation
n.
• A second location.
(Roman & Scots Law) Renewal of a lease.
Relodge
v. t.
• To lodge again.
Relove
v. t.
• To love in return.
Relucent
a.
• Reflecting light; shining; glittering; glistening; bright; luminous; splendid.
Reluct
v. i.
• To strive or struggle against anything; to make resistance; to draw back; to feel or show repugnance or reluctance.
Reluctant
a.
• Striving against; opposed in desire; unwilling; disinclined; loth.
• Proceeding from an unwilling mind; granted with reluctance; as, reluctant obedience.
Reluctantly
adv.
• In a reluctant manner.
Reluctate
v. i.
• To struggle against anything; to resist; to oppose.
Reluctation
n.
• Repugnance; resistance; reluctance.
Relume
v. t.
• To rekindle; to light again.
Relumine
v. t.
• To light anew; to rekindle.
• To illuminate again.
Rely
v. i.
• To rest with confidence, as when fully satisfied of the veracity, integrity, or ability of persons, or of the certainty of facts or of evidence; to have confidence; to trust; to depend; — with on, formerly also with in.
Remade
• imp. & p. p. of Remake.
Remain
v. i.
• To stay behind while others withdraw; to be left after others have been removed or destroyed; to be left after a number or quantity has been subtracted or cut off; to be left as not included or comprised.
• To continue unchanged in place, form, or condition, or undiminished in quantity; to abide; to stay; to endure; to last.
v. t.
• To await; to be left to.
Remainder
n.
• Anything that remains, or is left, after the separation and removal of a part; residue; remnant.
(Math.) The quantity or sum that is left after subtraction, or after any deduction.
(Law) An estate in expectancy, generally in land, which becomes an estate in possession upon the determination of a particular prior estate, created at the same time, and by the same instrument; for example, if land be conveyed to A for life, and on his death to B, A's life interest is a particuar estate, and B's interest is a remainder, or estate in remainder.
a.
• Remaining; left; left over; refuse.
Remainm
n.
• State of remaining; stay.
• That which is left; relic; remainder; — chiefly in the plural.
• That which is left of a human being after the life is gone; relics; a dead body.
• The posthumous works or productions, esp. literary works, of one who is dead; as, Cecil's
Remake
v. t.
• To make anew.
Remand
v. t.
• To recommit; to send back.
n.
• The act of remanding; the order for recommitment.
Remandment
n.
• A remand.
Remanent
n.
• That which remains; a remnant; a residue.
a.
• Remaining; residual.
Remanet
n.
(Legal Practice) A case for trial which can not be tried during the term; a postponed case.
Remark
v. t.
• To mark in a notable manner; to distinquish clearly; to make noticeable or conspicuous; to piont out.
• To take notice of, or to observe, mentally; as, to remark the manner of a speaker.
• To express in words or writing, as observed or noticed; to state; to say; — often with a substantive clause; as, he remarked that it was time to go.
v. i.
• To make a remark or remarks; to comment.
n.
• Act of remarking or attentively noticing; notice or observation.
• The expression, in speech or writing, of something remarked or noticed; the mention of that which is worthy of attention or notice; hence, also, a casual observation, comment, or statement; as, a pertinent remark.
Remarkable
a.
• Worthy of being remarked or noticed; noticeable; conspicuous; hence, uncommon; extraordinary.
Remarker
n.
• One who remarks.
Remarriage
n.
• A second or repeated marriage.
Remarry
v. t. & i.
• To marry again.
Remast
v. t.
• To furnish with a new mast or set of masts.
Remasticate
v. t.
• To chew or masticate again; to chew over and over, as the cud.
Remastication
n.
• The act of masticating or chewing again or repeatedly.
Remberge
n.
• See Ramberge.
Remblai
n.
(Fort. & Engin.) Earth or materials made into a bank after having been excavated.
Remble
v. t.
• To remove
Reme
n.
• Realm
Remean
v. t.
• To give meaning to; to explain the meaning of; to interpret
Remeant
a.
• Coming back; returning
Remeasure
v. t.
• To measure again; to retrace.
Remede
n.
• Remedy.
Remediable
a.
• Capable of being remedied or cured.
Remedial
a.
• Affording a remedy; intended for a remedy, or for the removal or abatement of an evil; as, remedial treatment.
Remedially
adv.
• In a remedial manner.
Remediate
a.
• Remedial.
Remediless
a.
• Not admitting of a remedy; incapable of being restored or corrected; incurable; irreparable; as, a remediless mistake or loss.
• Not answering as a remedy; ineffectual.
Remedy
n.
• That which relieves or cures a disease; any medicine or application which puts an end to disease and restores health; — with for; as, a remedy for the gout.
• That which corrects or counteracts an evil of any kind; a corrective; a counteractive; reparation; cure; — followed by for or against, formerly by to.
(Law) The legal means to recover a right, or to obtain redress for a wrong.
v. t.
• To apply a remedy to; to relieve; to cure; to heal; to repair; to redress; to correct; to counteract.
Remelt
v. t.
• To melt again.
Remember
v. t.
• To have ( a notion or idea) come into the mind again, as previously perceived, known, or felt; to have a renewed apprehension of; to bring to mind again; to think of again; to recollect; as, I remember the fact; he remembers the events of his childhood; I cannot remember dates.
• To be capable of recalling when required; to keep in mind; to be continually aware or thoughtful of; to preserve fresh in the memory; to attend to; to think of with gratitude, affection, respect, or any other emotion.
• To put in mind; to remind; — also used reflexively and impersonally.
• To mention.
• To recall to the mind of another, as in the friendly messages, remember me to him, he wishes to be remembered to you, etc.
v. i.
• To execise or have the power of memory; as, some remember better than others.
Rememberable
a.
• Capable or worthy of being remembered.
Rememberer
n.
• One who remembers.
Remembrance
n.
• The act of remembering; a holding in mind, or bringing to mind; recollection.
• The state of being remembered, or held in mind; memory; recollection.
• Something remembered; a person or thing kept in memory.
• That which serves to keep in or bring to mind; a memorial; a token; a memento; a souvenir; a memorandum or note of something to be remembered.
• Something to be remembered; counsel; admonion; instruction.
• Power of remembering; reach of personal knowledge; period over which one's memory extends.
Remembrancer
n.
• One who, or that which, serves to bring to, or keep in, mind; a memento; a memorial; a reminder.
• A term applied in England to several officers, having various functions, their duty originally being to bring certain matters to the attention of the proper persons at the proper time.
Rememorate
v. i.
• To recall something by means of memory; to remember.
Rememorative
a.
• Tending or serving to remind.
Rememoratuin
n.
• A recalling by the faculty of memory; remembrance.
Remenant
n.
• A remnant.
Remerge
v. i.
• To merge again.
Remiform
a.
• Shaped like an oar.
Remiges
n. pl.
(Zool.) The quill feathers of the wings of a bird.
Remigrate
v. i.
• To migrate again; to go back; to return.
Remigration
n.
• Migration back to the place from which one came.
Remind
v. t.
• To put (one) in mind of something; to bring to the remembrance of; to bring to the notice or consideration of (a person).
Reminder
n.
• One who, or that which, reminds; that which serves to awaken remembrance.
Remindful
a.
• Tending or adapted to remind; careful to remind.
Reminiscence
n.
• The act or power of recalling past experience; the state of being reminiscent; remembrance; memory.
• That which is remembered, or recalled to mind; a statement or narration of remembered experience; a recollection; as, pleasing or painful reminiscences.
Reminiscency
n.
• Reminiscence.
Reminiscent
a.
