Dictionary Of The English Language "Ph"
Entries are from pre-1900 editions of Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
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Phacellus
n.
(Zool.) One of the filaments on the inner surface of the gastric cavity of certain jellyfishes.
Phacochere
n.
(Zool.) The wart hog.
Phacoid
a.
• Resembling a lentil; lenticular.
Phacolite
n.
(Min.) A colorless variety of chabazite; the original was from Leipa, in Bohemia.
Phacops
n.
(Paleon.) A genus of trilobites found in the Silurian and Devonian formations. Phacops bufo is one of the most common species.
Phaeacian
a.
• Of or pertaining to the Phaeacians, a fabulous seafaring people fond of the feast, the lyre, and the dance, mentioned by Homer.
Phaenogam
n.
(Bot.) Any plant of the class Phaenogamia.
Phaenogamia
n. pl.
(Bot.) The class of flowering plants including all which have true flowers with distinct floral organs; phanerogamia.
Phaenogamous
a.
(Bot.) Having true flowers with with distinct floral organs; flowering.
Phaenomenon
n.
• See Phenomenon.
Phaeospore
n.
(Bot.) A brownish zoospore, characteristic of an order (Phaeosporeae) of dark green or olive-colored algae.
Phaethon
n.
(Class. Myth.) The son of Helios (Phoebus), that is, the son of light, or of the sun. He is fabled to have obtained permission to drive the chariot of the sun, in doing which his want of skill would have set the world on fire, had he not been struck with a thunderbolt by Jupiter, and hurled headlong into the river Po.
(Zool.) A genus of oceanic birds including the tropic birds.
Phaeton
n.
• A four-wheeled carriage (with or without a top), open, or having no side pieces, in front of the seat. It is drawn by one or two horses.
• See Phaethon.
(Zool.) A handsome American butterfly (Euphydryas, or Melitaea, Phaeton). The upper side of the wings is black, with orange-red spots and marginal crescents, and several rows of cream-colored spots; — called also Baltimore.
Phagedena
n.
(Med.) A canine appetite; bulimia.
• Spreading, obstinate ulceration.
Phagedenous
a.
(Med.) Phagedenic.
Phagocyte
n.
(Physiol.) A leucocyte which plays a part in retrogressive processes by taking up (eating), in the form of fine granules, the parts to be removed.
Phainopepla
n.
(Zool.) A small crested passerine bird (Phainopepla nitens), native of Mexico and the Southern United States. The adult male is of a uniform glossy blue-black; the female is brownish. Called also black flycatcher.
Phakoscope
n.
(Physiol.) An instrument for studying the mechanism of accommodation.
Phalaena
n.
(Zool.) A linnaean genus which included the moths in general.
Phalaenid
n.
(Zool.) Any moth of the family Phalaenidae, of which the cankerworms are examples; a geometrid.
Phalanger
n.
(Zool.) Any marsupial belonging to Phalangista, Cuscus, Petaurus, and other genera of the family Phalangistidae. They are arboreal, and the species of Petaurus are furnished with lateral parachutes. See Flying phalanger, under Flying.
Phalanges
n.
• , pl. of Phalanx.
Phalangid
n.
(Zool.) One of the Phalangoidea.
Phalangious
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to Phalangoidea.
Phalangist
n.
(Zool.) Any arboreal marsupial of the genus Phalangista. The vulpine phalangist (P. vulpina) is the largest species, the full grown male being about two and a half feet long. It has a large bushy tail.
Phalangite
n.
• A soldier belonging to a phalanx.
Phalangoidea
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of Arachnoidea, including the daddy longlegs or harvestman (Phalangium) and many similar kinds. They have long, slender, many-jointed legs; usually a rounded, segmented abdomen; and chelate jaws. They breathe by tracheae. Called also Phalangides, Phalangidea, Phalangiida, and Opilionea.
Phalanstere
n.
• A phalanstery.
Phalansterian
a.
• Of or pertaining to phalansterianism.
n.
• One who favors the system of phalansteries proposed by Fourier.
Phalanstery
n.
• An association or community organized on the plan of Fourier. See Fourierism.
• The dwelling house of a Fourierite community.
Phalanx
n.
(Gr. Antiq.) A body of heavy-armed infantry formed in ranks and files close and deep. There were several different arrangements, the phalanx varying in depth from four to twenty-five or more ranks of men.
• Any body of troops or men formed in close array, or any combination of people distinguished for firmness and solidity of a union.
• A Fourierite community; a phalanstery.
(Anat.) One of the digital bones of the hand or foot, beyond the metacarpus or metatarsus; an internode.
(Bot.) A group or bundle of stamens, as in polyadelphous flowers.
Phalarope
n.
(Zool.) Any species of Phalaropus and allied genera of small wading birds (Grallae), having lobate toes. They are often seen far from land, swimming in large flocks. Called also sea goose.
Phallic
a.
• Of or pertaining to the phallus, or to phallism.
Phallicism
n.
• See Phallism.
Phallism
n.
• The worship of the generative principle in nature, symbolized by the phallus.
Phallus
n.
• The emblem of the generative power in nature, carried in procession in the Bacchic orgies, or worshiped in various ways.
(Anat.) The penis or clitoris, or the embryonic or primitive organ from which either may be derived.
(Bot.) A genus of fungi which have a fetid and disgusting odor; the stinkhorn.
Phane
n.
• See Fane.
Phanerite
a.
• Evident; visible.
Phanerocarpae
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Acraspeda.
Phanerocodonic
a.
(Zool.) Having an umbrella-shaped or bell-shaped body, with a wide, open cavity beneath; — said of certain jellyfishes.
Phanerocrystalline
a.
(Geol.) Distinctly crystalline; — used of rocks. Opposed to cryptocrystalline.
Phanerodactyla
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Saururae.
Phanerogamia
n. pl.
(Bot.) That one of the two primary divisions of the vegetable kingdom which contains the phanerogamic, or flowering, plants.
Phanerogamian
a.
(Bot.) Phanerogamous.
Phaneroglossal
a.
(Zool.) Having a conspicious tongue; — said of certain reptiles and insects.
Phantascope
n.
• An optical instrument or toy, resembling the phenakistoscope, and illustrating the same principle; — called also phantasmascope.
Phantasm
n.
• An image formed by the mind, and supposed to be real or material; a shadowy or airy appearance; sometimes, an optical illusion; a phantom; a dream.
• A mental image or representation of a real object; a fancy; a notion.
Phantasma
n.
• A phantasm.
Phantasmagoria
n.
• An optical effect produced by a magic lantern. The figures are painted in transparent colors, and all the rest of the glass is opaque black. The screen is between the spectators and the instrument, and the figures are often made to appear as in motion, or to merge into one another.
• The apparatus by which such an effect is produced.
• Fig.: A medley of figures; illusive images.
Phantasmagorial
a.
• Of, relating to, or resembling phantasmagoria; phantasmagoric.
Phantasmagoric
a.
• Of or pertaining to phantasmagoria; phantasmagorial.
Phantasmagory
n.
• See Phantasmagoria.
Phantasmal
a.
• Pertaining to, of the nature of, or resembling, a phantasm; spectral; illusive.
Phantasmascope
n.
• See Phantascope.
Phantasmatical
a.
• Phantasmal.
Phantasmatography
n.
• A description of celestial phenomena, as rainbows, etc.
Phantasy
n.
• See Fantasy, and Fancy.
Phantom
n.
• That which has only an apparent existence; an apparition; a specter; a phantasm; a sprite; an airy spirit; an ideal image.
Phantomatic
a.
• Phantasmal.
Pharaoh
n.
• A title by which the sovereigns of ancient Egypt were designated.
• See Faro.
Pharaon
n.
• See Pharaoh, 2.
Pharaonic
a.
• Of or pertaining to the Pharaohs, or kings of ancient Egypt.
Phare
n.
• A beacon tower; a lighthouse.
• Hence, a harbor.
Pharisaism
n.
• The notions, doctrines, and conduct of the Pharisees, as a sect.
• Rigid observance of external forms of religion, without genuine piety; hypocrisy in religion; a censorious, self-righteous spirit in matters of morals or manners.
Pharisean
a.
• Following the practice of Pharisees; Pharisaic.
Pharisee
n.
• One of a sect or party among the Jews, noted for a strict and formal observance of rites and ceremonies and of the traditions of the elders, and whose pretensions to superior sanctity led them to separate themselves from the other Jews.
Phariseeism
n.
• See Pharisaism.
Pharmacist
n.
• One skilled in pharmacy; a pharmaceutist; a druggist.
Pharmacodynamics
n.
• That branch of pharmacology which considers the mode of action, and the effects, of medicines.
Pharmacognosis
n.
• That branch of pharmacology which treats of unprepared medicines or simples; — called also pharmacography, and pharmacomathy.
Pharmacognosy
n.
• Pharmacognosis.
Pharmacography
n.
• See Pharmacognosis.
Pharmacolite
n.
(Min.) A hydrous arsenate of lime, usually occurring in silky fibers of a white or grayish color.
Pharmacologist
n.
• One skilled in pharmacology.
Pharmacology
n.
• Knowledge of drugs or medicines; the art of preparing medicines.
• A treatise on the art of preparing medicines.
Pharmacomathy
n.
• See Pharmacognosis.
Pharmacon
n.
• A medicine or drug; also, a poison.
Pharmacopoeia
n.
• A book or treatise describing the drugs, preparations, etc., used in medicine; especially, one that is issued by official authority and considered as an authoritative standard.
• A chemical laboratory.
Pharmacopolist
n.
• One who sells medicines; an apothecary.
Pharmacosiderite
n.
(Min.) A hydrous arsenate of iron occurring in green or yellowish green cubic crystals; cube ore.
Pharmacuetics
n.
• The science of preparing medicines.
Pharmacuetist
n.
• One skilled in pharmacy; a druggist. See the Note under Apothecary.
Pharmacy
n.
• The art or practice of preparing and preserving drugs, and of compounding and dispensing medicines according to prescriptions of physicians; the occupation of an apothecary or a pharmaceutical chemist.
• A place where medicines are compounded; a drug store; an apothecary's shop.
Pharo
n.
• A pharos; a lighthouse.
• See Faro.
Pharology
n.
• The art or science which treats of lighthouses and signal lights.
Pharos
n.
• A lighthouse or beacon for the guidance of seamen.
Pharyngal
a.
• Pharyngeal.
Pharyngeal
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the pharynx; in the region of the pharynx.
n.
(Anat.) A pharyngeal bone or cartilage; especially, one of the lower pharyngeals, which belong to the rudimentary fifth branchial arch in many fishes, or one of the upper pharyngeals, or pharyngobranchials, which are the dorsal elements in the complete branchial arches.
Pharyngitis
n.
(Med.) Inflammation of the pharynx.
Pharyngobranchial
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the pharynx and the branchiae; — applied especially to the dorsal elements in the branchial arches of fishes. See Pharyngeal.
n.
• A pharyngobranchial, or upper pharyngeal, bone or cartilage.
Pharyngobranchii
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Leptocardia.
Pharyngognathi
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of fishes in which the lower pharyngeal bones are united. It includes the scaroid, labroid, and embioticoid fishes.
Pharyngolaryngeal
a.
• Of or pertaining both to pharynx and the larynx.
Pharyngopneusta
n. pl.
(Zool.) A group of invertebrates including the Tunicata and Enteropneusta.
Pharyngotome
n.
(Surg.) An instrument for incising or scarifying the tonsils, etc.
Pharyngotomy
n.
(Surg.) The operation of making an incision into the pharynx, to remove a tumor or anything that obstructs the passage.
• Scarification or incision of the tonsils.
Pharynx
n.
(Anat.) The part of the alimentary canal between the cavity of the mouth and the esophagus. It has one or two external openings through the nose in the higher vertebrates, and lateral branchial openings in fishes and some amphibias.
Phascolome
n.
(Zool.) A marsupial of the genus Phascolomys; a wombat.
Phase
n.
• That which is exhibited to the eye; the appearance which anything manifests, especially any one among different and varying appearances of the same object.
• Any appearance or aspect of an object of mental apprehension or view; as, the problem has many phases.
(Astron.) A particular appearance or state in a regularly recurring cycle of changes with respect to quantity of illumination or form of enlightened disk; as, the phases of the moon or planets. See Illust. under Moon.
(Physics) Any one point or portion in a recurring series of changes, as in the changes of motion of one of the particles constituting a wave or vibration; one portion of a series of such changes, in distinction from a contrasted portion, as the portion on one side of a position of equilibrium, in contrast with that on the opposite side.
Phasel
n.
• The French bean, or kidney bean.
Phaseless
a.
• Without a phase, or visible form.
Phaseolus
n.
(Bot.) A genus of leguminous plants, including the Lima bean, the kidney bean, the scarlet runner, etc. See Bean.
Phaseomannite
n.
(Chem.) Same as Inosite.
Phasis
n.
• See Phase.
Phasmid
n.
(Zool.) Any orthopterous insect of the family Phasmidae, as a leaf insect or a stick insect.
Phassachate
n.
(Min.) The lead-colored agate; — so called in reference to its color.
Phatagin
n.
(Zool.) The long-tailed pangolin (Manis tetradactyla); — called also ipi.
Pheasant
n.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of large gallinaceous birds of the genus Phasianus, and many other genera of the family Phasianidae, found chiefly in Asia.
(Zool.) The ruffed grouse.
Pheasantry
n.
• A place for keeping and rearing pheasants.
Phebe
n.
(Zool.) See Phoebe.
Pheer
n.
• See 1st Fere.
Pheese
v. t.
• To comb; also, to beat; to worry. See Feaze, v.
n.
• Fretful excitement. See Feaze, n.
Phelloderm
n.
(Bot.) A layer of green parenchimatous cells formed on the inner side of the phellogen.
Phellogen
n.
(Bot.) The tissue of young cells which produces cork cells.
Phelloplastics
n.
• Art of modeling in cork.
Phenacite
n.
(Min.) A glassy colorless mineral occurring in rhombohedral crystals, sometimes used as a gem. It is a silicate of glucina, and receives its name from its deceptive similarity to quartz.
Phenakistoscope
n.
• A revolving disk on which figures drawn in different relative attitudes are seen successively, so as to produce the appearance of an object in actual motion, as an animal leaping, etc., in consequence of the persistence of the successive visual impressions of the retina. It is often arranged so that the figures may be projected upon a screen.
Phenanthrene
n.
(Chem.) A complex hydrocarbon, C14H10, found in coal tar, and obtained as a white crystalline substance with a bluish fluorescence.
Phenanthridine
n.
(Chem.) A nitrogenous hydrocarbon base, C13H9N, analogous to phenanthrene and quinoline.
Phenanthroline
n.
(Chem.) Either of two metameric nitrogenous hydrocarbon bases, C12H8N2, analogous to phenanthridine, but more highly nitrogenized.
Phene
n.
(Chem.) Benzene.
Phenetol
n.
(Chem.) The ethyl ether of phenol, obtained as an aromatic liquid, C6H5.O.C2H5.
Phenic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, derived from, or resembling, phenyl or phenol.
Phenician
a. & n.
• See Phoenician.
Phenicine
n.
(Chem.) A purple powder precipitated when a sulphuric solution of indigo is diluted with water.
• A coloring matter produced by the action of a mixture of strong nitric and sulphuric acids on phenylic alcohol.
Phenicious
a.
• Of a red color with a slight mixture of gray.
Phenicopter
n.
(Zool.) A flamingo.
Phenix
n.
(Gr. Myth.) A bird fabled to exist single, to be consumed by fire by its own act, and to rise again from its ashes. Hence, an emblem of immortality.
(Astron.) A southern constellation.
• A marvelous person or thing.
Phenogamia
n. pl.
(Bot.) Same as Phaenogamia.
Phenol
n.
(Chem.) A white or pinkish crystalline substance, C6H5OH, produced by the destructive distillation of many organic bodies, as wood, coal, etc., and obtained from the heavy oil from coal tar.
• Any one of the series of hydroxyl derivatives of which phenol proper is the type.
Phenolate
n.
(Chem.) A compound of phenol analogous to a salt.
Phenomenal
a.
• Relating to, or of the nature of, a phenomenon; hence, extraordinary; wonderful; as, a phenomenal memory.
Phenomenalism
n.
(Metaph.) That theory which limits positive or scientific knowledge to phenomena only, whether material or spiritual.
Phenomenist
n.
• One who believes in the theory of phenomenalism.
Phenomenology
n.
• A description, history, or explanation of phenomena.
Phenomenon
n.
• An appearance; anything visible; whatever, in matter or spirit, is apparent to, or is apprehended by, observation; as, the phenomena of heat, light, or electricity; phenomena of imagination or memory.
• That which strikes one as strange, unusual, or unaccountable; an extraordinary or very remarkable person, thing, or occurrence; as, a musical phenomenon.
Phenose
n.
(Chem.) A sweet amorphous deliquescent substance obtained indirectly from benzene, and isometric with, and resembling, dextrose.
Phenyl
n.
(Chem.) A hydrocarbon radical (C6H5) regarded as the essential residue of benzene, and the basis of an immense number of aromatic derivatives.
Phenylamine
n.
(Chem.) Any one of certain class of organic bases regarded as formed from ammonia by the substitution of phenyl for hydrogen.
Phenylene
n.
(Chem.) A hypothetic radical (C6H4) occurring in certain derivatives of benzene; as, phenylene diamine.
Phenylic
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or containing, phenyl.
Pheon
n.
(Her.) A bearing representing the head of a dart or javelin, with long barbs which are engrailed on the inner edge.
Phial
n.
• A glass vessel or bottle, especially a small bottle for medicines; a vial.
v. t.
• To put or keep in, or as in, a phial.
Philabeg
n.
• See Filibeg.
Philadelphian
a.
• Of or pertaining to Ptolemy Philadelphus, or to one of the cities named Philadelphia, esp. the modern city in Pennsylvania.
n.
• A native or an inhabitant of Philadelphia.
(Eccl. Hist.) One of a society of mystics of the seventeenth century, — called also the Family of Love.
Philalethist
n.
• A lover of the truth.
Philander
v. i.
• To make love to women; to play the male flirt.
n.
• A lover.
n.
(Zool.) A South American opossum (Didelphys philander).
• An Australian bandicoot (Perameles lagotis).
Philanderer
n.
• One who hangs about women; a male flirt.
Philanthrope
n.
• A philanthropist.
Philanthropinism
n.
• A system of education on so-called natural principles, attempted in Germany in the last century by Basedow, of Dessau.
Philanthropinist
n.
• An advocate of, or believer in, philanthropinism.
Philanthropist
n.
• One who practices philanthropy; one who loves mankind, and seeks to promote the good of others.
Philanthropistic
a.
• Pertaining to, or characteristic of, a philanthropist.
Philanthropy
n.
• Love to mankind; benevolence toward the whole human family; universal good will; desire and readiness to do good to all men; — opposed to misanthropy.
Philatelic
a.
• Of or pertaining to philately.
Philatelist
n.
• One versed in philately; one who collects postage stamps.
Philately
n.
• The collection of postage stamps of various issues.
Philatory
n.
(Eccl.) A kind of transparent reliquary with an ornamental top.
Philauty
n.
• Self-love; selfishness.
Philharmonic
a.
• Loving harmony or music.
Philhellene
n.
• A friend of Greece, or of the Greeks; a philhellenist.
Philhellenic
a.
• Of or pertaining to philhellenism.
Philhellenism
n.
• Love of Greece.
Philhellenist
n.
• A friend of Greece; one who supports the cause of the Greeks; particularly, one who supported them in their struggle for independence against the Turks; a philhellene.
Philibeg
n.
• See Filibeg.
Philip
n.
(Zool.) The European hedge sparrow.
• The house sparrow. Called also phip.
Philippian
a.
• Of or pertaining to Philippi, a city of ancient Macedonia.
n.
• A native or an inhabitant of Philippi.
Philippic
n.
• Any one of the series of famous orations of Demosthenes, the Grecian orator, denouncing Philip, king of Macedon.
• Hence: Any discourse or declamation abounding in acrimonious invective.
Philippium
n.
(Chem.) A rare and doubtful metallic element said to have been discovered in the mineral samarskite.
Philippize
v. i.
• To support or advocate the cause of Philip of Macedon.
• To write or speak in the style of a philippic.
Philister
n.