• Recalling to mind, or capable of recalling to mind; having remembrance; reminding one of something.
n.
• One who is addicted to indulging, narrating, or recording reminiscences.
Reminiscential
a.
• Of or pertaining to reminiscence, or remembrance.
Remiped
a.
(Zool.) Having feet or legs that are used as oars; — said of certain crustaceans and insects.
n.
(Zool.) An animal having limbs like oars, especially one of certain crustaceans.
• One of a group of aquatic beetles having tarsi adapted for swimming. See Water beetle.
Remise
v. t.
• To send, give, or grant back; torelease a claim to; to resign or surrender by deed; to return.
n.
(Law) A giving or granting back; surrender; return; release, as of a claim.
Remiss
a.
• Not energetic or exact in duty or business; not careful or prompt in fulfilling engagements; negligent; careless; tardy; behindhand; lagging; slack; hence, lacking earnestness or activity; languid; slow.
n.
• The act of being remiss; inefficiency; failure.
Remissful
a.
• Inclined to remit punishment; lenient; clement.
Remissibility
n.
• The state or quality of being remissible.
Remissible
a.
• Capable of being remitted or forgiven.
Remission
n.
• The act of remitting, surrendering, resigning, or giving up.
• Discharge from that which is due; relinquishment of a claim, right, or obligation; pardon of transgression; release from forfeiture, penalty, debt, etc.
• Diminution of intensity; abatement; relaxation.
(Med.) A temporary and incomplete subsidence of the force or violence of a disease or of pain, as destinguished from intermission, in which the disease completely leaves the patient for a time; abatement.
• The act of sending back.
• Act of sending in payment, as money; remittance.
Remissive
a.
• Remitting; forgiving; abating.
Remissly
adv.
• In a remiss or negligent manner; carelessly.
Remissness
n.
• Quality or state of being remiss.
Remissory
a.
• Serving or tending to remit, or to secure remission; remissive.
Remit
v. t.
• To send back; to give up; to surrender; to resign.
• To restore.
(Com.) To transmit or send, esp. to a distance, as money in payment of a demand, account, draft, etc.; as, he remitted the amount by mail.
• To send off or away; hence: (a) To refer or direct (one) for information, guidance, help, etc. "Remitting them . . . to the works of Galen." Sir T. Elyot. (b) To submit, refer, or leave (something) for judgment or decision.
• To relax in intensity; to make less violent; to abate.
• To forgive; to pardon; to remove.
• To refrain from exacting or enforcing; as, to remit the performance of an obligation.
v. i.
• To abate in force or in violence; to grow less intense; to become moderated; to abate; to relax; as, a fever remits; the severity of the weather remits.
• To send money, as in payment.
Remitment
n.
• The act of remitting, or the state of being remitted; remission.
Remittal
n.
• A remitting; a giving up; surrender; as, the remittal of the first fruits.
Remittance
n.
• The act of transmitting money, bills, or the like, esp. to a distant place, as in satisfaction of a demand, or in discharge of an obligation.
• The sum or thing remitted.
Remittee
n.
(Com.) One to whom a remittance is sent.
Remittent
a.
• Remitting; characterized by remission; having remissions.
Remitter
n.
• One who remits.
• One who pardons
• One who makes remittance.
(Law) The sending or placing back of a person to a title or right he had before; the restitution of one who obtains possession of property under a defective title, to his rights under some valid title by virtue of which he might legally have entered into possession only by suit.
Remittitur
n.
(Law) A remission or surrender, — remittitur damnut being a remission of excess of damages.
• A sending back, as when a record is remitted by a superior to an inferior court.
Remittor
n.
(Law) One who makes a remittance; a remitter.
Remix
v. t.
• To mix again or repeatedly.
Remnant
a.
• Remaining; yet left.
n.
• That which remains after a part is removed, destroyed, used up, performed, etc.; residue.
• A small portion; a slight trace; a fragment; a little bit; a scrap.
(Com.) An unsold end of piece goods, as cloth, ribbons, carpets, etc.
Remodel
v. t.
• To model or fashion anew; to change the form of.
Remodification
n.
• The act of remodifying; the state of being remodified.
Remodify
v. t.
• To modify again or anew; to reshape.
Remollient
a.
• Mollifying; softening.
Remonetization
n.
• The act of remonetizing.
Remonetize
v. t.
• To restore to use as money; as, to remonetize silver.
Remonstrance
n.
• The act of remonstrating
• A pointing out; manifestation; proof; demonstration.
• Earnest presentation of reason in opposition to something; protest; expostulation
(R.C.Ch.) Same as Monstrance.
Remonstrant
a.
• Inclined or tending to remonstrate; expostulatory; urging reasons in opposition to something.
n.
• One who remonstrates
(Eccl. Hist.) one of the Arminians who remonstrated against the attacks of the Calvinists in 1610, but were subsequently condemned by the decisions of the Synod of Dort in 1618
Remonstrantly
adv.
• In a remonstrant manner.
Remonstrate
v. t.
• To point out; to show clearly; to make plain or manifest; hence, to prove; to demonstrate.
v. i.
• To present and urge reasons in opposition to an act, measure, or any course of proceedings; to expostulate; as, to remonstrate with a person regarding his habits; to remonstrate against proposed taxation.
Remonstration
n.
• The act of remonstrating; remonstrance.
Remonstrative
a.
• Having the character of a remonstrance; expressing remonstrance.
Remonstrator
n.
• One who remonstrates; a remonsrant.
Remontant
a.
(Hort.) Rising again; — applied to a class of roses which bloom more than once in a season; the hybrid perpetual roses, of which the Jacqueminot is a well-known example.
Remontoir
n.
(Horology) See under Escapement.
Remora
n.
• Delay; obstacle; hindrance.
(Zool.) Any one of several species of fishes belonging to Echeneis, Remora, and allied genera. Called also sucking fish.
(Surg.) An instrument formerly in use, intended to retain parts in their places.
Remorate
v. t.
• To hinder; to delay.
Remord
v. t.
• To excite to remorse; to rebuke.
v. i.
• To feel remorse.
Remordency
n.
• Remorse; compunction; compassion.
Remorse
n.
• The anguish, like gnawing pain, excited by a sense of guilt; compunction of conscience for a crime committed, or for the sins of one's past life.
• Sympathetic sorrow; pity; compassion.
Remorsed
a.
• Feeling remorse.
Remorseful
a.
• Full of remorse.
• Compassionate; feeling tenderly.
• Exciting pity; pitiable.
Remorseless
a.
• Being without remorse; having no pity; hence, destitute of sensibility; cruel; insensible to distress; merciless.
Remote
a.
• Removed to a distance; not near; far away; distant; — said in respect to time or to place; as, remote ages; remote lands.
• Hence, removed; not agreeing, according, or being related; — in various figurative uses.
• Not agreeing; alien; foreign
• Not nearly related; not close; as, a remote connection or consanguinity.
• Separate; abstracted
• Not proximate or acting directly; primary; distant
• Not obvious or sriking; as, a remote resemblance.
(Bot.) Separated by intervals greater than usual.
Remotion
n.
• The act of removing; removal.
• The state of being remote; remoteness.
Remould
v. t.
• See Remold.
Remount
v. t. & i.
• To mount again.
n.
• The opportunity of, or things necessary for, remounting; specifically, a fresh horse, with his equipments; as, to give one a remount.
Removable
a.
• Admitting of being removed.
Removal
n.
• The act of removing, or the state of being removed.
Remove
v. t.
• To move away from the position occupied; to cause to change place; to displace; as, to remove a building.