• A Philistine; — a cant name given to townsmen by students in German universities.
Philistine
n.
• A native or an inhabitant of ancient Philistia, a coast region of southern Palestine.
• A bailiff.
• A person deficient in liberal culture and refinement; one without appreciation of the nobler aspirations and sentiments of humanity; one whose scope is limited to selfish and material interests.
a.
• Of or pertaining to the Philistines.
• Uncultured; commonplace.
Philistinism
n.
• The condition, character, aims, and habits of the class called Philistines. See Philistine, 3.
Phillipsite
n.
(Min.) A hydrous silicate of aluminia, lime, and soda, a zeolitic mineral commonly occurring in complex twin crystals, often cruciform in shape; — called also christianite.
Phillygenin
n.
(Chem.) A pearly crystalline substance obtained by the decomposition of phillyrin.
Phillyrea
n.
(Bot.) A genus of evergreen plants growing along the shores of the Mediterranean, and breading a fruit resembling that of the olive.
Phillyrin
n.
(Chem.) A glucoside extracted from Phillyrea as a bitter white crystalline substance. It is sometimes used as a febrifuge.
Philogynist
n.
• A lover or friend of women; one who esteems woman as the higher type of humanity; — opposed to misogynist.
Philogyny
n.
• Fondness for women; uxoriousness; — opposed to misogyny.
Philohellenian
n.
• A philhellenist.
Philologer
n.
• A philologist.
Philologian
n.
• A philologist.
Philologist
n.
• One versed in philology.
Philologize
v. i.
• To study, or make critical comments on, language.
Philologue
n.
• A philologist.
Philology
n.
• Criticism; grammatical learning.
• The study of language, especially in a philosophical manner and as a science; the investigation of the laws of human speech, the relation of different tongues to one another, and historical development of languages; linguistic science.
• A treatise on the science of language.
Philomath
n.
• A lover of learning; a scholar.
Philomathematic
n.
• A philomath.
Philomathic
a.
• Of or pertaining to philomathy.
• Having love of learning or letters.
Philomathy
n.
• The love of learning or letters.
Philomel
n.
• Same as Philomela, the nightingale.
Philomela
n.
• The nightingale; philomel.
(Zool.) A genus of birds including the nightingales.
Philomene
n.
• The nightingale.
Philomot
a.
• Of the color of a dead leaf.
Philomusical
a.
• Loving music. Busby.
Philopena
n.
• A present or gift which is made as a forfeit in a social game that is played in various ways; also, the game itself.
Philoprogenitive
a.
• Having the love of offspring; fond of children.
Philoprogenitiveness
n.
(Phren.) The love of offspring; fondness for children.
Philosophaster
n.
• A pretender to philosophy.
Philosophate
v. i.
• To play the philosopher; to moralize.
Philosophation
n.
• Philosophical speculation and discussion.
Philosophe
n.
• A philosophaster; a philosopher.
Philosopheme
n.
• A philosophical proposition, doctrine, or principle of reasoning.
Philosopher
n.
• One who philosophizes; one versed in, or devoted to, philosophy.
• One who reduces the principles of philosophy to practice in the conduct of life; one who lives according to the rules of practical wisdom; one who meets or regards all vicissitudes with calmness.
• An alchemist.
Philosophism
n.
• Spurious philosophy; the love or practice of sophistry.
Philosophist
n.
• A pretender in philosophy.
Philosophize
v. i.
• To reason like a philosopher; to search into the reason and nature of things; to investigate phenomena, and assign rational causes for their existence.
Philosophizer
n.
• One who philosophizes.
Philosophy
n.
• Literally, the love of, including the search after, wisdom; in actual usage, the knowledge of phenomena as explained by, and resolved into, causes and reasons, powers and laws.
• A particular philosophical system or theory; the hypothesis by which particular phenomena are explained.
• Practical wisdom; calmness of temper and judgment; equanimity; fortitude; stoicism; as, to meet misfortune with philosophy.
• Reasoning; argumentation.
• The course of sciences read in the schools.
• A treatise on philosophy.
Philostorgy
n.
• Natural affection, as of parents for their children.
Philter
n.
• A potion or charm intended to excite the passion of love.
v. t.
• To impregnate or mix with a love potion; as, to philter a draught.
• To charm to love; to excite to love or sexual desire by a potion.
Phimosis
n.
(Med.) A condition of the penis in which the prepuce can not be drawn back so as to uncover the glans penis.
Phitoness
n.
• Pythoness; witch.
Phiz
n.
• The face or visage.
Phlebitis
n.
(Med.) Inflammation of a vein.
Phlebogram
n.
(Physiol.) A tracing (with the sphygmograph) of the movements of a vein, or of the venous pulse.
Phlebology
n.
• A branch of anatomy which treats of the veins.
Phlebotomist
n.
(Med.) One who practiced phlebotomy.
Phlebotomize
v. t.
• To let blood from by opening a vein; to bleed.
Phlebotomy
n.
(Med.) The act or practice of opening a vein for letting blood, in the treatment of disease; venesection; bloodletting.
Phlegm
n.
• One of the four humors of which the ancients supposed the blood to be composed. See Humor.
(Physiol.) Viscid mucus secreted in abnormal quantity in the respiratory and digestive passages.
(Old Chem.) A watery distilled liquor, in distinction from a spirituous liquor.
• Sluggishness of temperament; dullness; want of interest; indifference; coldness.
Phlegmagogue
n.
(Old Med.) A medicine supposed to expel phlegm.
Phlegmasia
n.
(Med.) An inflammation; more particularly, an inflammation of the internal organs.
Phlegmatic
a.
• Watery.
• Abounding in phlegm; as, phlegmatic humors; a phlegmatic constitution.
• Generating or causing phlegm.
• Not easily excited to action or passion; cold; dull; sluggish; heavy; as, a phlegmatic person.
Phlegmatical
a.
• Phlegmatic.
Phlegmatically
adv.
• In a phlegmatic manner.
Phlegmaticly
a.
• Phlegmatically.
Phlegmon
n.
(Med.) Purulent inflammation of the cellular or areolar tissue.
Phlegmonous
a.
• Having the nature or properties of phlegmon; as, phlegmonous pneumonia.
Phleme
n.
(Surg. & Far.) See Fleam.
Phleum
n.
(Bot.) A genus of grasses, including the timothy (Phleum pratense), which is highly valued for hay; cat's-tail grass.
Phloem
n.
(Bot.) That portion of fibrovascular bundles which corresponds to the inner bark; the liber tissue; — distinguished from xylem.
Phlogistian
n.
• A believer in the existence of phlogiston.
Phlogistic
a.
(Old Chem.) Of or pertaining to phlogiston, or to belief in its existence.
(Med.) Inflammatory; belonging to inflammations and fevers.
Phlogistical
a.
(Old Chem.) Phlogistic.
Phlogisticate
v. t.
(Old Chem.) To combine phlogiston with; — usually in the form and sense of the p. p. or the adj.; as, highly phlogisticated substances.
Phlogistication
n.
(Old Chem.) The act or process of combining with phlogiston.
Phlogiston
n.
(Old Chem.) The hypothetical principle of fire, or inflammability, regarded by Stahl as a chemical element.
Phlogogenous
a.
(Med.) Causing inflammation.
Phlogopite
n.
(Min.) A kind of mica having generally a peculiar bronze-red or copperlike color and a pearly luster. It is a silicate of aluminia, with magnesia, potash, and some fluorine. It is characteristic of crystalline limestone or dolomite and serpentine. See Mica.
Phlogosis
n.
(Med.) Inflammation of external parts of the body; erysipelatous inflammation.
Phlogotic
n.
(Med.) Of or pertaining to phlogisis.
Phloramine
n.
(Chem.) A basic amido derivative of phloroglucin, having an astringent taste.
Phloretic
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, or designating, an organic acid obtained by the decomposition of phloretin.
Phloretin
n.
(Chem.) A bitter white crystalline substance obtained by the decomposition of phlorizin, and formerly used to some extent as a substitute for quinine.
Phlorizin
n.
(Chem.) A bitter white crystalline glucoside extracted from the root bark of the apple, pear, cherry, plum, etc.
Phloroglucin
n.
(Chem.) A sweet white crystalline substance, metameric with pyrogallol, and obtained by the decomposition of phloretin, and from certain gums, as catechu, kino, etc. It belongs to the class of phenols. [Called also phloroglucinol.]
Phlorol
n.
(Chem.) A liquid metameric with xylenol, belonging to the class of phenols, and obtained by distilling certain salts of phloretic acid.
Phlorone
n.
(Chem.) A yellow crystalline substance having a peculiar unpleasant odor, resembling the quinones, and obtained from beechwood tar and coal tar, as also by the oxidation of xylidine; — called also xyloquinone.
Phlox
n.
(Bot.) A genus of American herbs, having showy red, white, or purple flowers.
Phlyctenular
a.
(Med.) Characterized by the presence of small pustules, or whitish elevations resembling pustules; as, phlyctenular ophthalmia.
Phoca
n.
(Zool.) A genus of seals. It includes the common harbor seal and allied species. See Seal.
Phocacean
n.
(Zool.) Any species of Phoca; a seal.
Phocal
a.
(Zool.) Pertaining to seals.
Phocenic
a.
(Chem.) Of or pertaining to dolphin oil or porpoise oil; — said of an acid (called also delphinic acid) subsequently found to be identical with valeric acid.
Phocenin
n.
(Chem.) See Delphin.
Phocine
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the seal tribe; phocal.
Phocodont
n.
(Zool.) One of the Phocodontia.
Phocodontia
n. pl.
(Zool.) A group of extinct carnivorous whales. Their teeth had compressed and serrated crowns. It includes Squalodon and allied genera.
Phoebe
n.
(Zool.) The pewee, or pewit.
Phoebus
n.
(Class. Myth.) Apollo; the sun god.
• The sun.
Phoenician
a.
• Of or pertaining to Phoenica.
n.
• A native or inhabitant of Phoenica.
Phoenicious
a.
• See Phenicious.
Phoenicopterus
n.
(Zool.) A genus of birds which includes the flamingoes.
Phoenix
n.
• Same as Phenix.
(Bot.) A genus of palms including the date tree.
Pholad
n.
(Zool.) Any species of Pholas.
Pholadean
n.
(Zool.) Pholad.
Pholas
n.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of marine bivalve mollusks of the genus Pholas, or family Pholadidae. They bore holes for themselves in clay, peat, and soft rocks.
Phonal
a.
• Of or relating to the voice; as, phonal structure.
Phonascetics
n.
• Treatment for restoring or improving the voice.
Phonation
n.
• The act or process by which articulate sounds are uttered; the utterance of articulate sounds; articulate speech.
Phonautograph
n.
(Physics) An instrument by means of which a sound can be made to produce a visible trace or record of itself. It consists essentially of a resonant vessel, usually of paraboloidal form, closed at one end by a flexible membrane. A stylus attached to some point of the membrane records the movements of the latter, as it vibrates, upon a moving cylinder or plate.
Phoneidoscope
n.
(Physics) An instrument for studying the motions of sounding bodies by optical means. It consists of a tube across the end of which is stretched a film of soap solution thin enough to give colored bands, the form and position of which are affected by sonorous vibrations.
Phonetic
a.
• Of or pertaining to the voice, or its use.
• Representing sounds; as, phonetic characters; — opposed to ideographic; as, a phonetic notation.
Phonetically
adv.
• In a phonetic manner.
Phonetician
n.
• One versed in phonetics; a phonetist.
Phonetics
n.
• The doctrine or science of sounds; especially those of the human voice; phonology.
• The art of representing vocal sounds by signs and written characters.
Phonetism
n.
• The science which treats of vocal sounds.
Phonetist
n.
• One versed in phonetics; a phonologist.
• One who advocates a phonetic spelling.
Phonetization
n.
• The act, art, or process of representing sounds by phonetic signs.
Phonetize
v. t.
• To represent by phonetic signs.
Phonic
a.
• Of or pertaining to sound; of the nature of sound; acoustic.
Phonics
n.
• See Phonetics.
Phono
n.
(Zool.) A South American butterfly (Ithonia phono) having nearly transparent wings.
Phonocamptic
a.
• Reflecting sound.
Phonogram
n.
• A letter, character, or mark used to represent a particular sound.
• A record of sounds made by a phonograph.
Phonograph
n.
• A character or symbol used to represent a sound, esp. one used in phonography.
(Physics) An instrument for the mechanical registration and reproduction of audible sounds, as articulate speech, etc. It consists of a rotating cylinder or disk covered with some material easily indented, as tinfoil, wax, paraffin, etc., above which is a thin plate carrying a stylus. As the plate vibrates under the influence of a sound, the stylus makes minute indentations or undulations in the soft material, and these, when the cylinder or disk is again turned, set the plate in vibration, and reproduce the sound.
Phonographer
n.
• One versed or skilled in phonography.
• One who uses, or is skilled in the use of, the phonograph. See Phonograph, 2.
Phonographically
adv.
• In a phonographic manner; by means of phonograph.
Phonographist
n.
• Phonographer.
Phonography
n.
• A description of the laws of the human voice, or sounds uttered by the organs of speech.
• A representation of sounds by distinctive characters; commonly, a system of shorthand writing invented by Isaac Pitman, or a modification of his system, much used by reporters.
• The art of constructing, or using, the phonograph.
Phonolite
n.
(Min.) A compact, feldspathic, igneous rock containing nephelite, hauynite, etc. Thin slabs give a ringing sound when struck; — called also clinkstone.
Phonologer
n.
• A phonologist.
Phonologist
n.
• One versed in phonology.
Phonology
n.
• The science or doctrine of the elementary sounds uttered by the human voice in speech, including the various distinctions, modifications, and combinations of tones; phonetics. Also, a treatise on sounds.
Phonometer
n.
(Physics) An instrument for measuring sounds, as to their intensity, or the frequency of the vibrations.
Phonomotor
n.
(Physics) An instrument in which motion is produced by the vibrations of a sounding body.
Phonorganon
n.
• A speaking machine.
Phonoscope
n.
(Physics) An instrument for observing or exhibiting the motions or properties of sounding bodies; especially, an apparatus invented by Konig for testing the quality of musical strings.
• An instrument for producing luminous figures by the vibrations of sounding bodies.
Phonotypist
n.
• One versed in phonotypy.
Phonotypr
n.
• A type or character used in phonotypy.
Phonotypy
n.
• A method of phonetic printing of the English language, as devised by Mr. Pitman, in which nearly all the ordinary letters and many new forms are employed in order to indicate each elementary sound by a separate character.
Phorminx
n.
• A kind of lyre used by the Greeks.
Phormium
n.
(Bot.) A genus of liliaceous plants, consisting of one species (Phormium tenax). See Flax-plant.
Phorone
n.
(Chem.) A yellow crystalline substance, having a geraniumlike odor, regarded as a complex derivative of acetone, and obtained from certain camphor compounds.
Phoronis
n.
(Zool.) A remarkable genus of marine worms having tentacles around the mouth. It is usually classed with the gephyreans. Its larva (Actinotrocha) undergoes a peculiar metamorphosis.
Phoronomia
n.
• See Phoronomics.
Phoronomics
n.
• The science of motion; kinematics.
Phosgene
a.
(Old Chem.) Producing, or produced by, the action of light; — formerly used specifically to designate a gas now called carbonyl chloride. See Carbonyl.
Phosgenite
n.
(Min.) A rare mineral occurring in tetragonal crystals of a white, yellow, or grayish color and adamantine luster. It is a chlorocarbonate of lead.
Phospham
n.
(Chem.) An inert amorphous white powder, PN2H, obtained by passing ammonia over heated phosphorus.
Phosphate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of phosphoric acid.
Phosphatic
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, or containing, phosphorus, phosphoric acid, or phosphates; as, phosphatic nodules.
Phosphaturia
n.
(Med.) The excessive discharge of phosphates in the urine.
Phosphene
n.
(Physiol.) A luminous impression produced through excitation of the retina by some cause other than the impingement upon it of rays of light, as by pressure upon the eyeball when the lids are closed. Cf. After-image.
Phosphide
n.
(Chem.) A binary compound of phosphorus.
Phosphine
n.
(Chem.) A colorless gas, PH3, analogous to ammonia, and having a disagreeable odor resembling that of garlic. Called also hydrogen phosphide, and formerly, phosphureted hydrogen.
Phosphinic
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, certain acids analogous to the phosphonic acids, but containing two hydrocarbon radicals, and derived from the secondary phosphines by oxidation.
Phosphite
n.
(Chem.) A salt of phosphorous acid.
Phosphonic
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, certain derivatives of phosphorous acid containing a hydrocarbon radical, and analogous to the sulphonic acid.
Phosphonium
n.
(Chem.) The hypothetical radical PH4, analogous to ammonium, and regarded as the nucleus of certain derivatives of phosphine.
Phosphor
n.
• Phosphorus.
• The planet Venus, when appearing as the morning star; Lucifer.
Phosphorate
v. t.
(Chem.) To impregnate, or combine, with phosphorus or its compounds; as, phosphorated oil.
Phosphoreous
a.
• Phosphorescent.
Phosphoresce
v. i.
• To shine as phosphorus; to be phosphorescent; to emit a phosphoric light.
Phosphorescence
n.
• The quality or state of being phosphorescent; or the act of phosphorescing.
• A phosphoric light.
Phosphorescent
a.
• Shining with a phosphoric light; luminous without sensible heat.
n.
• A phosphorescent substance.
Phosphoric
a.
(Chem.) Of or pertaining to phosphorus; resembling, or containing, from us; specifically, designating those compounds in which phosphorus has a higher valence as contrasted with the phosphorous compounds.
• Phosphorescent.
Phosphorical
a.
(Old Chem.) Phosphoric.
Phosphorite
n.
(min.) A massive variety of apatite.
Phosphoritic
a.
(Min.) Pertaining to phosphorite; resembling, or of the nature of, phosphorite.
Phosphorize
v. t.
• To phosphorate.
Phosphorized
a.
• Containing, or impregnated with, phosphorus.
Phosphorogenic
a.
• Generating phosphorescence; as, phosphorogenic rays.
Phosphoroscope
n.
(Physics) An apparatus for observing the phosphorescence produced in different bodies by the action of light, and for measuring its duration.
Phosphorous
a.
(Chem.) Of or pertaining to phosphorus; resembling or containing phosphorus; specifically, designating those compounds in which phosphorus has a lower valence as contrasted with phosphoric compounds; as, phosphorous acid, H3PO3.
Phosphorus
n.
• The morning star; Phosphor.
(Chem.) A poisonous nonmetallic element of the nitrogen group, obtained as a white, or yellowish, translucent waxy substance, having a characteristic disagreeable smell. It is very active chemically, must be preserved under water, and unites with oxygen even at ordinary temperatures, giving a faint glow, — whence its name. It always occurs compined, usually in phosphates, as in the mineral apatite, in bones, etc. It is used in the composition on the tips of friction matches, and for many other purposes. The molecule contains four atoms. Symbol P. Atomic weight 31.0.
(Chem.) Hence, any substance which shines in the dark like phosphorus, as certain phosphorescent bodies.
Phosphoryl
n.
(Chem.) The radical PO, regarded as the typical nucleus of certain compounds.
Phosphuret
n.
(Chem.) A phosphide.
Phosphureted
a.
(Chem.) Impregnated, or combined, with phosphorus.
Photic
a.
(Physiol.) Relating to the production of light by the lower animals.
Photics
n.
(Physics) The science of light; — a general term sometimes employed when optics is restricted to light as a producing vision.
Photo
n.
• A contraction of Photograph.
Photobiotic
a.
(Biol.) Requiring light to live; incapable of living without light; as, photobiotic plant cells.
Photochemical
a.
(Chem.) Of or pertaining to chemical action of light, or produced by it; as, the photochemical changes of the visual purple of the retina.
Photochemistry
n.
(Chem.) The branch of chemistry which relates to the effect of light in producing chemical changes, as in photography.
Photochromy
n.
• The art or process of reproducing colors by photography.
Photodrome
n.
(Physics) An apparatus consisting of a large wheel with spokes, which when turning very rapidly is illuminated by momentary flashes of light passing through slits in a rotating disk. By properly timing the succession of flashes the wheel is made to appear to be motionless, or to rotate more or less slowly in either direction.
Photogalvanography
n.
• The art or process of making photo-electrotypes.
Photogen
n.
(Chem.) A light hydrocarbon oil resembling kerosene. It is obtained by distilling coal, paraffin, etc., and is used as a lubricant, illuminant, etc.
Photogene
n.
• A photograph.
• A more or less continued impression or image on the retina.
Photogenic
a.
• Of or pertaining to photogeny; producing or generating light.
Photogeny
n.
• See Photography.
Photoglyphic
a.
• Pertaining to the art of engraving by the action of light.
Photoglyphy
n.
• Photoglyphic engraving. See under Photoglyphic.
Photoglyptic
a.
• Same as Photoglyphic.
Photogram
n.
• A photograph.
Photograph
n.
• A picture or likeness obtained by photography.
v. t.
• To take a picture or likeness of by means of photography; as, to photograph a view; to photograph a group.
v. i.
• To practice photography; to take photographs.
Photographer
n.
• One who practices, or is skilled in, photography.
Photographist
n.
• A photographer.
Photographometer
n.
(Photog.) An instrument for determining the sensibility of the plates employed in photographic processes to luminous rays.
Photography
n.
• The science which relates to the action of light on sensitive bodies in the production of pictures, the fixation of images, and the like.
• The art or process of producing pictures by this action of light.
Photogravure
n.
• A photoengraving; also, the process by which such a picture is produced.
Photoheliograph
n.
(Physics) A modified kind of telescope adapted to taking photographs of the sun.
Photolithograph
n.
• A lithographic picture or copy from a stone prepared by the aid of photography.
v. t.
• To produce (a picture, a copy) by the process of photolithography.
Photolithographer
n.
• One who practices, or one who employs, photolithography.
Photolithographic
n.
• Of or pertaining to photolithography; produced by photolithography.
Photolithography
n.
• The art or process of producing photolithographs.
Photologist
n.
• One who studies or expounds the laws of light.
Photology
n.
• The doctrine or science of light, explaining its nature and phenomena; optics.
Photomagnetic
a.
• Of or pertaining to photomagnetism.
Photomagnetism
n.
• The branch of science which treats of the relation of magnetism to light.
Photomechanical
a.
• Pertaining to, or designating, any photographic process in which a printing surface is obtained without the intervention of hand engraving.
Photometer
n.
(Physics) An instrument for measuring the intensity of light, or, more especially, for comparing the relative intensities of different lights, or their relative illuminating power.
Photometrician
n.
• One engaged in the scientific measurement of light.
Photometry
n.
• That branch of science which treats of the measurement of the intensity of light.
Photomicrograph
n.
• An enlarged or macroscopic photograph of a microscopic object. See Microphotograph.
• A microscopically small photograph of an object.
Photomicrography
n.
• The art of producing photomicrographs.
Photophobia
n.
(Med.) A dread or intolerance of light.
Photophone
n.
(Physics) An apparatus for the production of sound by the action of rays of light.
Photophonic
a.
• Of or pertaining to photophone.
Photophony
n.
• The art or practice of using the photophone.
Photopsia
n.
(Med.) An affection of the eye, in which the patient perceives luminous rays, flashes, coruscations, etc. See phosphene.
Photopsy
n.
• Same as Photopsia.
Photorelief
n.
• A printing surface in relief, obtained by photographic means and subsequent manipulations.
Photoscope
n.
(Physics) Anything employed for the observation of light or luminous effects.
Photoscopic
a.
• Of or pertaining to the photoscope or its uses.
Photosculpture
n.
• A process in which, by means of a number of photographs simultaneously taken from different points of view on the same level, rough models of the figure or bust of a person or animal may be made with great expedition.
Photosphere
n.
• A sphere of light; esp., the luminous envelope of the sun.
Photospheric
a.
• Of or pertaining to the photosphere.
Phototonus
n.
(Bot.) A motile condition in plants resulting from exposure to light.
Phototropic
a.
(Bot.) Same as Heliotropic.
Phototype
n.
• A plate or block with a printing surface (usually in relief) obtained from a photograph; also, any one of the many methods of processes by which such a printing surface is obtained.
Phototypic
a.
• Of or pertaining to a phototype or phototypy.
Phototypography
n.
• Same as Phototypy.
Phototypy
n.
• The art or process of producing phototypes.
Photoxylography
n.
• The process of producing a representation of an object on wood, by photography, for the use of the wood engraver.
Photozincograph
n.
• A print made by photozincography.
Photozincography
n.
• A process, analogous to photolithography, for reproducing photographed impressions transferred to zinc plate.
Phragmocone
n.
(Zool.) The thin chambered shell attached to the anterior end of a belemnite.
Phragmosiphon
n.
(Zool.) The siphon of a phragmocone.
Phrasal
a.
• Of the nature of a phrase; consisting of a phrase; as, a phrasal adverb.
Phrase
n.
• A brief expression, sometimes a single word, but usually two or more words forming an expression by themselves, or being a portion of a sentence; as, an adverbial phrase.
• A short, pithy expression; especially, one which is often employed; a peculiar or idiomatic turn of speech; as, to err is human.
• A mode or form of speech; the manner or style in which any one expreses himself; diction; expression.
(Mus.) A short clause or portion of a period.
v. t.
• To express in words, or in peculiar words; to call; to style.
v. i.
• To use proper or fine phrases.
(Mus.) To group notes into phrases; as, he phrases well. See Phrase, n., 4.
Phraseless
a.
• Indescribable.
Phraseogram
n.
(Phonography) A symbol for a phrase.
Phraseologist
n.
• A collector or coiner of phrases.
Phraseology
n.
• Manner of expression; peculiarity of diction; style.
• A collection of phrases; a phrase book.
Phrasing
n.
• Method of expression; association of words.
(Mus.) The act or method of grouping the notes so as to form distinct musical phrases.
Phratry
n.
(Gr. Antiq.) A subdivision of a phyle, or tribe, in Athens.
Phreatic
a.
(Geol.) Subterranean; — applied to sources supplying wells.
Phrenetic
n.
• One who is phrenetic.
Phrenic
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the diaphragm; diaphragmatic; as, the phrenic nerve.
Phrenics
n.
• That branch of science which relates to the mind; mental philosophy.
Phrenism
n.
(Biol.) See Vital force, under Vital.
Phrenitis
n.
(Med.) Inflammation of the brain, or of the meninges of the brain, attended with acute fever and delirium; — called also cephalitis.
• See Frenzy.
Phrenograph
n.
(Physiol.) An instrument for registering the movements of the diaphragm, or midriff, in respiration.
Phrenologer
n.
• A phrenologist.
Phrenologic
a.
• Phrenological.
Phrenological
a.
• Of or pertaining to phrenology.
Phrenologist
n.
• One versed in phrenology; a craniologist.
Phrenology
n.
• The science of the special functions of the several parts of the brain, or of the supposed connection between the various faculties of the mind and particular organs in the brain.
• In popular usage, the physiological hypothesis of Gall, that the mental faculties, and traits of character, are shown on the surface of the head or skull; craniology.
Phrenomagnetism
n.
• The power of exciting the organs of the brain by magnetic or mesmeric influence.
Phrenosin
n.
(Physiol. Chem.) A nitrogenous body, related to cerebrin, supposed to exist in the brain.
Phrensied
p. p. & a.
• See Frenzied.
Phrensy
n.
• Violent and irrational excitement; delirium. See Frenzy.
v. t.
• To render frantic.
Phrentic
n. & a.
• See Phrenetic.
Phryganeid
n.
(Zool.) Any insect belonging to the Phryganeides.
Phryganeides
n. pl.
(Zool.) A tribe of neuropterous insects which includes the caddice flies; — called also Trichoptera. See Trichoptera.
Phrygian
a.
• Of or pertaining to Phrygia, or to its inhabitants.
n.
• A native or inhabitant of Phrygia.
(Eccl. Hist.) A Montanist.
Phthalate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of phthalic acid.
Phthalein
n.
(Chem.) One of a series of artificial organic dyes made as condensation products of the phenols with phthalic acid, and well represented by phenol phthalein. Their alkaline solutions are fluorescent.
Phthalic
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, a dibasic acid obtained by the oxidation of naphthalene and allied substances.
Phthalide
n.
(Chem.) A lactone obtained by reduction of phthalyl chloride, as a white crystalline substance; hence, by extension, any one of the series of which phthalide proper is the type.
Phthalimide
n.
(Chem.) An imido derivative of phthalic acid, obtained as a white crystalline substance, C6H4.(CO)2NH, which has itself (like succinimide) acid properties, and forms a series of salts. Cf. Imido acid, under Imido.
Phthalin
n.
(Chem.) A colorless crystalline substance obtained by reduction from phthalein, into which it is easily converted by oxidation; hence, any one of the series of which phthalin proper is the type.
Phthalyl
n.
(Chem.) The hypothetical radical of phthalic acid.
Phthiriasis
n.
(Med.) A disease (morbus pediculous) consisting in the excessive multiplication of lice on the human body.
Phthisic
n.
• Same as Phthisis.
Phthisical
a.
• Of or pertaining to phthisis; affected with phthisis; wasting; consumptive.
Phthisicky
a.
• Having phthisis, or some symptom of it, as difficulty in breathing.
Phthisiology
n.
(Med.) A treatise on phthisis.
Phthisis
n.
(Med.) A wasting or consumption of the tissues. The term was formerly applied to many wasting diseases, but is now usually restricted to pulmonary phthisis, or consumption. See Consumption.
Phthongal
a.
• Formed into, or characterized by, voice; vocalized; — said of all the vowels and the semivowels, also of the vocal or sonant consonants g, d, b, l, r, v, z, etc.
n.
• A vocalized element or letter.
Phthongometer
n.
• An instrument for measuring vocal sounds.
Phthor
n.
(Old Chem.) Fluorine.
Phycite
n.
(Chem.) See Erythrite, 1.
Phycochrome
n.
(Bot.) A bluish green coloring matter of certain algae.
Phycography
n.
• A description of seaweeds.
Phycology
n.
• The science of algae, or seaweeds; algology.
Phycomater
n.
(Bot.) A gelatin in which the algae spores have been supposed to vegetate.
Phycophaeine
n.
• A brown coloring matter found in certain algae.
Phylacter
n.
• A phylactery.
Phylactered
a.
• Wearing a phylactery.
Phylactery
n.
• Any charm or amulet worn as a preservative from danger or disease.
• A small square box, made either of parchment or of black calfskin, containing slips of parchment or vellum on which are written the scriptural passages Exodus xiii. 2-10, and 11-17, Deut. vi. 4-9, 13-22. They are worn by Jews on the head and left arm, on week-day mornings, during the time of prayer.
• Among the primitive Christians, a case in which the relics of the dead were inclosed.
Phylactocarp
n.
(Zool.) A branch of a plumularian hydroid specially modified in structure for the protection of the gonothecae.
Phylactolaematous
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Phylactolaema.
Phylarch
n.
(Gr. Antiq.) The chief of a phyle, or tribe.
Phylarchy
n.
• The office of a phylarch; government of a class or tribe.
Phyle
n.
• A local division of the people in ancient Athens; a clan; a tribe.
Phyllite
n.
(Min.) A mineral related to ottrelite.
• Clay slate; argillaceous schist.
Phyllobranchia
n.
(Zool.) A crustacean gill composed of lamellae.
Phyllocladium
n.
(Bot.) A flattened stem or branch which more or less resembles a leaf, and performs the function of a leaf as regards respiration and assimilation.
Phyllocyanin
n.
(Chem.) A blue coloring matter extracted from chlorophyll.
Phyllocyst
n.
(Zool.) The cavity of a hydrophyllium.
Phyllode
n.
(Bot.) Same as Phyllodium.
Phyllodineous
a.
(Bot.) Having phyllodia; relating to phyllodia.
Phyllodium
n.
(Bot.) A petiole dilated into the form of a blade, and usually with vertical edges, as in the Australian acacias.
Phyllody
n.
(Bot.) A retrograde metamorphosis of the floral organs to the condition of leaves.
Phylloid
a.
• Resembling a leaf.
Phylloltomid
n.
• A phyllostome.
Phyllomania
n.
(Bot.) An abnormal or excessive production of leaves.
Phyllome
n.
(Bot.) A foliar part of a plant; any organ homologous with a leaf, or produced by metamorphosis of a leaf.
Phyllomorphosis
n.
(Bot.) The succession and variation of leaves during different seasons.
Phyllophagan
n.
(Zool.) One of a group of marsupials including the phalangists.
• One of a tribe of beetles which feed upon the leaves of plants, as the chafers.
Phyllophagous
a.
(Zool.) Substituting on leaves; leaf-eating.
Phyllophorous
a.
(Bot.) Leaf-bearing; producing leaves.
Phyllopod
n.
(Zool.) One of the Phyllopoda.
Phyllopoda
n. pl.
(Zool.) An order of Entomostraca including a large number of species, most of which live in fresh water. They have flattened or leaflike legs, often very numerous, which they use in swimming. Called also Branchiopoda.
Phyllopodous
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Phyllopoda.
Phyllorhine
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to Phyllorhina and other related genera of bats that have a leaflike membrane around the nostrils.
Phyllosoma
n.
(Zool.) The larva of the spiny lobsters (Palinurus and allied genera). Its body is remarkably thin, flat, and transparent; the legs are very long. Called also glass-crab, and glass-shrimp.
Phyllostome
n.
(Zool.) Any bat of the genus Phyllostoma, or allied genera, having large membranes around the mouth and nose; a nose-leaf bat.
Phyllotactic
a.
(Bot.) Of or pertaining to phyllotaxy.
Phyllous
a.
(Bot.) Homologous with a leaf; as, the sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils are phyllous organs.
Phylloxanthin
n.
(Bot.) A yellow coloring matter extracted from chlorophyll.
Phylloxera
n.
(Zool.) A small hemipterous insect (Phylloxera vastatrix) allied to the aphids. It attacks the roots and leaves of the grapevine, doing great damage, especially in Europe.
• The diseased condition of a vine caused by the insect just described.
Phylogenetic
a.
• Relating to phylogenesis, or the race history of a type of organism.
Phylon
n.
(Biol.) A tribe.
Phylum
n.
(Zool.) One of the larger divisions of the animal kingdom; a branch; a grand division.
Phyma
n.
(Med.) A tubercle on any external part of the body.
Physa
n.
(Zool.) A genus of fresh-water Pulmonifera, having reversed spiral shells. See Pond snail, under Pond.
Physalia
n.
(Zool.) A genus of large oceanic Siphonophora which includes the Portuguese man-of-war.
Physaliae
n. pl.
(Zool.) An order of Siphonophora which includes Physalia.
Physemaria
n. pl.
(Zool.) A group of simple marine organisms, usually classed as the lowest of the sponges. They have inflated hollow bodies.
Physeter
n.
(Zool.) The genus that includes the sperm whale.
• A filtering machine operated by air pressure.
Physianthropy
n.
• The philosophy of human life, or the doctrine of the constitution and diseases of man, and their remedies.
Physic
n.
• The art of healing diseases; the science of medicine; the theory or practice of medicine.
• A specific internal application for the cure or relief of sickness; a remedy for disease; a medicine.
• Specifically, a medicine that purges; a cathartic.
• A physician.
v. t.
• To treat with physic or medicine; to administer medicine to, esp. a cathartic; to operate on as a cathartic; to purge.
• To work on as a remedy; to heal; to cure.
Physical
a.
• Of or pertaining to nature (as including all created existences); in accordance with the laws of nature; also, of or relating to natural or material things, or to the bodily structure, as opposed to things mental, moral, spiritual, or imaginary; material; natural; as, armies and navies are the physical force of a nation; the body is the physical part of man.
• Of or pertaining to physics, or natural philosophy; treating of, or relating to, the causes and connections of natural phenomena; as, physical science; physical laws.
• Perceptible through a bodily or material organization; cognizable by the senses; external; as, the physical, opposed to chemical, characters of a mineral.
• Of or pertaining to physic, or the art of medicine; medicinal; curative; healing; also, cathartic; purgative.
Physically
adv.
• In a physical manner; according to the laws of nature or physics; by physical force; not morally.
• According to the rules of medicine
Physician
n.
• A person skilled in physic, or the art of healing; one duty authorized to prescribe remedies for, and treat, diseases; a doctor of medicine.
• Hence, figuratively, one who ministers to moral diseases; as, a physician of the soul.
Physicianed
a.
• Licensed as a physician.
Physicism
n.
• The tendency of the mind toward, or its preoccupation with, physical phenomena; materialism in philosophy and religion.
Physicist
n.
• One versed in physics.
(Biol.) A believer in the theory that the fundamental phenomena of life are to be explained upon purely chemical and physical principles; — opposed to vitalist.
Physicking
• p. pr. & vb. n. fr. Physic, v. t.
Physicochemical
a.
• Involving the principles of both physics and chemistry; dependent on, or produced by, the joint action of physical and chemical agencies.
Physicologic
n.
• Logic illustrated by physics.
Physicological
a.
• Of or pertaining to physicologic.
Physicology
n.
• Physics.
Physics
n.
• The science of nature, or of natural objects; that branch of science which treats of the laws and properties of matter, and the forces acting upon it; especially, that department of natural science which treats of the causes (as gravitation, heat, light, magnetism, electricity, etc.) that modify the general properties of bodies; natural philosophy.
Physiocrat
n.
• One of the followers of Quesnay of France, who, in the 18th century, founded a system of political economy based upon the supremacy of natural order.
Physiogeny
n.
(Biol.) The germ history of the functions, or the history of the development of vital activities, in the individual, being one of the branches of ontogeny. See Morphogeny.
Physiognomer
n.
• Physiognomist.
Physiognomist
n.
• Same as Physiognomy, 1.
n.
• One skilled in physiognomy.
• One who tells fortunes by physiognomy.
Physiognomize
v. t.
• To observe and study the physiognomy of.
Physiognommonic
a.
• Physiognomic.
Physiognomy
n.
• The art and science of discovering the predominant temper, and other characteristic qualities of the mind, by the outward appearance, especially by the features of the face.
• The face or countenance, with respect to the temper of the mind; particular configuration, cast, or expression of countenance, as denoting character.
• The art telling fortunes by inspection of the features.
• The general appearance or aspect of a thing, without reference to its scientific characteristics; as, the physiognomy of a plant, or of a meteor.
Physiogony
n.
• The birth of nature.
Physiography
n.
• The science which treats of the earth's exterior physical features, climate, life, etc., and of the physical movements or changes on the earth's surface, as the currents of the atmosphere and ocean, the secular variations in heat, moisture, magnetism, etc.; physical geography.
Physiolatry
n.
• The worship of the powers or agencies of nature; materialism in religion; nature worship.
Physiologer
n.
• A physiologist.
Physiologic
a.
• Physiological.
Physiological
a.
• Of or pertaining to physiology; relating to the science of the functions of living organism; as, physiological botany or chemistry.
Physiologically
adv.
• In a physiological manner.
Physiologist
n.
• One who is versed in the science of physiology; a student of the properties and functions of animal and vegetable organs and tissues.
Physiologize
v. i.
• To speculate in physiology; to make physiological investigations.
Physiology
n.
• The science which treats of the phenomena of living organisms; the study of the processes incidental to, and characteristic of, life.
• A treatise on physiology.
Physiophyly
n.
(Biol.) The tribal history of the functions, or the history of the paleontological development of vital activities, — being a branch of phylogeny. See Morphophyly.
Physique
n.
• The natural constitution, or physical structure, of a person.
Physnomy
n.
• Physiogmony.
Physoclist
n.
(Zool.) One of the Physoclisti.
Physoclisti
n. pl.
(Zool.) An order of teleost in which the air bladder has no opening.
Physograde
n.
(Zool.) Any siphonophore which has an air sac for a float, as the Physalia.
Physophorae
n. pl.
(Zool.) An order of Siphonophora, furnished with an air sac, or float, and a series of nectocalyces. See Illust. under Nectocalyx.
Physopod
n.
(Zool.) One of the Physopoda; a thrips.
Physopoda
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Thysanoptera.
Physostigmine
n.
(Chem.) An alkaloid found in the Calabar bean (the seed of Physostigma venenosum), and extracted as a white, tasteless, substance, amorphous or crystalline; — formerly called eserine, with which it was regarded as identical.
Physostomi
n. pl.
(Zool.) An order of fishes in which the air bladder is provided with a duct, and the ventral fins, when present, are abdominal. It includes the salmons, herrings, carps, catfishes, and others.