• To cause to leave a person or thing; to cause to cease to be; to take away; hence, to banish; to destroy; to put an end to; to kill; as, to remove a disease.
• To dismiss or discharge from office; as, the President removed many postmasters.
v. i.
• To change place in any manner, or to make a change in place; to move or go from one residence, position, or place to another.
n.
• The act of removing; a removal.
• The transfer of one's business, or of one's domestic belongings, from one location or dwelling house to another; — in the United States usually called a move.
• The state of being removed.
• That which is removed, as a dish removed from table to make room for something else.
• The distance or space through which anything is removed; interval; distance; stage; hence, a step or degree in any scale of gradation; specifically, a division in an English public school; as, the boy went up two removes last year.
(Far.) The act of resetting a horse's shoe.
Removed
a.
• Changed in place.
• Dismissed from office.
• Distant in location; remote.
• Distant by degrees in relationship; as, a cousin once removed.
Remover
n.
• One who removes; as, a remover of landmarks.
Remuable
a.
• That may be removed; removable.
Remue
v. t.
• To remove.
Remugient
a.
• Rebellowing.
Remunerable
a.
• Admitting, or worthy, of remuneration.
Remunerate
v. t.
• To pay an equivalent to for any service, loss, expense, or other sacrifice; to recompense; to requite; as, to remunerate men for labor.
Remuneration
n.
• The act of remunerating.
• That which is given to remunerate; an equivalent given, as for services, loss, or sufferings.
Remunerative
a.
• Affording remuneration; as, a remunerative payment for services; a remunerative business.
Remuneratory
a.
• Remunerative.
Remurmur
v. t. & i.
• To murmur again; to utter back, or reply, in murmurs.
Ren
v. t. & i.
• See Renne.
n.
• A run.
Renable
a.
• Reasonable; also, loquacious.
Renaissance
n.
• A new birth, or revival.
• The transitional movement in Europe, marked by the revival of classical learning and art in Italy in the 15th century, and the similar revival following in other countries
• The style of art which prevailed at this epoch.
Renaissant
a.
• Of or pertaining to the Renaissance.
Renal
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the kidneys; in the region of the kidneys.
Rename
v. t.
• To give a new name to.
Renard
n.
• A fox; — so called in fables or familiar tales, and in poetry.
Renardine
a.
• Of or pertaining to Renard, the fox, or the tales in which Renard is mentioned.
Renascence
n.
• The state of being renascent.
• Same as Renaissance.
Renascency
n.
• State of being renascent.
Renascent
a.
• Springing or rising again into being; being born again, or reproduced.
• See Renaissant.
Renascible
a.
• Capable of being reproduced; ablle to spring again into being.
Renate
a.
• Born again; regenerate; renewed.
Renavigate
v. t.
• To navigate again.
Renay
v. t.
• To deny; to disown.
Rencontre
n.
• Same as Rencounter, n.
Rencounter
v. t.
• To meet unexpectedly; to encounter.
• To attack hand to hand.
v. i.
• To meet unexpectedly; to encounter in a hostile manner; to come in collision; to skirmish.
n.
• A meeting of two persons or bodies; a collision; especially, a meetingg in opposition or contest; a combat, action, or engagement.
• A causal combat or action; a sudden contest or fight without premeditation, as between individuals or small parties.
Rend
v. t.
• To separate into parts with force or sudden violence; to tear asunder; to split; to burst; as, powder rends a rock in blasting; lightning rends an oak.
• To part or tear off forcibly; to take away by force.
v. i.
• To be rent or torn; to become parted; to sepparate; to split.
Render
n.
• One who rends.
v. t.
• To return; to pay back; to restore.
• To inflict, as a retribution; to requite.
• To give up; to yield; to surrender.
• Hence, to furnish; to contribute.
• To furnish; to state; to deliver; as, to render an account; to render judgment.
• To cause to be, or to become; as, to render a person more safe or more unsafe; to render a fortress secure.
• To translate from one language into another; as, to render Latin into English.
• To interpret; to set forth, represent, or exhibit; as, an actor renders his part poorly; a singer renders a passage of music with great effect; a painter renders a scene in a felicitous manner.
• To try out or extract (oil, lard, tallow, etc.) from fatty animal substances; as, to render tallow.
• To plaster, as a wall of masonry, without the use of lath.
v. i.
• To give an account; to make explanation or confession.
(Naut.) To pass; to run; — said of the passage of a rope through a block, eyelet, etc.; as, a rope renders well, that is, passes freely; also, to yield or give way.
n.
• A surrender.
• A return; a payment of rent.
• An account given; a statement.
Renderable
a.
• Capable of being rendered.
Renderer
n.
• One who renders.
• A vessel in which lard or tallow, etc., is rendered.
Rendering
n.
• The act of one who renders, or that which is rendered. Specifically: (a) A version; translation; as, the rendering of the Hebrew text. Lowth. (b) In art, the presentation, expression, or interpretation of an idea, theme, or part. (c) The act of laying the first coat of plaster on brickwork or stonework. (d) The coat of plaster thus laid on. Gwilt. (e) The process of trying out or extracting lard, tallow, etc., from animal fat.
Rendezvous
n.
• A place appointed for a meeting, or at which persons customarily meet.
• Especially, the appointed place for troops, or for the ships of a fleet, to assemble; also, a place for enlistment.
• A meeting by appointment.
• Retreat; refuge.
v. i.
• To assemble or meet at a particular place.
v. t.
• To bring together at a certain place; to cause to be assembled.
Rendible
a.
• Capable of being rent or torn.
a.
• Capable, or admitting, of being rendered.
Rendition
n.
• The act of rendering; especially, the act of surrender, as of fugitives from justice, at the claim of a foreign government; also, surrender in war.
• Translation; rendering; version.
Rendrock
n.
• A kind of dynamite used in blasting.
Renegade
n.
• One faithless to principle or party.
• An apostate from Christianity or from any form of religious faith.
• One who deserts from a military or naval post; a deserter
• A common vagabond; a worthless or wicked fellow
Renegado
n.
• See Renegade.
Renegat
n.
• A renegade.
Renegation
n.
• A denial.
Renege
v. t.
• To deny; to disown.
v. i.
• To deny.
(Card Playing) To revoke.
Renerve
v. t.
• To nerve again; to give new vigor to; to reinvigorate.
Renew
v. t.
• To make new again; to restore to freshness, perfection, or vigor; to give new life to; to rejuvenate; to restablish; to recreate; to rebuild.
• Specifically, to substitute for (an old obligation or right) a new one of the same nature; to continue in force; to make again; as, to renew a lease, note, or patent.
• To begin again; to recommence.
• To repeat; to go over again.
(Theol.) To make new spiritually; to regenerate.
v. i.
• To become new, or as new; to grow or begin again.
Renewability
n.
• The quality or state of being renewable.
Renewable
a.
• Capable of being renewed; as, a lease renewable at pleasure.
Renewal
n.
• The act of renewing, or the state of being renewed; as, the renewal of a treaty.
Renewedly
adv.
• Again; once more.
Renewedness
n.
• The state of being renewed.
Renewer
n.
• One who, or that which, renews.
Reneye
v. t.
• To deney; to reject; to renounce.
Reng
n.
• A rank; a row.
• A rung or round of a ladder.
Renidification
n.
(Zool.) The act of rebuilding a nest.
Reniform
a.
• Having the form or shape of a kidney; as, a reniform mineral; a reniform leaf.
Renitent
a.
• Resisting pressure or the effect of it; acting against impluse by elastic force.
• Persistently opposed.
Renne
v. t.