Physostomous
a.
(Zool.) Having a duct to the air bladder.
• Pertaining to the Physostomi.
Phytelephas
n.
(Bot.) A genus of South American palm trees, the seeds of which furnish the substance called vegetable ivory.
Phytivorous
a.
• Feeding on plants or herbage; phytophagous; as, phytivorous animals.
Phytochemical
a.
• Relating to phytochemistry.
Phytochemistry
n.
• Chemistry in its relation to vegetable bodies; vegetable chemistry.
Phytochimy
n.
• Phytochemistry.
Phytogeographical
a.
• Of or pertaining to phytogeography.
Phytogeography
n.
• The geographical distribution of plants.
Phytoglyphic
a.
• Relating to phytoglyphy.
Phytoglyphy
n.
• See Nature printing, under Nature.
Phytographical
a.
• Of or pertaining to phytography.
Phytography
n.
• The science of describing plants in a systematic manner; also, a description of plants.
Phytoid
a.
• Resembling a plant; plantlike.
Phytolacca
n.
(Bot.) A genus of herbaceous plants, some of them having berries which abound in intensely red juice; poke, or pokeweed.
Phytolite
n.
• An old name for a fossil plant.
Phytolithologist
n.
• One versed in phytolithology; a paleobotanist.
Phytolithology
n.
• The branch of science which treats of fossil plants; — usually called paleobotany, sometimes paleophytology.
Phytological
a.
• Of or pertaining to phytology; botanical.
Phytologist
n.
• One skilled in phytology; a writer on plants; a botanist.
Phytology
n.
• The science of plants; a description of the kinds and properties of plants; botany.
Phyton
n.
(Bot.) One of the parts which by their repetition make up a flowering plant, each being a single joint of a stem with its leaf or leaves; a phytomer.
Phytonomy
n.
• The science of the origin and growth of plants.
Phytopathologist
n.
• One skilled in diseases of plants.
Phytopathology
n.
• The science of diseases to which plants are liable.
Phytophaga
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of Hymenoptera; the sawflies.
Phytophagic
a.
(Zool.) Phytophagous.
Phytophagous
a.
(Zool.) Feeding on plants; herbivorous; as, a phytophagous animal.
Phytophagy
n.
• The eating of plants.
Phytophysiology
n.
• Vegetable physiology.
Phytotomist
n.
• One versed in phytotomy.
Phytotomy
n.
• The dissection of plants; vegetable anatomy.
Phytozoaria
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Infusoria.
Phytozoon
n.
(Zool.) A plantlike animal. The term is sometimes applied to zoophytes.
Phyz
n.
• See Phiz.
Pi
n.
(Print.) A mass of type confusedly mixed or unsorted.
v. t.
(Print.) To put into a mixed and disordered condition, as type; to mix and disarrange the type of; as, to pi a form.
Pi\'97
adv.
(Mus.) A little more; as, pi\'97 allegro, a little more briskly.
Piacaba
n.
• See Piassava.
Piacle
n.
• A heinous offense which requires expiation.
Piacular
a.
• Expiatory; atoning.
• Requiring expiation; criminal; atrociously bad.
Piacularity
n.
• The quality or state of being piacular; criminality; wickedness.
Piaculous
a.
• Same as Piacular.
Pial
a.
(Anat.) Pertaining to the pia mater.
Pian
n.
(Med.) The yaws. See Yaws.
Pianet
n.
(Zool.) The magpie.
• The lesser woodpecker.
Pianette
n.
(Mus.) A small piano; a pianino.
Pianino
n.
(Mus.) A pianette, or small piano.
Pianissimo
a.
(Mus.) Very soft; — a direction to execute a passage as softly as possible. (Abbrev. pp.)
Pianist
n.
• A performer, esp. a skilled performer, on the piano.
Piano
a. & adv.
(Mus.) Soft; — a direction to the performer to execute a certain passage softly, and with diminished volume of tone. (Abbrev. p.)
Pianograph
n.
(Mus.) A form of melodiograph applied to a piano.
Piapec
n.
(Zool.) A West African pie (Ptilostomus Senegalensis).
Piarist
n.
(R. C. Ch.) One of a religious order who are the regular clerks of the Scuole Pie (religious schools), an institute of secondary education, founded at Rome in the last years of the 16th century.
Piassava
n.
• A fibrous product of two Brazilian palm trees (Attalea funifera and Leopoldinia Piassaba), — used in making brooms, and for other purposes. Called also piacaba and piasaba.
Piaster
n.
• A silver coin of Spain and various other countries. See Peso. The Spanish piaster (commonly called peso, or peso duro) is of about the value of the American dollar. The Italian piaster, or scudo, was worth from 80 to 100 cents. The Turkish and Egyptian piasters are now worth about four and a half cents.
Piastre
n.
• See Piaster.
Piation
n.
• The act of making atonement; expiation.
Piatti
n. pl.
(Mus.) Cymbals.
Piazza
n.
• An open square in a European town, especially an Italian town; hence (Arch.), an arcaded and roofed gallery; a portico. In the United States the word is popularly applied to a veranda.
Pibcorn
n.
(Mus.) A wind instrument or pipe, with a horn at each end, — used in Wales.
Pibroch
n.
• A Highland air, suited to the particular passion which the musician would either excite or assuage; generally applied to those airs that are played on the bagpipe before the Highlanders when they go out to battle.
Pic
n.
• A Turkish cloth measure, varying from 18 to 28 inches.
Pica
n.
(Zool.) The genus that includes the magpies.
(Med.) A vitiated appetite that craves what is unfit for food, as chalk, ashes, coal, etc.; chthonophagia.
(R. C. Ch.) A service-book. See Pie.
(Print.) A size of type next larger than small pica, and smaller than English.
Picador
n.
• A horseman armed with a lance, who in a bullfight receives the first attack of the bull, and excites him by picking him without attempting to kill him.
Picamar
n.
(Chem.) An oily liquid hydrocarbon extracted from the creosote of beechwood tar. It consists essentially of certain derivatives of pyrogallol.
Picapare
n.
(Zool.) The finfoot.
Picard
n.
(Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect of Adamites in the fifteenth century; — so called from one Picard of Flanders. See Adamite.
Picaresque
a.
• Applied to that class of literature in which the principal personage is the Spanish picaro, meaning a rascal, a knave, a rogue, an adventurer.
Picariae
n. pl.
(Zool.) An extensive division of birds which includes the woodpeckers, toucans, trogons, hornbills, kingfishers, motmots, rollers, and goatsuckers. By some writers it is made to include also the cuckoos, swifts, and humming birds.
Picarian
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to Picariae.
n.
• One of the Picariae.
Picaroon
n.
• One who plunders; especially, a plunderer of wrecks; a pirate; a corsair; a marauder; a sharper.
Picayune
n.
• A small coin of the value of six and a quarter cents. See Fippenny bit.
Picayunish
a.
• Petty; paltry; mean; as, a picayunish business.
Piccage
n.
(O. Eng. Law) Money paid at fairs for leave to break ground for booths.
Piccalilli
n.
• A pickle of various vegetables with pungent species, — originally made in the East Indies.
Piccolo
n.
(Mus.) A small, shrill flute, the pitch of which is an octave higher than the ordinary flute; an octave flute.
(Mus.) A small upright piano.
(Mus.) An organ stop, with a high, piercing tone.
Pice
n.
• A small copper coin of the East Indies, worth less than a cent.
Picea
n.
(Bot.) A genus of coniferous trees of the northen hemisphere, including the Norway spruce and the American black and white spruces. These trees have pendent cones, which do not readily fall to pieces, in this and other respects differing from the firs.
Picene
n.
(Chem.) A hydrocarbon (CH) extracted from the pitchy residue of coal tar and petroleum as a bluish fluorescent crystalline substance.
Piceous
a.
• Of or pertaining to pitch; resembling pitch in color or quality; pitchy.
Pichey
n.
(Zool.) A Brazilian armadillo (Dasypus minutus); the little armadillo.
Pichiciago
n.
(Zool.) A small, burrowing, South American edentate (Chlamyphorus truncatus), allied to the armadillos. The shell is attached only along the back.
Pici
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of birds including the woodpeckers and wrynecks.
Piciform
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to Piciformes.
Piciformes
n. pl.
(Zool.) A group of birds including the woodpeckers, toucans, barbets, colies, kingfishes, hornbills, and some other related groups.
Picine
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the woodpeckers (Pici), or to the Piciformes.
Pick
v. t.
• To throw; to pitch.
• To peck at, as a bird with its beak; to strike at with anything pointed; to act upon with a pointed instrument; to pierce; to prick, as with a pin.
• To separate or open by means of a sharp point or points; as, to pick matted wool, cotton, oakum, etc.
• To open (a lock) as by a wire.
• To pull apart or away, especially with the fingers; to pluck; to gather, as fruit from a tree, flowers from the stalk, feathers from a fowl, etc.
• To remove something from with a pointed instrument, with the fingers, or with the teeth; as, to pick the teeth; to pick a bone; to pick a goose; to pick a pocket.
• To choose; to select; to separate as choice or desirable; to cull; as, to pick one's company; to pick one's way; — often with out.
• To take up; esp., to gather from here and there; to collect; to bring together; as, to pick rags; — often with up; as, to pick up a ball or stones; to pick up information.
• To trim.
v. i.
• To eat slowly, sparingly, or by morsels; to nibble.
• To do anything nicely or carefully, or by attending to small things; to select something with care.
• To steal; to pilfer.
n.
• A sharp-pointed tool for picking; — often used in composition; as, a toothpick; a picklock.
(Mining & Mech.) A heavy iron tool, curved and sometimes pointed at both ends, wielded by means of a wooden handle inserted in the middle, — used by quarrymen, roadmakers, etc.; also, a pointed hammer used for dressing millstones.
• A pike or spike; the sharp point fixed in the center of a buckler.
• Choice; right of selection; as, to have one's pick.
• That which would be picked or chosen first; the best; as, the pick of the flock.
(Print.) A particle of ink or paper imbedded in the hollow of a letter, filling up its face, and occasioning a spot on a printed sheet.
(Painting) That which is picked in, as with a pointed pencil, to correct an unevenness in a picture.
(Weawing) The blow which drives the shuttle, — the rate of speed of a loom being reckoned as so many picks per minute; hence, in describing the fineness of a fabric, a weft thread; as, so many picks to an inch.
Pickaback
adv.
• On the back or shoulders; as, to ride pickback.
Pickaninny
n.
• A small child; especially, a negro or mulatto infant.
Pickapack
adv.
• Pickaback.
Pickback
adv.
• On the back.
Picke
n.
• A small piece of land inclosed with a hedge; a close.
Picked
a.
• Pointed; sharp.
(Zool.) Having a pike or spine on the back; — said of certain fishes.
• Carefully selected; chosen; as, picked men.
• Fine; spruce; smart; precise; dianty.
Pickedness
n.
• The state of being sharpened; pointedness.
• Fineness; spruceness; smartness.
Pickeer
v. i.
• To make a raid for booty; to maraud; also, to skirmish in advance of an army. See Picaroon.
Pickeerer
n.
• One who pickeers.
Picker
n.
• One who, or that which, picks, in any sense, — as, one who uses a pick; one who gathers; a thief; a pick; a pickax; as, a cotton picker.
(Mach.) A machine for picking fibrous materials to pieces so as to loosen and separate the fiber.
(Weaving) The piece in a loom which strikes the end of the shuttle, and impels it through the warp.
(Ordnance) A priming wire for cleaning the vent.
Pickerel
n.
• A young or small pike.
(Zool.) Any one of several species of freshwater fishes of the genus Esox, esp. the smaller species.
• The glasseye, or wall-eyed pike. See Wall-eye.
Pickering
n.
(Zool.) The sauger of the St.Lawrence River.
Pickery
n.
• Petty theft.
Picket
n.
• A stake sharpened or pointed, especially one used in fortification and encampments, to mark bounds and angles; or one used for tethering horses.
• A pointed pale, used in marking fences.
(Mil.) A detached body of troops serving to guard an army from surprise, and to oppose reconnoitering parties of the enemy; — called also outlying picket.
• By extension, men appointed by a trades union, or other labor organization, to intercept outsiders, and prevent them from working for employers with whom the organization is at variance.
• A military punishment, formerly resorted to, in which the offender was forced to stand with one foot on a pointed stake.
• A game at cards. See Piquet.
v. t.
• To fortify with pointed stakes.
• To inclose or fence with pickets or pales.
• To tether to, or as to, a picket; as, to picket a horse.
• To guard, as a camp or road, by an outlying picket.
• To torture by compelling to stand with one foot on a pointed stake.
Picketee
n.
(Bot.) See Picotee.
Picking
n.
• The act of digging or breaking up, as with a pick.
• The act of choosing, plucking, or gathering.
• That which is, or may be, picked or gleaned.
• Pilfering; also, that which is pilfered.
• The pulverized shells of oysters used in making walks.
(Mining) Rough sorting of ore.
• Overburned bricks.
a.
• Done or made as with a pointed tool; as, a picking sound.
• Nice; careful.
Pickle
n.
• See Picle.
n.
• A solution of salt and water, in which fish, meat, etc., may be preserved or corned; brine.
• Vinegar, plain or spiced, used for preserving vegetables, fish, eggs, oysters, etc.
• Any article of food which has been preserved in brine or in vinegar.
(Founding) A bath of dilute sulphuric or nitric acid, etc., to remove burnt sand, scale rust, etc., from the surface of castings, or other articles of metal, or to brighten them or improve their color.
• A troublesome child; as, a little pickle.
v. t.
• To preserve or season in pickle; to treat with some kind of pickle; as, to pickle herrings or cucumbers.
• To give an antique appearance to; — said of copies or imitations of paintings by the old masters.
Pickled
a.
• Preserved in a pickle.
Pickler
n.
• One who makes pickles.
Picklock
n.
• An instrument for picking locks.
• One who picks locks; a thief.
Pickmire
n.
(Zool.) The pewit, or black-headed gull.
Picknick
n.
• See Picnic.
Pickpack
adv.
• Pickaback.
Pickpenny
n.
• A miser; also, a sharper.
Pickpocket
n.
• One who steals purses or other articles from pockets.
Pickpurse
n.
• One who steals purses, or money from purses.
Picksy
n.
• See Pixy.
Pickthank
n.
• One who strives to put another under obligation; an officious person; hence, a flatterer. Used also adjectively.
Picktooth
n.
• A toothpick.
Picnic
n.
• Formerly, an entertainment at which each person contributed some dish to a common table; now, an excursion or pleasure party in which the members partake of a collation or repast (usually in the open air, and from food carried by themselves).
v. i.
• To go on a picnic, or pleasure excursion; to eat in public fashion.
Picnicker
n.
• One who takes part in a picnic.
Picoid
a.
(Zool.) Like or pertaining to the Pici.
Picoline
n.
(Chem.) Any one of three isometric bases (C6H7N) related to pyridine, and obtained from bone oil, acrolein ammonia, and coal-tar naphtha, as colorless mobile liquids of strong odor; — called also methyl pyridine.
Picquet
n.
• See Piquet.
Picra
n.
(Med.) The powder of aloes with canella, formerly officinal, employed as a cathartic.
Picrate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of picric acid.
Picric
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, a strong organic acid (called picric acid), intensely bitter.
Picrite
n.
(Min.) A dark green igneous rock, consisting largely of chrysolite, with hornblende, augite, biotite, etc.
Picrolite
n.
(Min.) A fibrous variety of serpentine.
Picromel
n.
(Old Chem.) A colorless viscous substance having a bitter-sweet taste.
Picrotoxin
n.
(Chem.) A bitter white crystalline substance found in the cocculus indicus. It is a peculiar poisonous neurotic and intoxicant, and consists of a mixture of several neutral substances.
Picryl
n.
(Chem.) The hypothetical radical of picric acid, analogous to phenyl.
Pictish
a.
• Of or pertaining to Picts; resembling the Picts.
Pictograph
n.
• A picture or hieroglyph representing and expressing an idea.
Pictorial
a.
• Of or pertaining to pictures; illustrated by pictures; forming pictures; representing with the clearness of a picture; as, a pictorial dictionary; a pictorial imagination.
Picts
n. pl.
(Ethnol.) A race of people of uncertain origin, who inhabited Scotland in early times.
Pictura
n.
(Zool.) Pattern of coloration.
Picturable
a.
• Capable of being pictured, or represented by a picture.
Pictural
a.
• Pictorial.
n.
• A picture.
Picture
n.
• The art of painting; representation by painting.
• A representation of anything (as a person, a landscape, a building) upon canvas, paper, or other surface, produced by means of painting, drawing, engraving, photography, etc.; a representation in colors. By extension, a figure; a model.
• An image or resemblance; a representation, either to the eye or to the mind; that which, by its likeness, brings vividly to mind some other thing; as, a child is the picture of his father; the man is the picture of grief.
v. t.
• To draw or paint a resemblance of; to delineate; to represent; to form or present an ideal likeness of; to bring before the mind.
Pictured
a.
• Furnished with pictures; represented by a picture or pictures; as, a pictured scene.
Picturer
n.
• One who makes pictures; a painter.
Picturesque
a.
• Forming, or fitted to form, a good or pleasing picture; representing with the clearness or ideal beauty appropriate to a picture; expressing that peculiar kind of beauty which is agreeable in a picture, natural or artificial; graphic; vivid; as, a picturesque scene or attitude; picturesque language.
Picturesquish
a.
• Somewhat picturesque.
Picturize
v. t.
• To picture.
• To adorn with pictures.
Picul
n.
• A commercial weight varying in different countries and for different commodities. In Borneo it is 135tan.
Piculet
n.
(Zool.) Any species of very small woodpeckers of the genus Picumnus and allied genera. Their tail feathers are not stiff and sharp at the tips, as in ordinary woodpeckers.
Picus
n.
(Zool.) A genus of woodpeckers, including some of the common American and European species.
Piddle
v. i.
• To deal in trifles; to concern one's self with trivial matters rather than with those that are important.
• To be squeamishly nice about one's food.
• To urinate; — child's word.
Piddler
n.
• One who piddles.
Piddling
a.
• Trifling; trivial; frivolous; paltry; — applied to persons and things.
Piddock
n.
(Zool.) Any species of Pholas; a pholad. See Pholas.
Pie
n.
• An article of food consisting of paste baked with something in it or under it; as, chicken pie; venison pie; mince pie; apple pie; pumpkin pie.
• See Camp, n., 5.
n.
(Zool.) A magpie.
• Any other species of the genus Pica, and of several allied genera.
(R. C. Ch.) The service book.
(Pritn.) Type confusedly mixed. See Pi.
v. t.
• See Pi.
Piebald
a.
• Having spots and patches of black and white, or other colors; mottled; pied.
• Fig.: Mixed.
Piece
n.
• A fragment or part of anything separated from the whole, in any manner, as by cutting, splitting, breaking, or tearing; a part; a portion; as, a piece of sugar; to break in pieces.
• A definite portion or quantity, as of goods or work; as, a piece of broadcloth; a piece of wall paper.
• Any one thing conceived of as apart from other things of the same kind; an individual article; a distinct single effort of a series; a definite performance
• A literary or artistic composition; as, a piece of poetry, music, or statuary
• A musket, gun, or cannon; as, a battery of six pieces; a following piece
• A coin; as, a sixpenny piece; — formerly applied specifically to an English gold coin worth 22 shillings
• A fact; an item; as, a piece of news; a piece of knowledge
• An individual; — applied to a person as being of a certain nature or quality; often, but not always, used slightingly or in contempt.
(Chess) One of the superior men, distinguished from a pawn.
• A castle; a fortified building.
v. t.
• To make, enlarge, or repair, by the addition of a piece or pieces; to patch; as, to piece a garment; — often with out.
• To unite; to join; to combine.
v. i.
• To unite by a coalescence of parts; to fit together; to join.
Pieceless
a.
• Not made of pieces; whole; entire.
Piecely
adv.
• In pieces; piecemeal.
Piecemeal
adv.
• In pieces; in parts or fragments.
• Piece by piece; by little and little in succession.
a.
• Made up of parts or pieces; single; separate.
n.
• A fragment; a scrap.
Piecemealed
a.
• Divided into pieces.
Piecener
n.
• One who supplies rolls of wool to the slubbing machine in woolen mills.
• Same as Piecer, 2.
Piecer
n.
• One who pieces; a patcher.
• A child employed in spinning mill to tie together broken threads.
Piecework
n.
• Work done by the piece or job; work paid for at a rate based on the amount of work done, rather than on the time employed.
Pied
• imp. & p. p. of Pi, or Pie, v.
a.
• Variegated with spots of different colors; party-colored; spotted; piebald.
Piedmont
a.
(Geol.) Noting the region of foothills near the base of a mountain chain.
Piedmontite
n.
(Min.) A manganesian kind of epidote, from Piedmont. See Epidote.
Piedness
n.
• The state of being pied.
Piedouche
n.
• A pedestal of small size, used to support small objects, as busts, vases, and the like.
Piedstall
n.
• See Pedestal.
Pieman
n.
• A man who makes or sells pies.
Piend
n.
• See Peen.
Pieno
a.
(Mus.) Full; having all the instruments.
Pieplant
n.
(Bot.) A plant (Rheum Rhaponticum) the leafstalks of which are acid, and are used in making pies; the garden rhubarb.
Pier
n.
(Arch.) Any detached mass of masonry, whether insulated or supporting one side of an arch or lintel, as of a bridge; the piece of wall between two openings.
• Any additional or auxiliary mass of masonry used to stiffen a wall. See Buttress.
• A projecting wharf or landing place.
Pierage
n.
• Same as Wharfage.
Pierce
v. t.
• To thrust into, penetrate, or transfix, with a pointed instrument.
• To penetrate; to enter; to force a way into or through; to pass into or through; as, to pierce the enemy's line; a shot pierced the ship.
• Fig.: To penetrate; to affect deeply; as, to pierce a mystery.
v. i.
• To enter; to penetrate; to make a way into or through something, as a pointed instrument does; — used literally and figuratively.
Pierceable
a.
• That may be pierced.
Pierced
a.
• Penetrated; entered; perforated.
Piercel
n.
• A kind of gimlet for making vents in casks; — called also piercer.
Piercer
n.
• One who, or that which, pierces or perforates
• An instrument used in forming eyelets; a stiletto
• A piercel.
(Zool.) The ovipositor, or sting, of an insect.
• An insect provided with an ovipositor.
Piercing
a.
• Forcibly entering, or adapted to enter, at or by a point; perforating; penetrating; keen; — used also figuratively; as, a piercing instrument, or thrust.
Pierian
a.
• Of or pertaining to Pierides or Muses.
Pierid
n.
(Zool.) Any butterfly of the genus Pieris and related genera. See Cabbage butterfly, under Cabbage.
Pierides
n. pl.
(Class. Myth.) The Muses.
Piet
n.
(Zool.) The dipper, or watter ouzel.
• The magpie.
Pieta
n.
(Fine Arts) A representation of the dead Christ, attended by the Virgin Mary or by holy women and angels.
Pietism
n.
• The principle or practice of the Pietists.
• Strict devotion; also, affectation of devotion.
Pietist
n.
(Eccl. Hist.) One of a class of religious reformers in Germany in the 17th century who sought to revive declining piety in the Protestant churches; — often applied as a term of reproach to those who make a display of religious feeling. Also used adjectively.
Piety
n.
• Veneration or reverence of the Supreme Being, and love of his character; loving obedience to the will of God, and earnest devotion to his service.
• Duty; dutifulness; filial reverence and devotion; affectionate reverence and service shown toward parents, relatives, benefactors, country, etc.
Piewipe
n.
(Zool.) The lapwing, or pewit.
Piezometer
n.
(Physics) An instrument for measuring the compressibility of liquids.
(Physics) A gauge connected with a water main to show the pressure at that point.
Pig
n.
• A piggin.
n.
• The young of swine, male or female; also, any swine; a hog.
(Zool.) Any wild species of the genus Sus and related genera.
• An oblong mass of cast iron, lead, or other metal. See Mine pig, under Mine.
• One who is hoggish; a greedy person.
v. t. & i.
• To bring forth (pigs); to bring forth in the manner of pigs; to farrow.
• To huddle or lie together like pigs, in one bed.
Pigeon
n.
(Zool.) Any bird of the order Columbae, of which numerous species occur in nearly all parts of the world.
• An unsuspected victim of sharpers; a gull.
v. t.
• To pluck; to fleece; to swindle by tricks in gambling.
Pigeonfoot
n.
(Bot.) The dove's-foot geranium (Geranium molle).
Pigeonhole
n.
• A small compartment in a desk or case for the keeping of letters, documents, etc.; — so called from the resemblance of a row of them to the compartments in a dovecote.
v. t.
• To place in the pigeonhole of a case or cabinet; hence, to put away; to lay aside indefinitely; as, to pigeonhole a letter or a report.
Pigeonry
n.
• A place for pigeons; a dovecote.
Pigeontoed
a.
• Having the toes turned in.
Pigfish
n.
(Zool.) Any one of several species of salt-water grunts; — called also hogfish.
• A sculpin. The name is also applied locally to several other fishes.
Pigfoot
n.
(Zool.) A marine fish (Scorpaena porcus), native of Europe. It is reddish brown, mottled with dark brown and black.
Pigg
n.
• A piggin. See 1st Pig.
Piggery
n.
• A place where swine are kept.
Piggin
n.
• A small wooden pail or tub with an upright stave for a handle, — often used as a dipper.
Piggish
a.
• Relating to, or like, a pig; greedy.
Pight
imp. & p. p.
• Pitched; fixed; determined.
Pightel
n.
• A small inclosure.
Pigmean
a.
• See Pygmean.
Pigment
n.
• Any material from which a dye, a paint, or the like, may be prepared; particularly, the refined and purified coloring matter ready for mixing with an appropriate vehicle.
(Physiol.) Any one of the colored substances found in animal and vegetable tissues and fluids, as bilirubin, urobilin, chlorophyll, etc.
• Wine flavored with species and honey.
Pigmentation
n.
(Physiol.) A deposition, esp. an excessive deposition, of coloring matter; as, pigmentation of the liver.
Pigmented
a.
• Colored; specifically (Biol.), filled or imbued with pigment; as, pigmented epithelial cells; pigmented granules.
Pigmentous
a.
• Pigmental.
Pigmy
n.
• See Pygmy.
Pignerate
v. t.
• To pledge or pawn.
• to receive in pawn, as a pawnbroker does.
Pignoration
n.
• The act of pledging or pawning.
(Civil Law) The taking of cattle doing damage, by way of pledge, till satisfaction is made.
Pignorative
a.
• Pledging, pawning.
Pignus
n.
(Rom. Law) A pledge or pawn.
Pignut
n.
(Bot.) See Groundnut
• The bitter-flavored nut of a species of hickory (Carya glabra, or porcina); also, the tree itself.
Pigpen
n.
• A pen, or sty, for pigs.
Pigskin
n.
• The skin of a pig, — used chiefly for making saddles; hence, a colloquial or slang term for a saddle.
Pigsney
n.
• A word of endearment for a girl or woman.
Pigsty
n.
• A pigpen.
Pigtail
n.
• The tail of a pig.
(Hair Dressing) A cue, or queue.
• A kind of twisted chewing tobacco.
Pigtailed
a.
• Having a tail like a pig's; as, the pigtailed baboon.
Pigweed
n.
(Bot.) A name of several annual weeds. See Goosefoot, and Lamb's-quarters.
Pigwidgeon
n.
• A cant word for anything petty or small. It is used by Drayton as the name of a fairy.
Pika
n.
(Zool.) Any one of several species of rodents of the genus Lagomys, resembling small tailless rabbits. They inhabit the high mountains of Asia and America. Called also calling hare, and crying hare. See Chief hare.
Pike
n.
(Mil.) A foot soldier's weapon, consisting of a long wooden shaft or staff, with a pointed steel head. It is now superseded by the bayonet.
• A pointed head or spike; esp., one in the center of a shield or target.
• A hayfork.
• A pick.
• A pointed or peaked hill.
• A large haycock.
• A turnpike; a toll bar.(Zool.)
sing. & pl.
• A large fresh-water fish (Esox lucius), found in Europe and America, highly valued as a food fish; — called also pickerel, gedd, luce, and jack.
Piked
a.
• Furnished with a pike; ending in a point; peaked; pointed.
Pikeman
n.
• A soldier armed with a pike.
• A miner who works with a pick.
• A keeper of a turnpike gate.
Pikestaff
n.
• The staff, or shaft, of a pike.
• A staff with a spike in the lower end, to guard against slipping.
Piketail
n.
(Zool.) See Pintail, 1.
Pikrolite
n.
(Min.) See Picrolite.
Pilage
n.
• See Pelage.
Pilaster
n.
(Arch.) An upright architectural member right-angled in plan, constructionally a pier (See Pier, 1 (b)), but architecturally corresponding to a column, having capital, shaft, and base to agree with those of the columns of the same order. In most cases the projection from the wall is one third of its width, or less.
Pilastered
a.
• Furnished with pilasters.
Pilau
n.
• See Pillau.
Pilch
n.
• A gown or case of skin, or one trimmed or lined with fur.
Pilchard
n.
(Zool.) A small European food fish (Clupea pilchardus) resembling the herring, but thicker and rounder. It is sometimes taken in great numbers on the coast of England.
Pilcher
n.
• A scabbard, as of a sword.
n.
(Zool.) The pilchard.
Pilcrow
n.
(Print.) a paragraph mark, ¶.
Pile
n.
• A hair; hence, the fiber of wool, cotton, and the like; also, the nap when thick or heavy, as of carpeting and velvet.
(Zool.) A covering of hair or fur.
n.
• The head of an arrow or spear.
n.
• A large stake, or piece of timber, pointed and driven into the earth, as at the bottom of a river, or in a harbor where the ground is soft, for the support of a building, a pier, or other superstructure, or to form a cofferdam, etc.
(Her.) One of the ordinaries or subordinaries having the form of a wedge, usually placed palewise, with the broadest end uppermost.
v. t.
• To drive piles into; to fill with piles; to strengthen with piles.
n.
• A mass of things heaped together; a heap; as, a pile of stones; a pile of wood.
• A mass formed in layers; as, a pile of shot.
• A funeral pile; a pyre.
• A large building, or mass of buildings.
(Iron Manuf.) Same as Fagot, n., 2.
(Elec.) A vertical series of alternate disks of two dissimilar metals, as copper and zinc, laid up with disks of cloth or paper moistened with acid water between them, for producing a current of electricity; — commonly called Volta's pile, voltaic pile, or galvanic pile.
• The reverse of a coin. See Reverse.
v. t.
• To lay or throw into a pile or heap; to heap up; to collect into a mass; to accumulate; to amass; — often with up; as, to pile up wood.
• To cover with heaps; or in great abundance; to fill or overfill; to load.
Piled
a.
• Having a pile or point; pointed.
a.
• Having a pile or nap.
a.
(Iron Manuf.) Formed from a pile or fagot; as, piled iron.
Pileiform
a.
• Having the form of a pileus or cap; pileate.
Pilement
n.
• An accumulation; a heap.
Pilentum
n.
(Rom. Antiq.) An easy chariot or carriage, used by Roman ladies, and in which the vessels, etc., for sacred rites were carried.
Pileorhiza
n.
(Bot.) A cap of cells which covers the growing extremity of a root; a rootcap.
Pileous
a.
• Consisting of, or covered with, hair; hairy; pilose.
Piler
n.
• One who places things in a pile.
Piles
n. pl.
(Med.) The small, troublesome tumors or swellings about the anus and lower part of the rectum which are technically called hemorrhoids. See Hemorrhoids.
Pileus
n.
(Rom. Antiq.) A kind of skull cap of felt.
(Bot.) The expanded upper portion of many of the fungi. See Mushroom.
(Zool.) The top of the head of a bird, from the bill to the nape.
Pileworm
n.
(Zool.) The teredo.
Pilewort
n.
(Bot.) A plant (Ranunculus Ficaria of Linnaeus) whose tuberous roots have been used in poultices as a specific for the piles.
Pilfer
v. i.
• To steal in small quantities, or articles of small value; to practice petty theft.
v. t.
• To take by petty theft; to filch; to steal little by little.
Pilferer
n.
• One who pilfers; a petty thief.
Pilfering
a.
• Thieving in a small way.
n.
• Petty theft.
Pilfery
n.
• Petty theft.
Pilgarlic
n.
• One who has lost his hair by disease; a sneaking fellow, or one who is hardly used.
Pilgrim
n.
• A wayfarer; a wanderer; a traveler; a stranger.
• One who travels far, or in strange lands, to visit some holy place or shrine as a devotee; as, a pilgrim to Loretto; Canterbury pilgrims. See Palmer.
a.
• Of or pertaining to a pilgrim, or pilgrims; making pilgrimages.
v. i.
• To journey; to wander; to ramble.
Pilgrimage
n.
• The journey of a pilgrim; a long journey; especially, a journey to a shrine or other sacred place. Fig., the journey of human life.
• A tedious and wearisome time.
Pilgrimize
v. i.
• To wander as a pilgrim; to go on a pilgrimage.
Pilidium
n.
(Zool.) The free-swimming, hat-shaped larva of certain nemertean worms. It has no resemblance to its parent, and the young worm develops in its interior.
Pilifera
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Mammalia.
Piliferous
a.
• Bearing a single slender bristle, or hair.
• Beset with hairs.
Piliform
a.
(Bot.) Resembling hairs or down.
Piligerous
a.
• Bearing hair; covered with hair or down; piliferous.
Piling
n.
• The act of heaping up.
(Iron Manuf.) The process of building up, heating, and working, fagots, or piles, to form bars, etc.
n.
• A series of piles; piles considered collectively; as, the piling of a bridge.
Pill
n.
• The peel or skin.
v. i.
• To be peeled; to peel off in flakes.
v. t.
• To deprive of hair; to make bald.
• To peel; to make by removing the skin.
v. t. & i.
• To rob; to plunder; to pillage; to peel. See Peel, to plunder.
n.
• A medicine in the form of a little ball, or small round mass, to be swallowed whole.
• Figuratively, something offensive or nauseous which must be accepted or endured.
Pillage
n.
• The act of pillaging; robbery.
• That which is taken from another or others by open force, particularly and chiefly from enemies in war; plunder; spoil; booty.
v. i.
• To strip of money or goods by open violence; to plunder; to spoil; to lay waste; as, to pillage the camp of an enemy.
v. i.
• To take spoil; to plunder; to ravage.
Pillager
n.
• One who pillages.
Pillar
n.
• The general and popular term for a firm, upright, insulated support for a superstructure; a pier, column, or post; also, a column or shaft not supporting a superstructure, as one erected for a monument or an ornament.
• Figuratively, that which resembles such a pillar in appearance, character, or office; a supporter or mainstay; as, the Pillars of Hercules; a pillar of the state.
(R. C. Ch.) A portable ornamental column, formerly carried before a cardinal, as emblematic of his support to the church.
(Man.) The center of the volta, ring, or manege ground, around which a horse turns.
a.
(Mach.) Having a support in the form of a pillar, instead of legs; as, a pillar drill.
Pillared
a.
• Supported or ornamented by pillars; resembling a pillar, or pillars.
Pillaret
n.
• A little pillar.
Pillarist
n.
(Eccl. Hist.) See Stylite.
Pillau
n.
• An Oriental dish consisting of rice boiled with mutton, fat, or butter.
Pilled
a.
• Stripped of hair; scant of hair; bald.
Piller
n.
• One who pills or plunders.
Pillery
n.
• Plunder; pillage.
Pillion
n.
• A panel or cushion saddle; the under pad or cushion of saddle; esp., a pad or cushion put on behind a man's saddle, on which a woman may ride.
Pillorize
v. t.
• To set in, or punish with, the pillory; to pillory.
Pillory
n.
• A frame of adjustable boards erected on a post, and having holes through which the head and hands of an offender were thrust so as to be exposed in front of it.
v. t.
• To set in, or punish with, the pillory.
• Figuratively, to expose to public scorn.
Pillow
n.
• Anything used to support the head of a person when reposing; especially, a sack or case filled with feathers, down, hair, or other soft material.
(Mach.) A piece of metal or wood, forming a support to equalize pressure; a brass; a pillow block.
(Naut.) A block under the inner end of a bowsprit.
• A kind of plain, coarse fustian.
v. t.
• To rest or lay upon, or as upon, a pillow; to support; as, to pillow the head.
Pillowcase
n.
• A removable case or covering for a pillow, usually of white linen or cotton cloth.
Pillowed
a.
• Provided with a pillow or pillows; having the head resting on, or as on, a pillow.
Pillowy
a.
• Like a pillow.
Pillworm
n.
(Zool.) Any myriapod of the genus Iulus and allied genera which rolls up spirally; a galleyworm. See Illust. under Myriapod.
Pillwort
n.
(Bot.) Any plant of the genus Pilularia; minute aquatic cryptograms, with small pill-shaped fruit; — sometimes called peppergrass.
Pilocarpine
n.
(Chem.) An alkaloid extracted from jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius) as a white amorphous or crystalline substance which has a peculiar effect on the vasomotor system.
Pilose
a.
• Hairy; full of, or made of, hair.
(Zool.) Clothed thickly with pile or soft down.
(Bot.) Covered with long, slender hairs; resembling long hairs; hairy; as, pilose pubescence.
Pilosity
n.
• The quality or state of being pilose; hairiness.
Pilot
n.
(Naut.) One employed to steer a vessel; a helmsman; a steersman.
• Specifically, a person duly qualified, and licensed by authority, to conduct vessels into and out of a port, or in certain waters, for a fixed rate of fees.
• Figuratively: A guide; a director of another through a difficult or unknown course.
• An instrument for detecting the compass error.
• The cowcatcher of a locomotive.
v. t.
• To direct the course of, as of a ship, where navigation is dangerous.
• Figuratively: To guide, as through dangers or difficulties.
Pilotage
n.
• The pilot's skill or knowledge, as of coasts, rocks, bars, and channels.
• The compensation made or allowed to a pilot.
• Guidance, as by a pilot.
Pilour
n.
• A piller; a plunderer.
Pilous
a.
• See Pilose.
Pilser
n.
• An insect that flies into a flame.
Pilular
a.
• Of or pertaining to pills; resembling a pill or pills; as, a pilular mass.
Pilulous
a.
• Like a pill; small; insignificant.
Pilwe
n.
• A pillow.
Pily
a.
(Zool.) Like pile or wool.
Pimaric
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an acid found in galipot, and isomeric with abietic acid.
Pimelic
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, a substance obtained from certain fatty substances, and subsequently shown to be a mixture of suberic and adipic acids.
• Designating the acid proper (C5H10(CO2/H)2) which is obtained from camphoric acid.
Pimelite
n.
(Min.) An apple-green mineral having a greasy feel. It is a hydrous silicate of nickel, magnesia, aluminia, and iron.
Piment
n.
• Wine flavored with spice or honey. See Pigment, 3.
Pimenta
n.
(Bot.) Same as Pimento.
Pimento
n.
(Bot.) Allspice; — applied both to the tree and its fruit. See Allspice.
Pimlico
n.
(Zool.) The friar bird.
Pimp
n.
• One who provides gratification for the lust of others; a procurer; a pander.
v. i.
• To procure women for the gratification of others' lusts; to pander.
Pimpernel
n.
(Bot.) A plant of the genus Anagallis, of which one species (A. arvensis) has small flowers, usually scarlet, but sometimes purple, blue, or white, which speedily close at the approach of bad weather.
Pimpillo
n.
(Bot.) A West Indian name for the prickly pear (Opuntia); — called also pimploes.
Pimpinel
n.
(Bot.) The burnet saxifrage. See under Saxifrage.
Pimping
a.
• Little; petty; pitiful.
• Puny; sickly.
Pimple
n.
(Med.) Any small acuminated elevation of the cuticle, whether going on to suppuration or not.
• Fig.: A swelling or protuberance like a pimple.
Pimpled
a.
• Having pimples.
Pimply
a.
• Pimpled.
Pimpship
n.
• The office, occupation, or persom of a pimp.
Pin
v. t.
(Metal Working) To peen.
v. t.
• To inclose; to confine; to pen; to pound.
n.
• A piece of wood, metal, etc., generally cylindrical, used for fastening separate articles together, or as a support by which one article may be suspended from another; a peg; a bolt.