• To plunder; — only in the phrase "to rape and renne." See under Rap, v. t., to snatch.
v. i.
• To run.
Renner
n.
• A runner.
Rennet
n.
(Bot.) A name of many different kinds of apples. Cf. Reinette.
Renneted
a.
• Provided or treated with rennet.
Renneting
n.
(Bot.) Same as 1st Rennet.
Renning
n.
• See 2d Rennet.
Renomee
n.
• Renown.
Renounce
v. t.
• To declare against; to reject or decline formally; to refuse to own or acknowledge as belonging to one; to disclaim; as, to renounce a title to land or to a throne.
• To cast off or reject deliberately; to disown; to dismiss; to forswear.
(Card Playing) To disclaim having a card of (the suit led) by playing a card of another suit.
v. i.
• To make renunciation.
(Law) To decline formally, as an executor or a person entitled to letters of administration, to take out probate or letters.
n.
(Card Playing) Act of renouncing.
Renouncement
n.
• The act of disclaiming or rejecting; renunciation.
Renouncer
n.
• One who renounces.
Renovate
v. t.
• To make over again; to restore to freshness or vigor; to renew.
Renovation
n.
• The act or process of renovating; the state of being renovated or renewed.
Renovator
n.
• One who, or that which, renovates.
Renovel
v. t.
• To renew; to renovate.
Renovelance
n.
• Renewal.
Renowme
n.
• Renown.
Renowmed
a.
• Renowned.
Renown
n.
• The state of being much known and talked of; exalted reputation derived from the extensive praise of great achievements or accomplishments; fame; celebrity; — always in a good sense.
• Report of nobleness or exploits; praise.
v. t.
• To make famous; to give renown to.
Renowned
a.
• Famous; celebrated for great achievements, for distinguished qualities, or for grandeur; eminent; as, a renowned king.
Renownedly
adv.
• With renown.
Renowner
n.
• One who gives renown.
Renownful
a.
• Having great renown; famous.
Renownless
a.
• Without renown; inglorius.
Rensselaerite
n.
(Min.) A soft, compact variety of talc,, being an altered pyroxene. It is often worked in a lathe into inkstands and other articles.
Rent
v. i.
• To rant.
• imp. & p. p. of Rend.
n.
• An opening made by rending; a break or breach made by force; a tear.
• Figuratively, a schim; a rupture of harmony; a separation; as, a rent in the church.
v. t.
• To tear. See Rend.
n.
• Incone; revenue. See Catel.
• Pay; reward; share; toll.
(Law) A certain periodical profit, whether in money, provisions, chattels, or labor, issuing out of lands and tenements in payment for the use; commonly, a certain pecuniary sum agreed upon between a tenant and his landlord, paid at fixed intervals by the lessee to the lessor, for the use of land or its appendages; as, rent for a farm, a house, a park, etc.
v. t.
• To grant the possession and enjoyment of, for a rent; to lease; as, the owwner of an estate or house rents it.
• To take and hold under an agreement to pay rent; as, the tennant rents an estate of the owner.
v. i.
• To be leased, or let for rent; as, an estate rents for five hundred dollars a year.
Rentable
a.
• Capable of being rented, or suitable for renting.
Rentage
n.
• Rent.
Rental
n.
• A schedule, account, or list of rents, with the names of the tenants, etc.; a rent roll.
• A sum total of rents; as, an estate that yields a rental of ten thousand dollars a year.
Rente
n.
• In France, interest payable by government on indebtedness; the bonds, shares, stocks, etc.,, which represent government indebtedness.
Renter
n.
• One who rents or leases an estate; — usually said of a lessee or tenant.
v. t.
• To sew together so that the seam is scarcely visible; to sew up with skill and nicety; to finedraw.
• To restore the original design of, by working in new warp; — said with reference to tapestry.
Renterer
n.
• One who renters.
Rentier
n.
• One who has a fixed income, as from lands, stocks, or the like.
Renumerate
v. t.
• To recount.
Renunciation
n.
• The act of renouncing.
(Law) Formal declination to take out letters of administration, or to assume an office, privilege, or right.
Renunciatory
a.
• Pertaining to renunciation; containing or declaring a renunciation; as, renunciatory vows.
Renverse
v. t.
• To reverse.
Renversement
n.
• A reversing.
Renvoy
v. t.
• To send back.
n.
• A sending back.
Reobtain
v. t.
• To obtain again.
Reobtainable
a.
• That may be reobtained.
Reoccupy
v. t.
• To occupy again.
Reometer
n.
• Same as Rheometer.
Reopen
v. t. & i.
• To open again.
Reoppose
v. t.
• To oppose again.
Reordain
v. t.
• To ordain again, as when the first ordination is considered defective.
Reorder
v. t.
• To order a second time.
Reordination
n.
• A second ordination.
Reorganization
n.
• The act of reorganizing; a reorganized existence; as, reorganization of the troops.
Reorganize
v. t. & i.
• To organize again or anew; as, to reorganize a society or an army.
Reorient
a.
• Rising again.
Reostat
n.
(Physics) See Rheostat.
Reotrope
n.
(Physics) See Rheotrope.
Rep
n.
• A fabric made of silk or wool, or of silk and wool, and having a transversely corded or ribbed surface.
a.
• Formed with a surface closely corded, or ribbed transversely; — applied to textile fabrics of silk or wool; as, rep silk.
Repace
v. t.
• To pace again; to walk over again in a contrary direction.
Repacify
v. t.
• To pacify again.
Repack
v. t.
• To pack a second time or anew; as, to repack beef; to repack a trunk.
Repacker
n.
• One who repacks.
Repaganize
v. t.
• To paganize anew; to bring back to paganism.
Repaid
• imp. & p. p. of Repay.
Repaint
v. t.
• To paint anew or again; as, to repaint a house; to repaint the ground of a picture.
Repair
v. i.
• To return.
• To go; to betake one's self; to resort; ass, to repair to sanctuary for safety.
n.
• The act of repairing or resorting to a place.
• Place to which one repairs; a haunt; a resort.
v. t.
• To restore to a sound or good state after decay, injury, dilapidation, or partial destruction; to renew; to restore; to mend; as, to repair a house, a road, a shoe, or a ship; to repair a shattered fortune.
• To make amends for, as for an injury, by an equivalent; to indemnify for; as, to repair a loss or damage.
n.
• Restoration to a sound or good state after decay, waste, injury, or partial restruction; supply of loss; reparation; as, materials are collected for the repair of a church or of a city.
• Condition with respect to soundness, perfectness, etc.; as, a house in good, or bad, repair; the book is out of repair.
Repairable
a.
• Reparable.
Repairer
n.
• One who, or that which, repairs, restores, or makes amends.
Repairment
n.
• Act of repairing.
Repand
a.
(Bot. & Zool.) Having a slightly undulating margin; — said of leaves.
Reparability
n.
• The quality or state of being reparable.
Reparable
a
• Capable of being repaired, restored to a sound or good state, or made good; restorable; as, a reparable injury.
Reparably
adv.
• In a reparable manner.
Reparation
n.
• The act of renewing, restoring, etc., or the state of being renewed or repaired; as, the reparation of a bridge or of a highway; — in this sense, repair is oftener used.
• The act of making amends or giving satisfaction or compensation for a wrong, injury, etc.; also, the thing done or given; amends; satisfaction; indemnity.
Reparative
a.
• Repairing, or tending to repair.
n.
• That which repairs.
Reparel
n.
• A change of apparel; a second or different suit.
Repartee
n.
• A smart, ready, and witty reply.
v. i.
• To make smart and witty replies.
Repartimiento
n.