• Especially, a small, pointed and headed piece of brass or other wire (commonly tinned), largely used for fastening clothes, attaching papers, etc.
• Hence, a thing of small value; a trifle.
• That which resembles a pin in its form or use
• A peg in musical instruments, for increasing or relaxing the tension of the strings
• A linchpin
• A rolling-pin
• A clothespin
(Mach.) A short shaft, sometimes forming a bolt, a part of which serves as a journal
(Joinery) The tenon of a dovetail joint.
• One of a row of pegs in the side of an ancient drinking cup to mark how much each man should drink.
• The bull's eye, or center, of a target; hence, the center.
• Mood; humor.
(Med.) Caligo. See Caligo.
• An ornament, as a brooch or badge, fastened to the clothing by a pin; as, a Masonic pin.
• The leg; as, to knock one off his pins.
v. t.
• To fasten with, or as with, a pin; to join; as, to pin a garment; to pin boards together.
Pinacoid
n.
(Crystallog.) A plane parallel to two of the crystalline axes.
Pinacolin
n.
(Chem.) A colorless oily liquid related to the ketones, and obtained by the decomposition of pinacone; hence, by extension, any one of the series of which pinacolin proper is the type.
Pinacone
n.
(Chem.) A white crystalline substance related to the glycols, and made from acetone; hence, by extension, any one of a series of substances of which pinacone proper is the type.
Pinacotheca
n.
• A picture gallery.
Pinafore
n.
• An apron for a child to protect the front part of dress; a tier.
Pinakothek
n.
• Pinacotheca.
Pinaster
n.
(Bot.) A species of pine (Pinus Pinaster) growing in Southern Europe.
Pinax
n.
• A tablet; a register; hence, a list or scheme inscribed on a tablet.
Pincers
n. pl.
• See Pinchers.
Pinch
v. t.
• To press hard or squeeze between the ends of the fingers, between teeth or claws, or between the jaws of an instrument; to squeeze or compress, as between any two hard bodies.
• o seize; to grip; to bite; — said of animals.
• To plait.
• Figuratively: To cramp; to straiten; to oppress; to starve; to distress; as, to be pinched for money.
• To move, as a railroad car, by prying the wheels with a pinch. See Pinch, n., 4.
v. i.
• To act with pressing force; to compress; to squeeze; as, the shoe pinches." 2. (Hunt.) To take hold; to grip, as a dog does.
• To spare; to be niggardly; to be covetous.
n.
• A close compression, as with the ends of the fingers, or with an instrument; a nip.
• As much as may be taken between the finger and thumb; any very small quantity; as, a pinch of snuff.
• Pian; pang.
• A lever having a projection at one end, acting as a fulcrum, — used chiefly to roll heavy wheels, etc. Called also pinch bar.
Pinchbeck
n.
• An alloy of copper and zinc, resembling gold; a yellow metal, composed of about three ounces of zinc to a pound of copper. It is much used as an imitation of gold in the manufacture of cheap jewelry.
a.
• Made of pinchbeck; sham; cheap; spurious; unreal.
Pinchcock
n.
• A clamp on a flexible pipe to regulate the flow of a fluid through the pipe.
Pinchem
n.
(Zool.) The European blue titmouse.
Pincher
n.
• One who, or that which, pinches.
Pinchers
n. pl.
• An instrument having two handles and two grasping jaws working on a pivot; — used for griping things to be held fast, drawing nails, etc.
Pinchfist
n.
• A closefisted person; a miser.
Pinching
a.
• Compressing; nipping; griping; niggardly; as, pinching cold; a pinching parsimony.
Pinchingly
adv.
• In a pinching way.
Pinchpenny
n.
• A miserly person.
Pincoffin
n.
• A commercial preparation of garancin, yielding fine violet tints.
Pincpinc
n.
(Zool.) An African wren warbler. (Drymoica textrix).
Pincushion
n.
• A small cushion, in which pins may be stuck for use.
Pindaric
a.
• Of or pertaining to Pindar, the Greek lyric poet; after the style and manner of Pindar; as, Pindaric odes.
n.
• A Pindaric ode.
Pindarical
a.
• Pindaric.
Pindarism
n.
• Imitation of Pindar.
Pindarist
n.
• One who imitates Pindar.
Pinder
n.
• One who impounds; a poundkeeper.
Pine
n.
• Woe; torment; pain.
v. t.
• To inflict pain upon; to torment; to torture; to afflict.
• To grieve or mourn for.
v. i.
• To suffer; to be afflicted.
• To languish; to lose flesh or wear away, under any distress or anexiety of mind; to droop; — often used with away.
• To languish with desire; to waste away with longing for something; — usually followed by for.
n.
(Bot.) Any tree of the coniferous genus Pinus. See Pinus.
• The wood of the pine tree.
• A pineapple.
Pineal
a.
• Of or pertaining to a pine cone; resembling a pine cone.
Pineapple
n.
(Bot.) A tropical plant (Ananassa sativa); also, its fruit; — so called from the resemblance of the latter, in shape and external appearance, to the cone of the pine tree. Its origin is unknown, though conjectured to be American.
Pineaster
n.
• See Pinaster.
Pinedrops
n.
(Bot.) A reddish herb (Pterospora andromedea) of the United States, found parasitic on the roots of pine trees.
Pinefinch
n.
(Zool.) A small American bird (Spinus, or Chrysomitris, spinus); — called also pine siskin, and American siskin.
• The pine grosbeak.
Pinenchyma
n.
(Bot.) Tabular parenchyma, a form of cellular tissue in which the cells are broad and flat, as in some kinds of epidermis.
Pinery
n.
• A pine forest; a grove of pines.
• A hothouse in which pineapples are grown.
Pinesap
n.
(Bot.) A reddish fleshy herb of the genus Monotropa (M. hypopitys), formerly thought to be parasitic on the roots of pine trees, but more probably saprophytic.
Pinetum
n.
• A plantation of pine trees; esp., a collection of living pine trees made for ornamental or scientific purposes.
Pineweed
n.
(Bot.) A low, bushy, nearly leafless herb (Hypericum Sarothra), common in sandy soil in the Eastern United States.
Piney
a.
• See Piny.
a.
• A term used in designating an East Indian tree (the Vateria Indica or piney tree, of the order Dipterocarpeae, which grows in Malabar, etc.) or its products.
Pinfeather
n.
• A feather not fully developed; esp., a rudimentary feather just emerging through the skin.
Pinfeathered
a.
• Having part, or all, of the feathers imperfectly developed.
Pinfish
n.
(Zool.) The sailor's choice (Diplodus, or Lagodon, rhomboides).
• The salt-water bream (Diplodus Holbrooki).
Pinfold
n.
• A place in which stray cattle or domestic animals are confined; a pound; a penfold.
Ping
n.
• The sound made by a bullet in striking a solid object or in passing through the air.
v. i.
• To make the sound called ping.
Pingle
n.
• A small piece of inclosed ground.
Pingster
n.
• See Pinkster.
Pinguicula
n.
(Bot.) See Butterwort.
Pinguid
a.
• Fat; unctuous; greasy.
Pinguidinous
a.
• Containing fat; fatty.
Pinguitude
n.
• Fatness; a growing fat; obesity.
Pinhold
n.
• A place where a pin is fixed.
Pinic
a.
(Chem.) Of or pertaining to the pine; obtained from the pine; formerly, designating an acid which is the chief constituent of common resin, — now called abietic, or sylvic, acid.
Pining
a.
• Languishing; drooping; wasting away, as with longing.
• Wasting; consuming.
Piningly
adv.
• In a pining manner; droopingly.
Pinion
n.
(Zool.) A moth of the genus Lithophane, as L. antennata, whose larva bores large holes in young peaches and apples.
n.
• A feather; a quill.
• A wing, literal or figurative.
• The joint of bird's wing most remote from the body.
• A fetter for the arm.
(Mech.) A cogwheel with a small number of teeth, or leaves, adapted to engage with a larger wheel, or rack (see Rack); esp., such a wheel having its leaves formed of the substance of the arbor or spindle which is its axis.
v. t.
• To bind or confine the wings of; to confine by binding the wings.
• To disable by cutting off the pinion joint.
• To disable or restrain, as a person, by binding the arms, esp. by binding the arms to the body.
• Hence, generally, to confine; to bind; to tie up.
Pinioned
a.
• Having wings or pinions.
Pinionist
n.
(Zool.) Any winged creature.
Pinite
n.
(Min.) A compact granular cryptocrystalline mineral of a dull grayish or greenish white color. It is a hydrous alkaline silicate, and is derived from the alteration of other minerals, as iolite.
n.
(Paleon.) Any fossil wood which exhibits traces of having belonged to the Pine family.
(Chem.) A sweet white crystalline substance extracted from the gum of a species of pine (Pinus Lambertina). It is isomeric with, and resembles, quercite.
Pink
n.
(Naut.) A vessel with a very narrow stern; — called also pinky.
v. i.
• To wink; to blink.
a.
• Half-shut; winking.
v. t.
• To pierce with small holes; to cut the edge of, as cloth or paper, in small scallops or angles.
• To stab; to pierce as with a sword.
• To choose; to cull; to pick out.
n.
• A stab.
n.
(Bot.) A name given to several plants of the caryophyllaceous genus Dianthus, and to their flowers, which are sometimes very fragrant and often double in cultivated varieties. The species are mostly perennial herbs, with opposite linear leaves, and handsome five-petaled flowers with a tubular calyx.
• A color resulting from the combination of a pure vivid red with more or less white; — so called from the common color of the flower.
• Anything supremely excellent; the embodiment or perfection of something.
(Zool.) The European minnow; — so called from the color of its abdomen in summer.
a.
• Resembling the garden pink in color; of the color called pink (see 6th Pink, 2); as, a pink dress; pink ribbons.
Pinked
a.
• Pierced with small holes; worked in eyelets; scalloped on the edge.
Pinking
n.
• The act of piercing or stabbing.
• The act or method of decorating fabrics or garments with a pinking iron; also, the style of decoration; scallops made with a pinking iron.
Pinkish
a.
• Somewhat pink.
Pinkness
n.
• Quality or state of being pink.
Pinkroot
n.
(Med.) The root of Spigelia Marilandica, used as a powerful vermifuge; also, that of S. Anthelmia. See definition 2 (below).
(Bot.) A perennial North American herb (Spigelia Marilandica), sometimes cultivated for its showy red blossoms. Called also Carolina pink, Maryland pinkroot, and worm grass.
• An annual South American and West Indian plant (Spigelia Anthelmia).
Pinkster
n.
• Whitsuntide.
Pinky
n.
(Naut.) See 1st Pink.
Pinna
n.
(Bot.) A leaflet of a pinnate leaf. See Illust. of Bipinnate leaf, under Bipinnate.
• One of the primary divisions of a decompound leaf.
(Zool.) One of the divisions of a pinnate part or organ.
(Zool.) Any species of Pinna, a genus of large bivalve mollusks found in all warm seas. The byssus consists of a large number of long, silky fibers, which have been used in manufacturing woven fabrics, as a curiosity.
(Anat.) The auricle of the ear. See Ear.
Pinnace
n.
(Naut.) A small vessel propelled by sails or oars, formerly employed as a tender, or for coast defence; — called originally, spynace or spyne.
• A man-of-war's boat.
• A procuress; a pimp.
Pinnacle
n.
(Arch.) An architectural member, upright, and generally ending in a small spire, — used to finish a buttress, to constitute a part in a proportion, as where pinnacles flank a gable or spire, and the like. Pinnacles may be considered primarily as added weight, where it is necessary to resist the thrust of an arch, etc.
• Anything resembling a pinnacle; a lofty peak; a pointed summit.
v. t.
• To build or furnish with a pinnacle or pinnacles.
Pinnage
n.
• Poundage of cattle. See Pound.
Pinnately
adv.
• In a pinnate manner.
Pinnatifid
a.
(Bot.) Divided in a pinnate manner, with the divisions not reaching to the midrib.
Pinnatilobate
a.
(Bot.) Having lobes arranged in a pinnate manner.
Pinnatiped
a.
(Zool.) Having the toes bordered by membranes; fin-footed, as certain birds.
n.
(Zool.) Any bird which has the toes bordered by membranes.
Pinner
n.
• One who, or that which, pins or fastens, as with pins.
(Costume) A headdress like a cap, with long lappets.
• An apron with a bib; a pinafore.
• A cloth band for a gown.
• A pin maker.
n.
• One who pins or impounds cattle. See Pin, v. t.
Pinnet
n.
• A pinnacle.
Pinniform
a.
• Shaped like a fin or feather.
Pinnigrada
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Pinnipedia.
Pinnigrade
n.
(Zool.) An animal of the seal tribe, moving by short feet that serve as paddles.
Pinniped
n.
(Zool.) One of the Pinnipedia; a seal.
• One of the Pinnipedes.
Pinnipedes
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Steganopodes.
Pinnipedia
n. pl.
(Zool.) A suborder of aquatic carnivorous mammals including the seals and walruses; — opposed to Fissipedia.
Pinnock
n.
(Zool.) The hedge sparrow.
• The tomtit.
Pinnothere
n.
(Zool.) A crab of the genus pinnotheres. See Oyster crab, under Oyster.
Pinnula
n.
• Same as Pinnule.
Pinnulate
a.
(Bot.) Having each pinna subdivided; — said of a leaf, or of its pinnae.
Pinnulated
a.
(Zool.) Having pinnules.
Pinnule
n.
(Bot.) One of the small divisions of a decompound frond or leaf. See Illust. of Bipinnate leaf, under Bipinnate.
(Zool.) Any one of a series of small, slender organs, or parts, when arranged in rows so as to have a plumelike appearance; as, a pinnule of a gorgonia; the pinnules of a crinoid.
Pinnywinkles
n. pl.
• An instrument of torture, consisting of a board with holes into which the fingers were pressed, and fastened with pegs.
Pinocle
n.
• See Penuchle.
Pinole
n.
• An aromatic powder used in Italy in the manufacture of chocolate.
• Parched maize, ground, and mixed with sugar, etc. Mixed with water, it makes a nutritious beverage.
Pinon
n.
(Bot.) The edible seed of several species of pine; also, the tree producing such seeds, as Pinus Pinea of Southern Europe, and P. Parryana, cembroides, edulis, and monophylla, the nut pines of Western North America.
• See Monkey's puzzle.
Pinpatch
n.
(Zool.) The common English periwinkle.
Pint
n.
• A measure of capacity, equal to half a quart, or four gills, — used in liquid and dry measures. See Quart.
n.
(Zool.) The laughing gull.
Pintado
n.
(Zool.) Any bird of the genus Numida. Several species are found in Africa. The common pintado, or Guinea fowl, the helmeted, and the crested pintados, are the best known. See Guinea fowl, under Guinea.
Pintail
n.
(Zool.) A northern duck (Dafila acuta), native of both continents. The adult male has a long, tapering tail. Called also gray duck, piketail, piket-tail, spike-tail, split-tail, springtail, sea pheasant, and gray widgeon.
(Zool.) The sharp-tailed grouse of the great plains and Rocky Mountains (Pediocaetes phasianellus); — called also pintailed grouse, pintailed chicken, springtail, and sharptail.
Pintle
n.
• A little pin.
(Mech.) An upright pivot pin
• The pivot pin of a hinge
• A hook or pin on which a rudder hangs and turns
• A pivot about which the chassis swings, in some kinds of gun carriages
• A kingbolt of a wagon.
Pintos
n. pl.
(Eyhnol.) A mountain tribe of Mexican Indians living near Acapulco. They are remarkable for having the dark skin of the face irregularly spotted with white. Called also speckled Indians.
Pinule
n.
(Astron.) One of the sights of an astrolabe.
Pinus
n.
(Bot.) A large genus of evergreen coniferous trees, mostly found in the northern hemisphere. The genus formerly included the firs, spruces, larches, and hemlocks, but is now limited to those trees which have the primary leaves of the branchlets reduced to mere scales, and the secondary ones (pine needles) acicular, and usually in fascicles of two to seven. See Pine.
Pinweed
n.
(Bot.) Any plant of the genus Lechea, low North American herbs with branching stems, and very small and abundant leaves and flowers.
Pinworm
n.
(Zool.) A small nematoid worm (Oxyurus vermicularis), which is parasitic chiefly in the rectum of man. It is most common in children and aged persons.
Pinxit
• A word appended to the artist's name or initials on a painting, or engraved copy of a painting; as, Rubens pinxit, Rubens painted (this).
Pinxter
n.
• See Pinkster.
Piny
a.
• Abounding with pines.
Pioned
a.
• A Shakespearean word of disputed meaning; perh., "abounding in marsh marigolds."
Pioneer
n.
(Mil.) A soldier detailed or employed to form roads, dig trenches, and make bridges, as an army advances.
• One who goes before, as into the wilderness, preparing the way for others to follow; as, pioneers of civilization; pioneers of reform.
v. t. & i.
• To go before, and prepare or open a way for; to act as pioneer.
Pioner
n.
• A pioneer.
Piony
n.
(Bot.) See Peony.
Piot
n.
(Zool.) The magpie.
Pious
a.
• Of or pertaining to piety; exhibiting piety; reverential; dutiful; religious; devout; godly.
• Practiced under the pretext of religion; prompted by mistaken piety; as, pious errors; pious frauds.
Piously
adv.
• In a pious manner.
Pip
n.
• A contagious disease of fowls, characterized by hoarseness, discharge from the nostrils and eyes, and an accumulation of mucus in the mouth, forming a "scale" on the tongue. By some the term pip is restricted to this last symptom, the disease being called roup by them.
n.
(Bot.) A seed, as of an apple or orange.
n.
• One of the conventional figures or "spots" on playing cards, dominoes, etc.
v. i.
• To cry or chirp, as a chicken; to peep.
Pipa
n.
(Zool.) The Surinam toad (Pipa Americana), noted for its peculiar breeding habits.
Pipage
n.
• Transportation, as of petroleum oil, by means of a pipe conduit; also, the charge for such transportation.
Pipe
n.
• A wind instrument of music, consisting of a tube or tubes of straw, reed, wood, or metal; any tube which produces musical sounds; as, a shepherd's pipe; the pipe of an organ.
• Any long tube or hollow body of wood, metal, earthenware, or the like: especially, one used as a conductor of water, steam, gas, etc.
• A small bowl with a hollow steam, — used in smoking tobacco, and, sometimes, other substances.
• A passageway for the air in speaking and breathing; the windpipe, or one of its divisions.
• The key or sound of the voice.
• The peeping whistle, call, or note of a bird.
• The bagpipe; as, the pipes of Lucknow.
(Mining) An elongated body or vein of ore.
• A roll formerly used in the English exchequer, otherwise called the Great Roll, on which were taken down the accounts of debts to the king; — so called because put together like a pipe.
(Naut.) A boatswain's whistle, used to call the crew to their duties; also, the sound of it.
• A cask usually containing two hogsheads, or 126 wine gallons; also, the quantity which it contains.
v. i.
• To play on a pipe, fife, flute, or other tubular wind instrument of music.
(Naut.) To call, convey orders, etc., by means of signals on a pipe or whistle carried by a boatswain.
• To emit or have a shrill sound like that of a pipe; to whistle.
(Metal.) To become hollow in the process of solodifying; — said of an ingot, as of steel.
v. t.
• To perform, as a tune, by playing on a pipe, flute, fife, etc.; to utter in the shrill tone of a pipe.
(Naut.) To call or direct, as a crew, by the boatswain's whistle.
• To furnish or equip with pipes; as, to pipe an engine, or a building.
Pipeclay
v. t.
• To whiten or clean with pipe clay, as a soldier's accouterments.
• To clear off; as, to pipeclay accounts.
Piped
a.
• Formed with a pipe; having pipe or pipes; tubular.
Pipefish
n.
(Zool.) Any lophobranch fish of the genus Siphostoma, or Syngnathus, and allied genera, having a long and very slender angular body, covered with bony plates. The mouth is small, at the end of a long, tubular snout. The male has a pouch on his belly, in which the incubation of the eggs takes place.
Pipemouth
n.
(Zool.) Any fish of the genus Fistularia; — called also tobacco pipefish. See Fistularia.
Piper
n.
• See Pepper.
n.
(Mus.) One who plays on a pipe, or the like, esp. on a bagpipe.
(Zool.) A common European gurnard (Trigla lyra), having a large head, with prominent nasal projection, and with large, sharp, opercular spines.
• A sea urchin (Goniocidaris hystrix) having very long spines, native of both the American and European coasts.
Piperaceous
a.
(Bot.) Of or pertaining to the order of plants (Piperaceae) of which the pepper (Piper nigrum) is the type. There are about a dozen genera and a thousand species, mostly tropical plants with pungent and aromatic qualities.
Piperic
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, or designating, a complex organic acid found in the products of different members of the Pepper family, and extracted as a yellowish crystalline substance.
Piperidge
n.
(Bot.) Same as Pepperidge.
Piperidine
n.
(Chem.) An oily liquid alkaloid, C5H11N, having a hot, peppery, ammoniacal odor. It is related to pyridine, and is obtained by the decomposition of piperine.
Piperine
n.
(Chem.) A white crystalline compound of piperidine and piperic acid. It is obtained from the black pepper (Piper nigrum) and other species.
Piperonal
n.
(Chem.) A white crystalline substance obtained by oxidation of piperic acid, and regarded as a complex aldehyde.
Piperylene
n.
(Chem.) A hydrocarbon obtained by decomposition of certain piperidine derivatives.
Pipestem
n.
• The hollow stem or tube of a pipe used for smoking tobacco, etc.
Pipestone
n.
• A kind of clay slate, carved by the Indians into tobacco pipes. Cf. Catlinite.
Pipette
n.
• A small glass tube, often with an enlargement or bulb in the middle, and usually graduated, — used for transferring or delivering measured quantities.
Pipevine
n.
(Bot.) The Dutchman's pipe. See under Dutchman.
Pipewort
n.
(Bot.) Any plant of a genus (Eriocaulon) of aquatic or marsh herbs with soft grass-like leaves.
Piping
a.
• Playing on a musical pipe.
• Peaceful; favorable to, or characterized by, the music of the pipe rather than of the drum and fife.
• Emitting a high, shrill sound.
• Simmering; boiling; sizzling; hissing; — from the sound of boiling fluids.
n.
• A small cord covered with cloth, — used as trimming for women's dresses.
• Pipes, collectively; as, the piping of a house.
• The act of playing on a pipe; the shrill noted of birds, etc.
• A piece cut off to be set or planted; a cutting; also, propagation by cuttings.
Pipit
n.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of small singing birds belonging to Anthus and allied genera, of the family Motacillidae. They strongly resemble the true larks in habits, colors, and the great length of the hind claw. They are, therefore, often called titlarks, and pipit larks.
Pipkin
n.
• A small earthen boiler.
Pippin
n.
(Bot.) An apple from a tree raised from the seed and not grafted; a seedling apple.
• A name given to apples of several different kinds, as Newtown pippin, summer pippin, fall pippin, golden pippin.
Pipra
n.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of small clamatorial birds belonging to Pipra and allied genera, of the family Pipridae. The male is usually glossy black, varied with scarlet, yellow, or sky blue. They chiefly inhabit South America.
Piprine
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the pipras, or the family Pipridae.
Pipsissewa
n.
(Bot.) A low evergreen plant (Chimaphila umbellata), with narrow, wedge-lanceolate leaves, and an umbel of pretty nodding fragrant blossoms. It has been used in nephritic diseases. Called also prince's pine.
Pipy
a.
• Like a pipe; hollow-stemmed.
Piquancy
n.
• The quality or state of being piquant.
Piquant
a.
• Stimulating to the taste; giving zest; tart; sharp; pungent; as, a piquant anecdote.
Piquantly
adv.
• In a piquant manner.
Pique
n.
(Zool.) The jigger. See Jigger.
n.
• A feeling of hurt, vexation, or resentment, awakened by a social slight or injury; irritation of the feelings, as through wounded pride; stinging vexation.
• Keenly felt desire; a longing.
(Card Playing) In piquet, the right of the elder hand to count thirty in hand, or to play before the adversary counts one.
v. t.
• To wound the pride of; to sting; to nettle; to irritate; to fret; to offend; to excite to anger.
• To excite to action by causing resentment or jealousy; to stimulate; to prick; as, to pique ambition, or curiosity.
• To pride or value; — used reflexively.
v. i.
• To cause annoyance or irritation.
Pique
n.
• A cotton fabric, figured in the loom, — used as a dress goods for women and children, and for vestings, etc.
Piqueer
v. i.
• See Pickeer.
Piqueerer
n.
• See Pickeerer.
Piquet
n.
• See Picket.
n.
• A game at cards played between two persons, with thirty-two cards, all the deuces, threes, fours, fives, and sixes, being set aside.
Piracy
n.
• The act or crime of a pirate.
(Common Law) Robbery on the high seas; the taking of property from others on the open sea by open violence; without lawful authority, and with intent to steal; — a crime answering to robbery on land.

Piragua
n.
• See Pirogue.
Pirai
n.
(Zool.) Same as Piraya.
Pirameter
n.
• A dynamometer for ascertaining the power required to draw carriages over roads.
Pirarucu
n.
(Zool.) Same as Arapaima.
Pirate
n.
• A robber on the high seas; one who by open violence takes the property of another on the high seas; especially, one who makes it his business to cruise for robbery or plunder; a freebooter on the seas; also, one who steals in a harbor.
• An armed ship or vessel which sails without a legal commission, for the purpose of plundering other vessels on the high seas.
• One who infringes the law of copyright, or publishes the work of an author without permission.
v. i.
• To play the pirate; to practice robbery on the high seas.
v. t.
• To publish, as books or writings, without the permission of the author.
Piratic
a.
• Piratical.
Piratical
a.
• Of or pertaining to a pirate; acquired by, or practicing, piracy; as, a piratical undertaking.
Piraya
n.
(Zool.) A large voracious fresh-water fish (Serrasalmo piraya) of South America, having lancet-shaped teeth.
Pirie
n.
(Naut.) See Pirry.
n.
(Bot.) A pear tree.
Piririgua
n.
(Zool.) A South American bird (Guira guira) allied to the cuckoos.
Pirl
v. t.
• To spin, as a top.
• To twist or twine, as hair in making fishing lines.
Pirn
n.
• A quill or reed on which thread or yarn is wound; a bobbin; also, the wound yarn on a weaver's shuttle; also, the reel of a fishing rod.
Pirogue
n.
• A dugout canoe; by extension, any small boat.
Pirouette
n.
• A whirling or turning on the toes in dancing.
(Man.) The whirling about of a horse.
v. i.
• To perform a pirouette; to whirl, like a dancer.
Pisasphaltum
n.
• See Pissasphalt.
Pisay
n.
(Arch.) See Pise.
Piscary
n.
(Law) The right or privilege of fishing in another man's waters.
Piscation
n.
• Fishing; fishery.
Piscator
n.
• A fisherman; an angler.
Pisces
n. pl.
(Astron.) The twelfth sign of the zodiac, marked &pisces; in almanacs.
• A zodiacal constellation, including the first point of Aries, which is the vernal equinoctial point; the Fish.
(Zool.) The class of Vertebrata that includes the fishes. The principal divisions are Elasmobranchii, Ganoidei, and Teleostei.
Piscicapture
n.
• Capture of fishes, as by angling.
Piscicultural
a.
• Relating to pisciculture.
Pisciculture
n.
• Fish culture. See under Fish.
Pisciculturist
n.
• One who breeds fish.
Pisciform
a.
• Having the form of a fish; resembling a fish.
Piscina
n.
(Arch.) A niche near the altar in a church, containing a small basin for rinsing altar vessels.
Piscinal
a.
• Belonging to a fishpond or a piscina.
Piscine
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to a fish or fishes; as, piscine remains.
Piscivorous
a.
(Zool.) Feeding or subsisting on fish.
Pise
n.
(Arch.) A species of wall made of stiff earth or clay rammed in between molds which are carried up as the wall rises; — called also pise work.
Pish
interj.
• An exclamation of contempt.
v. i.
• To express contempt.
Pishu
n.
(Zool.) The Canada lynx.
Pisiform
a.
• Resembling a pea or peas in size and shape; as, a pisiform iron ore.
n.
(Anat.) A small bone on the ulnar side of the carpus in man and many mammals. See Illust. of Artiodactyla.
Pismire
n.
(Zool.) An ant, or emmet.
Pisolite
n.
(Min.) A variety of calcite, or calcium carbonate, consisting of aggregated globular concretions about the size of a pea; — called also peastone, peagrit.
Pisolitic
a.
(Min.) Composed of, containing, or resembling, pisolite.
Pisophalt
n.
(Min.) Pissasphalt.
Piss
v. t. & i.
• To discharge urine, to urinate.
n.
• Urine.
Pissabed
n.
(Bot.) A name locally applied to various wild plants, as dandelion, bluet, oxeye daisy, etc.
Pissasphalt
n.
(Min.) Earth pitch; a soft, black bitumen of the consistence of tar, and of a strong smell. It is inflammable, and intermediate between petroleum and asphalt.
Pist
n.
(man.) See Piste.
Pistachio
n.
(Bot.) The nut of the Pistacia vera, a tree of the order Anacardiaceae, containing a kernel of a pale greenish color, which has a pleasant taste, resembling that of the almond, and yields an oil of agreeable taste and odor; — called also pistachio nut. It is wholesome and nutritive. The tree grows in Arabia, Persia, Syria, and Sicily.
Pistacia
n.
(Bot.) The name of a genus of trees, including the tree which bears the pistachio, the Mediterranean mastic tree (Pistacia Lentiscus), and the species (P. Terebinthus) which yields Chian or Cyprus turpentine.
Pistacite
n.
(Min.) Epidote.
Pistareen
n.
• An old Spanish silver coin of the value of about twenty cents.
Pistazite
n.
(Min.) Same as Pistacite.
Piste
n.
(Min.) The track or tread a horseman makes upon the ground he goes over.
Pistic
a.
• Pure; genuine.
Pistil
n.
(Bot.) The seed-bearing organ of a flower. It consists of an ovary, containing the ovules or rudimentary seeds, and a stigma, which is commonly raised on an elongated portion called a style. When composed of one carpel a pistil is simple; when composed of several, it is compound. See Illust. of Flower, and Ovary.
Pistillaceous
a.
(Bot.) Growing on, or having nature of, the pistil; of or pertaining to a pistil.
Pistillate
a.
(Bot.) Having a pistil or pistils; — usually said of flowers having pistils but no stamens.
Pistillation
n.
• The act of pounding or breaking in a mortar; pestillation.
Pistillidium
n.
(Bot.) Same as Archegonium.
Pistilliferous
a.
(Bot.) Pistillate.
Pistillody
n.
(Bot.) The metamorphosis of other organs into pistils.
Pistol
n.
• The smallest firearm used, intended to be fired from one hand, — now of many patterns, and bearing a great variety of names. See Illust. of Revolver.
v. t.
• To shoot with a pistol.
Pistolade
n.
• A pistol shot.
Pistole
n.
• The name of certain gold coins of various values formerly coined in some countries of Europe. In Spain it was equivalent to a quarter doubloon, or about $3.90, and in Germany and Italy nearly the same. There was an old Italian pistole worth about $5.40.
Pistoleer
n.
• One who uses a pistol.
Pistolet
n.
• A small pistol.
Piston
n.
(Mach.) A sliding piece which either is moved by, or moves against, fluid pressure. It usually consists of a short cylinder fitting within a cylindrical vessel along which it moves, back and forth. It is used in steam engines to receive motion from the steam, and in pumps to transmit motion to a fluid; also for other purposes.
Pit
n.
• A large cavity or hole in the ground, either natural or artificial; a cavity in the surface of a body; an indentation
• The shaft of a coal mine; a coal pit
• A large hole in the ground from which material is dug or quarried; as, a stone pit; a gravel pit; or in which material is made by burning; as, a lime pit; a charcoal pit
• A vat sunk in the ground; as, a tan pit.
• Any abyss; especially, the grave, or hades.
• A covered deep hole for entrapping wild beasts; a pitfall; hence, a trap; a snare. Also used figuratively.
• A depression or hollow in the surface of the human body
• The hollow place under the shoulder or arm; the axilla, or armpit
• See Pit of the stomach (below)
• The indentation or mark left by a pustule, as in smallpox.
• Formerly, that part of a theater, on the floor of the house, below the level of the stage and behind the orchestra; now, in England, commonly the part behind the stalls; in the United States, the parquet; also, the occupants of such a part of a theater.
• An inclosed area into which gamecocks, dogs, and other animals are brought to fight, or where dogs are trained to kill rats.
(Bot.) The endocarp of a drupe, and its contained seed or seeds; a stone; as, a peach pit; a cherry pit, etc.
• A depression or thin spot in the wall of a duct.
v. t.
• To place or put into a pit or hole.
• To mark with little hollows, as by various pustules; as, a face pitted by smallpox.
• To introduce as an antagonist; to set forward for or in a contest; as, to pit one dog against another.
Pita
n.
(Bot.) A fiber obtained from the Agave Americana and other related species, — used for making cordage and paper. Called also pita fiber, and pita thread.
• The plant which yields the fiber.
Pitahaya
n.
(Bot.) A cactaceous shrub (Cereus Pitajaya) of tropical America, which yields a delicious fruit.
Pitapat
adv.
• In a flutter; with palpitation or quick succession of beats.
n.
• A light, repeated sound; a pattering, as of the rain.
Pitch
n.
• A thick, black, lustrous, and sticky substance obtained by boiling down tar. It is used in calking the seams of ships; also in coating rope, canvas, wood, ironwork, etc., to preserve them.
(Geol.) See Pitchstone.
v. t.
• To cover over or smear with pitch.
• Fig.: To darken; to blacken; to obscure.
v. t.
• To throw, generally with a definite aim or purpose; to cast; to hurl; to toss; as, to pitch quoits; to pitch hay; to pitch a ball.
• To thrust or plant in the ground, as stakes or poles; hence, to fix firmly, as by means of poles; to establish; to arrange; as, to pitch a tent; to pitch a camp.
• To set, face, or pave with rubble or undressed stones, as an embankment or a roadway.
• To fix or set the tone of; as, to pitch a tune.
• To set or fix, as a price or value.
v. i.
• To fix or place a tent or temporary habitation; to encamp.
• To light; to settle; to come to rest from flight.
• To fix one's choise; — with on or upon.
• To plunge or fall; esp., to fall forward; to decline or slope; as, to pitch from a precipice; the vessel pitches in a heavy sea; the field pitches toward the east.
n.
• A throw; a toss; a cast, as of something from the hand; as, a good pitch in quoits.
(Cricket) That point of the ground on which the ball pitches or lights when bowled.
• A point or peak; the extreme point or degree of elevation or depression; hence, a limit or bound.
• Height; stature.
• A descent; a fall; a thrusting down.
• The point where a declivity begins; hence, the declivity itself; a descending slope; the degree or rate of descent or slope; slant; as, a steep pitch in the road; the pitch of a roof.
(Mus.) The relative acuteness or gravity of a tone, determined by the number of vibrations which produce it; the place of any tone upon a scale of high and low.
(Mining) The limit of ground set to a miner who receives a share of the ore taken out.
(Mech.) The distance from center to center of any two adjacent teeth of gearing, measured on the pitch line; — called also circular pitch.
• The length, measured along the axis, of a complete turn of the thread of a screw, or of the helical lines of the blades of a screw propeller.
• The distance between the centers of holes, as of rivet holes in boiler plates.
Pitchblende
n.
(Min.) A pitch-black mineral consisting chiefly of the oxide of uranium; uraninite. See Uraninite.
Pitcher
n.
• One who pitches anything, as hay, quoits, a ball, etc.; specifically (Baseball), the player who delivers the ball to the batsman.
• A sort of crowbar for digging.
n.
• A wide-mouthed, deep vessel for holding liquids, with a spout or protruding lip and a handle; a water jug or jar with a large ear or handle.
(Bot.) A tubular or cuplike appendage or expansion of the leaves of certain plants.
Pitcherful
n.
• The quantity a pitcher will hold.
Pitchfork
n.
• A fork, or farming utensil, used in pitching hay, sheaves of grain, or the like.
v. t.
• To pitch or throw with, or as with, a pitchfork.
Pitchiness
n.
• Blackness, as of pitch; darkness.
Pitching
n.
• The act of throwing or casting; a cast; a pitch; as, wild pitching in baseball.
• The rough paving of a street to a grade with blocks of stone.
(Hydraul. Eng.) A facing of stone laid upon a bank to prevent wear by tides or currents.
Pitchstone
n.
(Geol.) An igneous rock of semiglassy nature, having a luster like pitch.
Pitchwork
n.
• The work of a coal miner who is paid by a share of his product.
Pitchy
a.
• Partaking of the qualities of pitch; resembling pitch.
• Smeared with pitch.
• Black; pitch-dark; dismal.
Piteous
a.
• Pious; devout.
• Evincing pity, compassion, or sympathy; compassionate; tender.
• Fitted to excite pity or sympathy; wretched; miserable; lamentable; sad; as, a piteous case.
• Paltry; mean; pitiful.
Pitfall
n.
• A pit deceitfully covered to entrap wild beasts or men; a trap of any kind.
Pitfalling
a.
• Entrapping; insnaring.
Pith
n.
(Bot.) The soft spongy substance in the center of the stems of many plants and trees, especially those of the dicotyledonous or exogenous classes. It consists of cellular tissue.
(Zool.) The spongy interior substance of a feather.
(Anat.) The spinal cord; the marrow.
• Hence: The which contains the strength of life; the vital or essential part; concentrated force; vigor; strength; importance; as, the speech lacked pith.
v. t.
(Physiol.) To destroy the central nervous system of (an animal, as a frog), as by passing a stout wire or needle up and down the vertebral canal.
Pitheci
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of mammals including the apes and monkeys. Sometimes used in the sense of Primates.
Pithecoid
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the genus Pithecia, or subfamily Pithecinae, which includes the saki, ouakari, and other allied South American monkeys.
• Of or pertaining to the anthropoid apes in particular, or to the higher apes of the Old World, collectively.
Pithful
a.
• Full of pith.
Pithily
adv.
• In a pithy manner.
Pithiness
n.
• The quality or state of being pithy.
Pithless
a.
• Destitute of pith, or of strength; feeble.
Pithsome
a.
• Pithy; robust.
Pithy
a.
• Consisting wholly, or in part, of pith; abounding in pith; as, a pithy stem; a pithy fruit.
• Having nervous energy; forceful; cogent.
Pitiable
a.
• Deserving pity; wworthy of, or exciting, compassion; miserable; lamentable; piteous; as, pitiable persons; a pitiable condition; pitiable wretchedness.
Pitier
n.
• One who pities.
Pitiful
a.
• Full of pity; tender-hearted; compassionate; kind; merciful; sympathetic.
• Piteous; lamentable; eliciting compassion.
• To be pitied for littleness or meanness; miserable; paltry; contemptible; despicable.
Pitiless
a.
• Destitute of pity; hard-hearted; merciless; as, a pitilessmaster; pitiless elements.
• Exciting no pity; as, a pitiless condition.
Pitman
n.
• One who works in a pit, as in mining, in sawing timber, etc.
(Mach.) The connecting rod in a sawmill; also, sometimes, a connecting rod in other machinery.
Pitpan
n.
• A long, flat-bottomed canoe, used for the navigation of rivers and lagoons in Central America.
Pitpat
n. & adv.
• See Pitapat.
Pitta
n.
(Zool.) Any one of a large group of bright-colored clamatorial birds belonging to Pitta, and allied genera of the family Pittidae. Most of the species are varied with three or more colors, such as blue, green, crimson, yellow, purple, and black. They are called also ground thrushes, and Old World ant thrushes; but they are not related to the true thrushes.
Pittacal
n.
(Chem.) A dark blue substance obtained from wood tar. It consists of hydrocarbons which when oxidized form the orange-yellow eupittonic compounds, the salts of which are dark blue.
Pittance
n.
• An allowance of food bestowed in charity; a mess of victuals; hence, a small charity gift; a dole.
• A meager portion, quality, or allowance; an inconsiderable salary or compensation.
Pitted
a.
• Marked with little pits, as in smallpox. See Pit, v. t., 2.
(Bot.) Having minute thin spots; as, pitted ducts in the vascular parts of vegetable tissue.
Pitter
n.
• A contrivance for removing the pits from peaches, plums, and other stone fruit.
v. i.