• A partition or distribution, especially of slaves; also, an assessment of taxes.
Repartotion
n.
• Another, or an additional, separation into parts.
Repass
v. t.
• To pass again; to pass or travel over in the opposite direction; to pass a second time; as, to repass a bridge or a river; to repass the sea.
v. i.
• To pass or go back; to move back; as, troops passing and repassing before our eyes.
Repassage
n.
• The act of repassing; passage back.
Repassant
a.
(Her.) Counterpassant.
Repast
n.
• The act of taking food.
• That which is taken as food; a meal; figuratively, any refreshment.
v. t. & i.
• To supply food to; to feast; to take food.
Repaster
n.
• One who takes a repast.
Repasture
n.
• Food; entertainment.
Repatriate
v. t.
• To restore to one's own country.
Repatriation
n.
• Restoration to one's country.
Repay
v. t.
• To pay back; to refund; as, to repay money borrowed or advanced.
• To make return or requital for; to recompense; — in a good or bad sense; as, to repay kindness; to repay an injury.
• To pay anew, or a second time, as a debt.
Repayable
a.
• Capable of being, or proper to be , repaid; due; as, a loan repayable in ten days; services repayable in kind.
Repayment
n.
• The act of repaying; reimbursement.
• The money or other thing repaid.
Repeal
v. t.
• To recall; to summon again, as persons.
• To recall, as a deed, will, law, or statute; to revoke; to rescind or abrogate by authority, as by act of the legislature; as, to repeal a law.
• To suppress; to repel.
n.
• Recall, as from exile.
• Revocation; abrogation; as, the repeal of a statute; the repeal of a law or a usage.
Repealability
n.
• The quality or state of being repealable.
Repealable
a.
• Capable of being repealed.
Repealer
n.
• One who repeals; one who seeks a repeal; specifically, an advocate for the repeal of the Articles of Union between Great Britain and Ireland.
Repealment
n.
• Recall, as from banishment.
Repeat
v. t.
• To go over again; to attempt, do, make, or utter again; to iterate; to recite; as, to repeat an effort, an order, or a poem.
• To make trial of again; to undergo or encounter again.
(Scots Law) To repay or refund (an excess received).
n.
• The act of repeating; repetition.
• That which is repeated; as, the repeat of a pattern; that is, the repetition of the engraved figure on a roller by which an impression is produced (as in calico printing, etc.).
(Mus.) A mark, or series of dots, placed before and after, or often only at the end of, a passage to be repeated in performance.
Repeatedly
adv.
• More than once; again and again; indefinitely.
Repeater
n.
• One who, or that which, repeats.
• A watch with a striking apparatus which, upon pressure of a spring, will indicate the time, usually in hours and quarters
• A repeating firearm.
(Teleg.) An instrument for resending a telegraphic message automatically at an intermediate point
• A person who votes more than once at an election
• See Circulating decimal, under Decimal.
(Naut.) A pennant used to indicate that a certain flag in a hoist of signal is duplicated.
Repeating
a.
• Doing the same thing over again; accomplishing a given result many times in succession; as, a repeating firearm; a repeating watch.
Repedation
n.
• A stepping or going back.
Repel
v. t.
• To drive back; to force to return; to check the advance of; to repulse as, to repel an enemy or an assailant.
• To resist or oppose effectually; as, to repel an assault, an encroachment, or an argument.
v. i.
• To act with force in opposition to force impressed; to exercise repulsion.
Repellent
a.
• Driving back; able or tending to repel.
n.
• That which repels.
(Med.) A remedy to repel from a tumefied part the fluids which render it tumid.
• A kind of waterproof cloth.
Repeller
n.
• One who, or that which, repels.
Repent
a.
(Bot.) Prostrate and rooting; — said of stems.
(Zool.) Same as Reptant.
v. i.
• To feel pain, sorrow, or regret, for what one has done or omitted to do.
• To change the mind, or the course of conduct, on account of regret or dissatisfaction.
(Theol.) To be sorry for sin as morally evil, and to seek forgiveness; to cease to love and practice sin.
v. t.
• To feel pain on account of; to remember with sorrow.
• To feel regret or sorrow; — used reflexively.
• To cause to have sorrow or regret; — used impersonally.
Repentance
n.
• The act of repenting, or the state of being penitent; sorrow for what one has done or omitted to do; especially, contrition for sin.
Repentant
a.
• Penitent; sorry for sin.
• Expressing or showing sorrow for sin; as, repentant tears; repentant ashes.
n.
• One who repents, especially one who repents of sin; a penitent.
Repentantly
adv.
• In a repentant manner.
Repenter
n.
• One who repents.
Repentingly
adv.
• With repentance; penitently.
Repentless
a.
• Unrepentant.
Repeople
v. t.
• To people anew.
Reperception
n.
• The act of perceiving again; a repeated perception of the same object.
Repercuss
v. t.
• To drive or beat back; hence, to reflect; to reverberate.
Repercussion
n.
• The act of driving back, or the state of being driven back; reflection; reverberation; as, the repercussion of sound.
(Mus.) Rapid reiteration of the same sound.
(Med.) The subsidence of a tumor or eruption by the action of a repellent.
(Obstetrics) In a vaginal examination, the act of imparting through the uterine wall with the finger a shock to the fetus, so that it bounds upward, and falls back again against the examining finger.
Repercussive
a.
• Tending or able to repercuss; having the power of sending back; causing to reverberate.
• Repellent.
• Driven back; rebounding; reverberated.
n.
• A repellent.
Repertitious
a.
• Found; gained by finding.
Repertory
n.
• A place in which things are disposed in an orderly manner, so that they can be easily found, as the index of a book, a commonplace book, or the like.
• A treasury; a magazine; a storehouse.
• Same as Repertoire.
Reperusal
n.
• A second or repeated perusal.
Reperuse
v. t.
• To peruse again.
Repetend
n.
(Math.) That part of a circulating decimal which recurs continually, ad infinitum: — sometimes indicated by a dot over the first and last igures; thus, in the circulating decimal .728328328 + (otherwise .7283), the repetend is 283.
Repetition
n.
• The act of repeating; a doing or saying again; iteration.
• Recital from memory; rehearsal.
(Mus.) The act of repeating, singing, playing, the same piece or part a second time; reiteration of a note.
(Rhet.) Reiteration, or repeating the same word, or the same sense in different words, for the purpose of making a deeper impression on the audience.
(Astron. & Surv.) The measurement of an angle by successive observations with a repeating instrument.
Repetitioner
n.
• One who repeats.
Repetitious
a.
• Repeating; containing repetition.
Repetitive
a.
• Containing repetition; repeating.
Repetitor
n.
(Ger.Univ.) A private instructor.
Repine
v. i.
• To fail; to wane.
• To continue pining; to feel inward discontent which preys on the spirits; to indulge in envy or complaint; to murmur.
n.
• Vexation; mortification.
Repiner
n.
• One who repines.
Repiningly
adv.
• With repening or murmuring.
Repkie
n.
(Zool.) Any edible sea urchin.
Replace
v. t.
• To place again; to restore to a former place, position, condition, or the like.
• To refund; to repay; to restore; as, to replace a sum of money borrowed.
• To supply or substitute an equivalent for; as, to replace a lost document.
• To take the place of; to supply the want of; to fulfull the end or office of.
• To put in a new or different place.
Replaceability
n.
• The quality, state, or degree of being replaceable.
Replaceable
a.
• Capable or admitting of being put back into a place.
• Admitting of having its place supplied by a like thing or an equivalent; as, the lost book is replaceable.
(Chem.) Capable of being replaced (by), or of being exchanged (for); as, the hydrogen of acids is replaceable by metals or by basic radicals.
Replacement
n.
• The act of replacing.
(Crystallog.) The removal of an edge or an angle by one or more planes.
Replait
v. t.
• To plait or fold again; to fold, as one part over another, again and again.
Replant
v. t.
• To plant again.
Replantable
a.
• That may be planted again.
Replantation
n.
• The act of planting again; a replanting.
Replead
v. t. & i.
• To plead again.
Repleader
n.
(Law) A second pleading, or course of pleadings; also, the right of pleading again.
Replenish
v. t.
• To fill again after having been diminished or emptied; to stock anew; hence, to fill completely; to cause to abound.
• To finish; to complete; to perfect.
v. i.
• To recover former fullness.
Replenisher
n.
• One who replenishes.
Replenishment
n.
• The act of replenishing, or the state of being replenished.
• That which replenishes; supply.
Replete
a.
• Filled again; completely filled; full; charged; abounding.
v. t.
• To fill completely, or to satiety.
Repleteness
n.
• The state of being replete.
Repletion
n.
• The state of being replete; superabundant fullness.
(Med.) Fullness of blood; plethora.
Repletive
a.
• Tending to make replete; filling.
Repletory
a.
• Repletive.
Repleviable
a.
(Law) Capable of being replevied.
Replevin
n.
(Law) A personal action which lies to recover possession of goods and chattle wrongfully taken or detained. Originally, it was a remedy peculiar to cases for wrongful distress, but it may generally now be brought in all cases of wrongful taking or detention.
• The writ by which goods and chattles are replevied.
v. t.
(Law) To replevy.
Replevisable
a.
• Repleviable.
Replevy
v. t.
(Law) To take or get back, by a writ for that purpose (goods and chattels wrongfuly taken or detained), upon giving security to try the right to them in a suit at law, and, if that should be determined against the plaintiff, to return the property replevied.
(Old Eng.LAw) To bail.
n.
• Replevin.
Replica
n.
(Fine Arts) A copy of a work of art, as of a picture or satue, made by the maker of the original.
(Mus.) Repetition.
Replicant
n.
• One who replies.
Replicate
v. t.
• To reply.
Replication
n.
• An answer; a reply.
(Law Pleadings) The reply of the plaintiff, in matters of fact, to the defendant's plea.
• Return or repercussion, as of sound; echo.
• A repetition; a copy.
Replier
n.
• One who replies.
Replum
n.
(Bot.) The framework of some pods, as the cress, which remains after the valves drop off.
Reply
v. i.
• To make a return in words or writing; to respond; to answer.
(Law) To answer a defendant's plea.
• Figuratively, to do something in return for something done; as, to reply to a signal; to reply to the fire of a battery.
v. t.
• To return for an answer.
n.
• That which is said, written, or done in answer to what is said, written, or done by another; an answer; a response.
Replyer
n.
• See Replier.
Repolish
v. t.
• To polish again.
Repone
v. t.
• To replace.
Repopulation
n.
• The act of repeopling; act of furnishing with a population anew.
Report
v. t.
• To refer.
• To bring back, as an answer; to announce in return; to relate, as what has been discovered by a person sent to examine, explore, or investigate; as, a messenger reports to his employer what he has seen or ascertained; the committee reported progress.
• To give an account of; to relate; to tell; to circulate publicly, as a story; as, in the common phrase, it is reported.
• To give an official account or statement of; as, a treasurer reperts the recepts and expenditures.
• To return or repeat, as sound; to echo. "A church with windowss only form above, that reporteth the voice thirteen times."
(Parliamentary Practice) To return or present as the result of an examination or consideration of any matter officially referred; as, the committee reported the bill witth amendments, or reported a new bill, or reported the results of an inquiry.
• To make minutes of, as a speech, or the doings of a public body; to write down from the lips of a speaker.
• To write an account of for publication, as in a newspaper; as, to report a public celebration or a horse race.
• To make a statement of the conduct of, especially in an unfavorable sense; as, to report a servant to his employer.
v. i.
• To make a report, or response, in respect of a matter inquired of, a duty enjoined, or information expected; as, the committee will report at twelve o'clock.
• To furnish in writing an account of a speech, the proceedings at a meeting, the particulars of an occurrence, etc., for publication.
• To present one's self, as to a superior officer, or to one to whom service is due, and to be in readiness for orders or to do service; also, to give information, as of one's address, condition, etc.; as, the officer reported to the general for duty; to report weekly by letter.
n.
• That which is reported.
• An account or statement of the results of examination or inquiry made by request or direction; relation
• A story or statement circulating by common talk; a rumor; hence, fame; repute; reputation.
• Sound; noise; as, the report of a pistol or cannon
• An official statement of facts, verbal or written; especially, a statement in writing of proceedings and facts exhibited by an officer to his superiors; as, the reports of the heads af departments to Congress, of a master in chancery to the court, of committees to a legislative body, and the like.
• An account or statement of a judicial opinion or decision, or of case argued and determined in a court of law, chancery, etc.; also, in the plural, the volumes containing such reports; as, Coke's Reports.
• A sketch, or a fully written account, of a speech, debate, or the proceedings of a public meeting, legislative body, etc.
• Rapport; relation; connection; reference.
Reportable
a.
• Capable or admitting of being reported.
Reportage
n.
• SAme as Report.
Reporter
n.
• One who reports. Specifically: (a) An officer or person who makees authorized statements of law proceedings and decisions, or of legislative debates. (b) One who reports speeches, the proceedings of public meetings, news, etc., for the newspapers.
Reportingly
adv.
• By report or common fame.
Reportorial
a.
• Of or pertaining to a reporter or reporters; as, the reportorial staff of a newspaper.
Reposal
n.
• The act or state of reposing; as, the reposal of a trust.
• That on which one reposes.
Reposance
n.
• Reliance.
Repose
v. t.
• To cause to stop or to rest after motion; hence, to deposit; to lay down; to lodge; to reposit.
• To lay at rest; to cause to be calm or quiet; to compose; to rest, — often reflexive; as, to repose one's self on a couch.
• To place, have, or rest; to set; to intrust.
v. i.
• To lie at rest; to rest.
• Figuratively, to remain or abide restfully without anxiety or alarms.
• To lie; to be supported; as, trap reposing on sand
n.
• A lying at rest; sleep; rest; quiet.
• Rest of mind; tranquillity; freedom from uneasiness; also, a composed manner or deportment.
(Poetic) A rest; a pause.
(Fine Arts) That harmony or moderation which affords rest for the eue; — opposed to the scattering and division of a subject into too many unconnected parts, and also to anything which is overstrained; as, a painting may want repose.
Reposed
a.
• Composed; calm; tranquil; at rest.
Reposeful
a.
• Full of repose; quiet.
Reposer
n.
• One who reposes.
Reposit
v. t.
• To cause to rest or stay; to lay away; to lodge, as for safety or preservation; to place; to store.
Reposition
n.
• The act of repositing; a laying up.
Repositor
n.
(Surg.) An instrument employed for replacing a displaced organ or part.
Repository
n.
• A place where things are or may be reposited, or laid up, for safety or preservation; a depository.
Repossess
v. t.
• To possess again; as, to repossess the land.
Repossession
n.
• The act or the state of possessing again.
Reposure
n.
• Rest; quiet.
Repour
v. t.
• To pour again.
Repousse
a.
• Formed in relief, as a pattern on metal.
• Ornamented with patterns in relief made by pressing or hammering on the reverse side; — said of thin metal, or of a vessel made of thin metal.
n.
• Repousse work.
Repprobacy
n.
• Reprobation.
Reprefe
n.
• Reproof.
Reprehend
v. t.
• To reprove or reprimand with a view of restraining, checking, or preventing; to make charge of fault against; to disapprove of; to chide; to blame; to censure.
Reprehender
n.
• One who reprehends.
Reprehensible
a.
• Worthy of reprehension; culpable; censurable; blamable.
Reprehension
n.
• Reproof; censure; blame; disapproval.
Reprehensive
a.
• Containing reprehension; conveying reproof.
Reprehensory
a.
• Containing reproof; reprehensive; as, reprehensory complaint.
Represent
v. t.
• To present again or anew; to present by means of something standing in the place of; to exhibit the counterpart or image of; to typify.
• To portray by pictoral or plastic art; to delineate; as, to represent a landscape in a picture, a horse in bronze, and the like.
• To portray by mimicry or action of any kind; to act the part or character of; to personate; as, to represent Hamlet.
• To stand in the place of; to supply the place, perform the duties, exercise the rights, or receive the share, of; to speak and act with authority in behalf of; to act the part of (another); as, an heir represents his ancestor; an attorney represents his client in court; a member of Congress represents his district in Congress.
• To exhibit to another mind in language; to show; to give one's own impressions and judgement of; to bring before the mind; to set forth; sometimes, to give an account of; to describe.
• To serve as a sign or symbol of; as, mathematical symbols represent quantities or relations; words represent ideas or things.
• To bring a sensation of into the mind or sensorium; to cause to be known, felt, or apprehended; to present.
(Metaph.) To form or image again in consciousness, as an object of cognition or apprehension (something which was originally apprehended by direct presentation). See Presentative,3.
Representable
a.
• Capable of being represented.
Representance
n.
• Representation; likeness.
Representant
a.
• Appearing or acting for another; representing.
n.
• A representative.
Representation
n.
• The act of representing, in any sense of the verb.
• That which represents.
• A likeness, a picture, or a model; as, a representation of the human face, or figure, and the like.
• A dramatic performance; as, a theatrical representation; a representation of Hamlet.
• A description or statement; as, the representation of an historian, of a witness, or an advocate.
• The body of those who act as representatives of a community or society; as, the representation of a State in Congress.
(Insurance Law) Any collateral statement of fact, made orally or in writing, by which an estimate of the risk is affected, or either party is influenced.
• The state of being represented.
Representationary
a.
• Implying representation; representative.
Representative
a.
• Fitted to represent; exhibiting a similitude.
• Bearing the character or power of another; acting for another or others; as, a council representative of the people.
• Conducted by persons chosen to represent, or act as deputies for, the people; as, a representative government.
(Nat.Hist.) Serving or fitted to present the full characters of the type of a group; typical; as, a representative genus in a family.
• Similar in general appearance, structure, and habits, but living in different regions; — said of certain species and varieties.
(Metaph.) Giving, or existing as, a transcript of what was originally presentative knowledge; as, representative faculties; representative knowledge. See Presentative, 3 and Represent, 8.
n.
• One who, or that which, represents (anything); that which exhibits a likeness or similitude.
• An agent, deputy, or substitute, who supplies the place of another, or others, being invested with his or their authority.
(Law) One who represents, or stands in the place of, another.
• A member of the lower or popular house in a State legislature, or in the national Congress.
(Nat.Hist.) That which presents the full character of the type of a group.
• A species or variety which, in any region, takes the place of a similar one in another region.
Representatively
adv.
• In a representative manner; vicariously.
Representativeness
n.
• The quality or state of being representative.
Representer
n.
• One who shows, exhibits, or describes.
• A representative.
Representment
n.
• Representation.
Repress
v. t.
• To press again.
v. t.
• To press back or down effectually; to crush down or out; to quell; to subdue; to supress; as, to repress sedition or rebellion; to repress the first risings of discontent.
• Hence, to check; to restrain; to keep back.
n.
• The act of repressing.
Represser
n.
• One who, or that which, represses.
Repressible
a.
• Capable of being repressed.
Repression
n.
• The act of repressing, or state of being repressed; as, the repression of evil and evil doers.
• That which represses; check; restraint.
Repressive
a.
• Having power, or tending, to repress; as, repressive acts or measures.
Reprevable
a.
• Reprovable.
Repreve
v. t.
• To reprove.
n.
• Reproof.
Repriefe
n.
• Repreve.
Reprieval
n.
• Reprieve.
Reprieve
v. t.
• To delay the punishment of; to suspend the execution of sentence on; to give a respite to; to respite; as, to reprieve a criminal for thirty days.
• To relieve for a time, or temporarily.
n.
• A temporary suspension of the execution of a sentence, especially of a sentence of death.
Reprimand
n.
• Severe or formal reproof; reprehension, private or public.
v. t.
• To reprove severely; to reprehend; to chide for a fault; to consure formally.
• To reprove publicly and officially, in execution of a sentence; as, the court ordered him to be reprimanded.
Reprimander
n.
• One who reprimands.
Reprimer
n.
(Firearms) A machine or implement for applying fresh primers to spent cartridge shells, so that the shells be used again.
Reprine
v. t.
• To prune again or anew.
Reprint
v. t.
• To print again; to print a second or a new edition of.
• To renew the impression of.
n.
• A second or a new impression or edition of any printed work; specifically, the publication in one country of a work previously published in another.
Reprinter
n.
• One who reprints.
Reprisal
n.
• The act of taking from an enemy by way of reteliation or indemnity.
• Anything taken from an enemy in retaliation.
• The act of retorting on an enemy by inflicting suffering or death on a prisoner taken from him, in retaliation for an act of inhumanity.
• Any act of retaliation.
Reprise
n.
• A taking by way of retaliation.
(Law) Deductions and duties paid yearly out of a manor and lands, as rent charge, rent seck, pensions, annuities, and the like.
• A ship recaptured from an enemy or from a pirate.
v. t.
• To take again; to retake.
• To recompense; to pay.
Repristinate
v. t.
• To restore to an original state.
Repristination
n.
• Restoration to an original state; renewal of purity.
Reprive
v. t.
• To take back or away.
v. t.
• To reprieve.
Reprize
v. t.
• See Reprise.
Reprizes
n.pl.
(Law) See Repise, n., 2.
Reproach
v. t.
• To come back to, or come home to, as a matter of blame; to bring shame or disgrace upon; to disgrace.
• To attribute blame to; to allege something disgracefull against; to charge with a fault; to censure severely or contemptuously; to upbraid.
n.
• The act of reproaching; censure mingled with contempt; contumelious or opprobrious language toward any person; abusive reflections; as, severe reproach.
• A cause of blame or censure; shame; disgrace.
• An object of blame, censure, scorn, or derision.
Reproachablr
a.
• Deserving reproach; censurable.
• Opprobrius; scurrilous.
Reproacher
n.
• One who reproaches.
Reproachful
a.
• Expressing or containing reproach; upbraiding; opprobrious; abusive.
• Occasioning or deserving reproach; shameful; base; as, a reproachful life.
Reproachless
a.
• Being without reproach.
Reprobance
n.
• Reprobation.
Reprobate
a.
• Not enduring proof or trial; not of standard purity or fineness; disallowed; rejected.
• Abandoned to punishment; hence, morally abandoned and lost; given up to vice; depraved.
• Of or pertaining to one who is given up to wickedness; as, reprobate conduct.
n.
• One morally abandoned and lost.
v. t.
• To disapprove with detestation or marks of extreme dislike; to condemn as unworthy; to disallow; to reject.
• To abandon to punishment without hope of pardon.
Reprobateness
n.
• The state of being reprobate.
Reprobater
n.
• One who reprobates.
Reprobation
n.
• The act of reprobating; the state of being reprobated; strong disapproval or censure.
(Theol.) The predestination of a certain number of the human race as reprobates, or objects of condemnation and punishment.
Reprobationer
n.
(Theol.) One who believes in reprobation. See Reprobation,2.
Reprobative
a.
• Of or pertaining to reprobation; expressing reprobation.
Reprobatory
a.
• Reprobative.
Reproduce
v. t.
• To produce again.
• To bring forward again; as, to reproduce a witness; to reproduce charges; to reproduce a play.
• To cause to exist again.
• To produce again, by generation or the like; to cause the existence of (something of the same class, kind, or nature as another thing); to generate or beget, as offspring; as, to reproduce a rose; some animals are reproduced by gemmation.
• To make an image or other representation of; to portray; to cause to exist in the memory or imagination; to make a copy of; as, to reproduce a person's features in marble, or on canvas; to reproduce a design.
Reproducer
n.
• One who, or that which, reproduces.
Reproduction
n.
• The act or process of reproducing; the state of being reproduced
(Biol.) the process by which plants and animals give rise to offspring.
• That which is reproduced.
Reproductive
a.
• Tending, or pertaining, to reproduction; employed in reproduction.
Reproductory
a.
• Reproductive.
Reproof
n.
• Refutation; confutation; contradiction.
• An expression of blame or censure; especially, blame expressed to the face; censure for a fault; chiding; reproach.
Reprovable
a.
• Worthy of reproof or censure.
Reprove
v. t.
• To convince.
• To disprove; to refute.
• To chide to the face as blameworthy; to accuse as guilty; to censure.
• To express disapprobation of; as, to reprove faults.
Reprover
n.
• One who, or that which, reproves.
Reprovingly
adv.
• In a reproving manner.
Reptant
a.
(Bot.) Same as Repent.
(Zool.) Creeping; crawling; — said of reptiles, worms, etc.
Reptantia
n.pl.
(Zool.) A divisiom of gastropods; the Pectinibranchiata.
Reptation
n.
(Zool.) The act of creeping.
Reptatory
a.
(Zool.) Creeping.
Reptile
a.
• Creeping; moving on the belly, or by means of small and short legs.
• Hence: Groveling; low; vulgar; as, a reptile race or crew; reptile vices.
n.
(Zool.) An animal that crawls, or moves on its belly, as snakes,, or by means of small, short legs, as lizards, and the like.
(Zool.) One of the Reptilia, or one of the Amphibia.
• A groveling or very mean person.
Reptilia
n.pl.
(Zool.) A class of air-breathing oviparous vertebrates, usually covered with scales or bony plates. The heart generally has two auricles and one ventricle. The development of the young is the same as that of birds.
Reptilian
a.
• Belonging to the reptiles.
n.
(Zool.) One of the Reptilia; a reptile.
Republic
n.
• Common weal.
• A state in which the sovereign power resides in the whole body of the people, and is exercised by representatives elected by them; a commonwealth. Cf. Democracy, 2.
Republican
a.
• Of or pertaining to a republic.
• Consonant with the principles of a republic; as, republican sentiments or opinions; republican manners.
n.
• One who favors or prefers a republican form of government.
(U.S.Politics) A member of the Republican party.
(Zool.) The American cliff swallow. The cliff swallows build their nests side by side, many together.
• A South African weaver bird (Philetaerus socius). These weaver birds build many nests together, under a large rooflike shelter, which they make of straw.
Republicanism
n.
• A republican form or system of government; the principles or theory of republican government.
• Attachment to, or political sympathy for, a republican form of government.
• The principles and policy of the Republican party, so called
Republicanize
v. t.
• To change, as a state, into a republic; to republican principles; as, France was republicanized; to republicanize the rising generation.
Republicate
v. t.
• To make public again; to republish.
Republication
n.
• A second publication, or a new publication of something before published, as of a former will, of a volume already published, or the like; specifically, the publication in one country of a work first issued in another; a reprint.
Republish
v. t.
• To publish anew; specifically, to publish in one country (a work first published in another); also, to revive (a will) by rexecution or codicil.
Republisher
n.
• One who republishes.
Repudiable
a.
• Admitting of repudiation; fit or proper to be put away.
Repudiate
v. t.
• To cast off; to disavow; to have nothing to do with; to renounce; to reject.
• To divorce, put away, or discard, as a wife, or a woman one has promised to marry.
• To refuse to acknowledge or to pay; to disclaim; as, the State has repudiated its debts.
Repudiation
n.
• The act of repudiating, or the state of being repuddiated; as, the repudiation of a doctrine, a wife, a debt, etc.
n.
• One who favors repudiation, especially of a public debt.
Repudiator
n.
• One who repudiates.
Repugn
v. t.
• To fight against; to oppose; to resist.
Repugnable
a.
• Capable of being repugned or resisted.
Repugnant
a.
• Disposed to fight against; hostile; at war with; being at variance; contrary; inconsistent; refractory; disobedient; also, distasteful in a high degree; offensive; — usually followed by to, rarely and less properly by with; as, all rudeness was repugnant to her nature.
Repugnantly
adv.
• In a repugnant manner.
Repugnate
v. t.
• To oppose; to fight against.
Repugner
n.
• One who repugns.
Repullulate
v. i.
• To bud again.
Repullulation
n.
• The act of budding again; the state of having budded again.
Repulse
v. t.
• To repel; to beat or drive back; as, to repulse an assault; to repulse the enemy.
• To repel by discourtesy, coldness, or denial; to reject; to send away; as, to repulse a suitor or a proffer.
n.
• The act of repelling or driving back; also, the state of being repelled or driven back.
• Figuratively: Refusal; denial; rejection; failure.
Repulseless
a.
• Not capable of being repulsed.
Repulser
n.
• One who repulses, or drives back.
Repulsion
n.
• The act of repulsing or repelling, or the state of being repulsed or repelled.
• A feeling of violent offence or disgust; repugnance.
(Physics) The power, either inherent or due to some physical action, by which bodies, or the particles of bodies, are made to recede from each other, or to resist each other's nearer approach; as, molecular repulsion; electrical repulsion.
Repulsive
a.
• Serving, or able, to repulse; repellent; as, a repulsive force.
• Cold; forbidding; offensive; as, repulsive manners.
Repulsory
a.
• Repulsive; driving back.
Repurchase
v. t.
• To buy back or again; to regain by purchase.
n.
• The act of repurchasing.
Repurify
v. t.
• To purify again.
Reputable
a.
• Having, or worthy of, good repute; held in esteem; honorable; praiseworthy; as, a reputable man or character; reputable conduct.
Reputation
n.
• The estimation in which one is held; character in public opinion; the character attributed to a person, thing, or action; repute.
(Law) The character imputed to a person in the community in which he lives. It is admissible in evidence when he puts his character in issue, or when such reputation is otherwise part of the issue of a case.
• Specifically: Good reputation; favorable regard; public esteem; general credit; good name.
• Account; value.
Reputatively
adv.
• By repute.
Repute
v. t.
• To hold in thought; to account; to estimate; to hold; to think; to reckon.
n.
• Character reputed or attributed; reputation, whether good or bad; established opinion; public estimate.
• Specifically: Good character or reputation; credit or honor derived from common or public opinion; — opposed to disrepute.
Reputedly
adv.
• In common opinion or estimation; by repute.
Reputeless
a.
• Not having good repute; disreputable; disgraceful; inglorius.


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