• To make a pattering sound; to murmur; as, pittering streams.
Pituitary
a.
(Anat.) Secreting mucus or phlegm; as, the pituitary membrane, or the mucous membrane which lines the nasal cavities.
• Of or pertaining to the pituitary body; as, the pituitary fossa.
Pituite
n.
• Mucus, phlegm.
Pituitous
a.
• Consisting of, or resembling, pituite or mucus; full of mucus; discharging mucus.
Pity
n.
• Piety.
• A feeling for the sufferings or distresses of another or others; sympathy with the grief or misery of another; compassion; fellow-feeling; commiseration.
• A reason or cause of pity, grief, or regret; a thing to be regretted.
v. t.
• To feel pity or compassion for; to have sympathy with; to compassionate; to commiserate; to have tender feelings toward (any one), awakened by a knowledge of suffering.
• To move to pity; — used impersonally.
v. i.
• To be compassionate; to show pity.
Pitying
a.
• Expressing pity; as, a pitying eye, glance, or word.
Pityriasis
n.
(Med.) A superficial affection of the skin, characterized by irregular patches of thin scales which are shed in branlike particles.
Pityroid
a.
• Having the form of, or resembling, bran.
Pivot
n.
• A fixed pin or short axis, on the end of which a wheel or other body turns.
• The end of a shaft or arbor which rests and turns in a support; as, the pivot of an arbor in a watch.
• Hence, figuratively: A turning point or condition; that on which important results depend; as, the pivot of an enterprise.
(Mil.) The officer or soldier who simply turns in his place whike the company or line moves around him in wheeling; — called also pivot man.
v. t.
• To place on a pivot.
Pivotal
a.
• Of or pertaining to a pivot or turning point; belonging to, or constituting, a pivot; of the nature of a pivot; as, the pivotalopportunity of a career; the pivotal position in a battle.
Pix
n. & v.
• See Pyx.
Pizzicato
(Mus.) A direction to violinists to pluck the string with the finger, instead of using the bow. (Abrev. pizz.)
Pizzle
n.
• The penis; — so called in some animals, as the bull.
Placability
n.
• The quality or state of being placable or appeasable; placable disposition.
Placable
a.
• Capable of being appeased or pacified; ready or willing to be pacified; willing to forgive or condone.
Placableness
n.
• The quality of being placable.
Placard
n.
• A public proclamation; a manifesto or edict issued by authority.
• Permission given by authority; a license; as, to give a placard to do something.
• A written or printed paper, as an advertisement or a declaration, posted, or to be posted, in a public place; a poster.
(Anc. Armor) An extra plate on the lower part of the breastplate or backplate.
• A kind of stomacher, often adorned with jewels, worn in the fifteenth century and later.
v. t.
• To post placards upon or within; as, to placard a wall, to placard the city.
• To announce by placards; as, to placard a sale.
Placate
n.
• Same as Placard, 4 & 5.
v. t.
• To appease; to pacify; to concilate.
Placation
n.
• The act of placating.
Place
n.
• Any portion of space regarded as measured off or distinct from all other space, or appropriated to some definite object or use; position; ground; site; spot; rarely, unbounded space.
• A broad way in a city; an open space; an area; a court or short part of a street open only at one end.
• A position which is occupied and held; a dwelling; a mansion; a village, town, or city; a fortified town or post; a stronghold; a region or country.
• Rank; degree; grade; order of priority, advancement, dignity, or importance; especially, social rank or position; condition; also, official station; occupation; calling.
• Vacated or relinquished space; room; stead (the departure or removal of another being or thing being implied).
• A definite position or passage of a document.
• Ordinal relation; position in the order of proceeding; as, he said in the first place.
• Reception; effect; — implying the making room for.
(Astron.) Position in the heavens, as of a heavenly body; — usually defined by its right ascension and declination, or by its latitude and longitude.
v. t.
• To assign a place to; to put in a particular spot or place, or in a certain relative position; to direct to a particular place; to fix; to settle; to locate; as, to place a book on a shelf; to place balls in tennis.
• To put or set in a particular rank, office, or position; to surround with particular circumstances or relations in life; to appoint to certain station or condition of life; as, in whatever sphere one is placed.
• To put out at interest; to invest; to loan; as, to place money in a bank.
• To set; to fix; to repose; as, to place confidence in a friend.
• To attribute; to ascribe; to set down.
Placebo
n.
(R. C. Ch.) The first antiphon of the vespers for the dead.
(Med.) A prescription intended to humor or satisfy.
Placeful
a.
• In the appointed place.
Placeless
a.
• Having no place or office.
Placeman
n.
• One who holds or occupies a place; one who has office under government.
Placement
n.
• The act of placing, or the state of being placed.
• Position; place.
Placenta
n.
(Anat.) The vascular appendage which connects the fetus with the parent, and is cast off in parturition with the afterbirth.
(Bot.) The part of a pistil or fruit to which the ovules or seeds are attached.
Placental
a.
• Of or pertaining to the placenta; having, or characterized by having, a placenta; as, a placental mammal.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Placentalia.
n.
(Zool.) One of the Placentalia.
Placentalia
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of Mammalia including those that have a placenta, or all the orders above the marsupials.
Placentary
a.
• Having reference to the placenta; as, the placentary system of classification.
Placentation
n.
(Anat.) The mode of formation of the placenta in different animals; as, the placentation of mammals.
(Bot.) The mode in which the placenta is arranged or composed; as, axile placentation; parietal placentation.
Placentiferous
a.
(Bot. & Zool.) Having or producing a placenta.
Placentiform
a.
(Bot.) Having the shape of a placenta, or circular thickened disk somewhat thinner about the middle.
Placentious
a.
• Pleasing; amiable.
Placer
n.
• One who places or sets.
n.
• A deposit of earth, sand, or gravel, containing valuable mineral in particles, especially by the side of a river, or in the bed of a mountain torrent.
Placet
n.
• A vote of assent, as of the governing body of a university, of an ecclesiastical council, etc.
• The assent of the civil power to the promulgation of an ecclesiastical ordinance.
Placid
a.
• Pleased; contented; unruffied; undisturbed; serene; peaceful; tranquil; quiet; gentle.
Placidity
n.
• The quality or state of being placid; calmness; serenity.
Placidly
adv.
• In a placid manner.
Placidness
n.
• The quality or state of being placid.
Placit
n.
• A decree or determination; a dictum.
Placitory
a.
• Of or pertaining to pleas or pleading, in courts of law.
Placitum
n.
• A public court or assembly in the Middle Ages, over which the sovereign president when a consultation was held upon affairs of state.
(Old Eng. Law) A court, or cause in court.
(Law) A plea; a pleading; a judicial proceeding; a suit.
Plack
n.
• A small copper coin formerly current in Scotland, worth less than a cent.
Placket
n.
• A petticoat, esp. an under petticoat; hence, a cant term for a woman.
• The opening or slit left in a petticoat or skirt for convenience in putting it on; — called also placket hole.
• A woman's pocket.
Placoderm
n.
(Paleon.) One of the Placodermi.
Placodermal
a.
(Paleon.) Of or pertaining to the placoderms; like the placoderms.
Placodermata
n. pl.
(Paleon.) Same as Placodermi.
Placodermi
n. pl.
(Paleon.) An extinct group of fishes, supposed to be ganoids. The body and head were covered with large bony plates. See Illust. under Pterichthys, and Coccosteus.
Placoganoid
a.
(Zool.) Pertaining to the Placoganoidei.
Placoganoidei
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of ganoid fishes including those that have large external bony plates and a cartilaginous skeleton.
Placoid
a.
(Zool.) Platelike; having irregular, platelike, bony scales, often bearing spines; pertaining to the placoids.
n.
(Zool.) Any fish having placoid scales, as the sharks.
• One of the Placoides.
Placoides
n. pl.
(Zool.) A group of fishes including the sharks and rays; the Elasmobranchii; — called also Placoidei.
Placoidian
n.
(Zool.) One of the placoids.
Placophora
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of gastropod Mollusca, including the chitons. The back is covered by eight shelly plates. Called also Polyplacophora. See Illust. under Chiton, and Isopleura.
Plaga
n.
(Zool.) A stripe of color.
Plagal
a.
(Mus.) Having a scale running from the dominant to its octave; — said of certain old church modes or tunes, as opposed to those called authentic, which ran from the tonic to its octave.
Plagate
a.
(Zool.) Having plagae, or irregular enlongated color spots.
Plage
n.
• A region; country.
Plagiarism
n.
• The act or practice of plagiarizing.
• That which plagiarized.
Plagiarist
n.
• One who plagiarizes; or purloins the words, writings, or ideas of another, and passes them off as his own; a literary thief; a plagiary.
Plagiarize
v. t.
• To steal or purloin from the writings of another; to appropriate without due acknowledgement (the ideas or expressions of another).
Plagiary
v. i.
• To commit plagiarism.
n.
• A manstealer; a kidnaper.
• One who purloins another's expressions or ideas, and offers them as his own; a plagiarist.
• Plagiarism; literary thief.
a.
• Kidnaping.
• Practicing plagiarism.
Plagihedral
a.
(Crystallog.) Having an oblique spiral arrangement of planes, as levogyrate and dextrogyrate crystals.
Plagiocephalic
a.
(Anat.) Having an oblique lateral deformity of the skull.
Plagiocephaly
n.
(Anat.) Oblique lateral deformity of the skull.
Plagioclase
n.
(Min.) A general term used of any triclinic feldspar. See the Note under Feldspar.
Plagionite
n.
(Min.) A sulphide of lead and antimony, of a blackish lead-gray color and metallic luster.
Plagiostomatous
a.
(Zool.) Same as Plagiostomous.
Plagiostome
n.
(Zool.) One of the Plagiostomi.
Plagiostomi
n. pl.
(Zool.) An order of fishes including the sharks and rays; — called also Plagiostomata.
Plagiostomous
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Plagiostomi.
Plagiotremata
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Lepidosauria.
Plagiotropic
a.
(Bot.) Having the longer axis inclined away from the vertical line.
Plagium
n.
(Civil Law) Manstealing; kidnaping.
Plagose
a.
• Fond of flogging; as, a plagose master.
Plague
n.
• That which smites, wounds, or troubles; a blow; a calamity; any afflictive evil or torment; a great trail or vexation.
(Med.) An acute malignant contagious fever, that often prevails in Egypt, Syria, and Turkey, and has at times visited the large cities of Europe with frightful mortality; hence, any pestilence; as, the great London plague.
v. t.
• To infest or afflict with disease, calamity, or natural evil of any kind.
• Fig.: To vex; to tease; to harass.
Plagueful
a.
• Abounding, or infecting, with plagues; pestilential; as, plagueful exhalations.
Plagueless
a.
• Free from plagues or the plague.
Plaguer
n.
• One who plagues or annoys.
Plaguily
adv.
• In a plaguing manner; vexatiously; extremely.
Plaguy
a.
• Vexatious; troublesome; tormenting; as, a plaguy horse. Also used adverbially; as, "He is so plaguy proud."
Plaice
n.
(Zool.) A European food fish (Pleuronectes platessa), allied to the flounder, and growing to the weight of eight or ten pounds or more.
• A large American flounder (Paralichthys dentatus; called also brail, puckermouth, and summer flounder. The name is sometimes applied to other allied species.
Plaid
n.
• A rectangular garment or piece of cloth, usually made of the checkered material called tartan, but sometimes of plain gray, or gray with black stripes. It is worn by both sexes in Scotland.
• Goods of any quality or material of the pattern of a plaid or tartan; a checkered cloth or pattern.
a.
• Having a pattern or colors which resemble a Scotch plaid; checkered or marked with bars or stripes at right angles to one another; as, plaid muslin.
Plaided
a.
• Of the material of which plaids are made; tartan.
• Wearing a plaid.
Plaiding
n.
• Plaid cloth.
Plain
v. i.
• To lament; to bewail; to complain.
v. t.
• To lament; to mourn over; as, to plain a loss.
a.
• Without elevations or depressions; flat; level; smooth; even. See Plane.
• Open; clear; unencumbered; equal; fair.
• Not intricate or difficult; evident; manifest; obvious; clear; unmistakable.
• Void of extraneous beauty or ornament; without conspicious embellishment; not rich; simple.
• Not highly cultivated; unsophisticated; free from show or pretension; simple; natural; homely; common.
• Free from affectation or disguise; candid; sincere; artless; honest; frank.
• Not luxurious; not highly seasoned; simple; as, plain food.
• Without beauty; not handsome; homely; as, a plain woman.
• Not variegated, dyed, or figured; as, plain muslin.
• Not much varied by modulations; as, a plain tune.
adv.
• In a plain manner; plainly.
n.
• Level land; usually, an open field or a broad stretch of land with an even surface, or a surface little varied by inequalities; as, the plain of Jordan; the American plains, or prairies.
• A field of battle.
v. t.
• To plane or level; to make plain or even on the surface
• To make plain or manifest; to explain.
Plainant
n.
(Law) One who makes complaint; the plaintiff.
Plaining
n.
• Complaint.
a.
• Complaining.
Plainly
adv.
• In a plain manner; clearly.
Plainness
n.
• The quality or state of being plain.
Plainsman
n.
• One who lives in the plains.
Plaint
n.
• Audible expression of sorrow; lamentation; complaint; hence, a mournful song; a lament.
• An accusation or protest on account of an injury.
(Law) A private memorial tendered to a court, in which a person sets forth his cause of action; the exhibiting of an action in writing.
Plaintful
a.
• Containing a plaint; complaining; expressing sorrow with an audible voice.
Plaintiff
n.
(Law) One who commences a personal action or suit to obtain a remedy for an injury to his rights; — opposed to defendant.
a.
• See Plaintive.
Plaintive
a.
• Repining; complaining; lamenting.
• Expressive of sorrow or melancholy; mournful; sad.
Plaintless
a.
• Without complaint; unrepining.
Plaisance
n.
• See Pleasance.
Plaise
n.
(Zool.) See Plaice.
Plaister
n.
• See Plaster.
Plait
n.
• A flat fold; a doubling, as of cloth; a pleat; as, a box plait.
• A braid, as of hair or straw; a plat.
v. t.
• To fold; to double in narrow folds; to pleat; as, to plait a ruffle.
• To interweave the strands or locks of; to braid; to plat; as, to plait hair; to plait rope.
Plaited
a.
• Folded; doubled over; braided; figuratively, involved; intricate; artful.
Plaiter
n.
• One who, or that which, plaits.
Plan
n.
• A draught or form; properly, a representation drawn on a plane, as a map or a chart; especially, a top view, as of a machine, or the representation or delineation of a horizontal section of anything, as of a building; a graphic representation; a diagram.
• A scheme devised; a method of action or procedure expressed or described in language; a project; as, the plan of a constitution; the plan of an expedition.
• A method; a way of procedure; a custom.
v. t.
• To form a delineation of; to draught; to represent, as by a diagram.
• To scheme; to devise; to contrive; to form in design; as, to plan the conquest of a country.
Planaria
n.
(Zool.) Any species of turbellarian worms belonging to Planaria, and many allied genera. The body is usually flat, thin, and smooth. Some species, in warm countries, are terrestrial.
Planarian
n.
(Zool.) One of the Planarida, or Dendrocoela; any turbellarian worm.
Planarida
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of Turbellaria; the Dendrocoela.
Planarioid
a.
(Zool.) Like the planarians.
Planary
a.
• Of or pertaining to a plane.
Planch
n.
• A plank.
v. t.
• To make or cover with planks or boards; to plank.
Plancher
n.
• A floor of wood; also, a plank.
(Arch.) The under side of a cornice; a soffit.
v. t.
• To form of planks.
Planchet
n.
• A flat piece of metal; especially, a disk of metal ready to be stamped as a coin.
Planchette
n.
• A circumferentor. See Circumferentor.
• A small tablet of wood supported on casters and having a pencil attached. The characters produced by the pencil on paper, while the hand rests on the instrument and it is allowed to move, are sometimes translated as of oracular or supernatural import.
Planching
n.
• The laying of floors in a building; also, a floor of boards or planks.
Plane
n.
(Bot.) Any tree of the genus Platanus.
a.
• Without elevations or depressions; even; level; flat; lying in, or constituting, a plane; as, a plane surface.
n.
(Geom.) A surface, real or imaginary, in which, if any two points are taken, the straight line which joins them lies wholly in that surface; or a surface, any section of which by a like surface is a straight line; a surface without curvature.
(Astron.) An ideal surface, conceived as coinciding with, or containing, some designated astronomical line, circle, or other curve; as, the plane of an orbit; the plane of the ecliptic, or of the equator.
(Mech.) A block or plate having a perfectly flat surface, used as a standard of flatness; a surface plate.
(Joinery) A tool for smoothing boards or other surfaces of wood, for forming moldings, etc. It consists of a smooth-soled stock, usually of wood, from the under side or face of which projects slightly the steel cutting edge of a chisel, called the iron, which inclines backward, with an apperture in front for the escape of shavings; as, the jack plane; the smoothing plane; the molding plane, etc.
v. t.
• To make smooth; to level; to pare off the inequalities of the surface of, as of a board or other piece of wood, by the use of a plane; as, to plane a plank.
• To efface or remove.
• Figuratively, to make plain or smooth.
Planer
n.
• One who, or that which, planes; a planing machine; esp., a machine for planing wood or metals.
(Print.) A wooden block used for forcing down the type in a form, and making the surface even.
Planet
n.
(Astron.) A celestial body which revolves about the sun in an orbit of a moderate degree of eccentricity. It is distinguished from a comet by the absence of a coma, and by having a less eccentric orbit. See Solar system.
• A star, as influencing the fate of a men.
Planetarium
n.
• An orrery. See Orrery.
Planetary
a.
• Of or pertaining to the planets; as, planetary inhabitants; planetary motions; planetary year.
• Consisting of planets; as, a planetary system.
(Astrol.) Under the dominion or influence of a planet.
• Caused by planets.
• Having the nature of a planet; erratic; revolving; wandering.
Planeted
a.
• Belonging to planets.
Planetoid
n.
(Astron.) A body resembling a planet; an asteroid.
Planetoidal
a.
• Pertaining to a planetoid.
Planetule
n.
• A little planet.
Plangency
n.
• The quality or state of being plangent; a beating sound.
Plangent
a.
• Beating; dashing, as a wave.
Planifolious
a.
(Bot.) Flat-leaved.
Planiform
a.
(Anat.) Having a plane surface; as, a planiform, gliding, or arthrodial articulation.
Planimeter
n.
• An instrument for measuring the area of any plane figure, however irregular, by passing a tracer around the bounding line; a platometer.
Planimetry
n.
• The mensuration of plane surfaces; — distinguished from stereometry, or the mensuration of volumes.
Planing
• a. & vb. n. fr. Plane, v. t.
Planipennate
a.
• Of or pertaining to Planipennia.
Planipennia
n. pl.
(Zool.) A suborder of Neuroptera, including those that have broad, flat wings, as the ant-lion, lacewing, etc. Called also Planipennes.
Planipetalous
a.
(Bot.) Having flat petals.
Planish
v. t.
• To make smooth or plane, as a metallic surface; to condense, toughen, and polish by light blows with a hammer.
Planisher
n.
• One who, or that which, planishes.
Planishing
• a. & vb. n. from Planish, v. t.
Planisphere
n.
• The representation of the circles of the sphere upon a plane; especially, a representation of the celestial sphere upon a plane with adjustable circles, or other appendages, for showing the position of the heavens, the time of rising and setting of stars, etc., for any given date or hour.
Planispheric
a.
• Of or pertaining to a planisphere.
Plank
n.
• A broad piece of sawed timber, differing from a board only in being thicker. See Board.
• Fig.: That which supports or upholds, as a board does a swimmer.
• One of the separate articles in a declaration of the principles of a party or cause; as, a plank in the national platform.
v. t.
• To cover or lay with planks; as, to plank a floor or a ship.
• To lay down, as on a plank or table; to stake or pay cash; as, to plank money in a wager.
• To harden, as hat bodies, by felting.
(Wooden Manuf.) To splice together the ends of slivers of wool, for subsequent drawing.
Planking
n.
• The act of laying planks; also, planks, collectively; a series of planks in place, as the wooden covering of the frame of a vessel.
• The act of splicing slivers. See Plank, v. t., 4.
Planless
a.
• Having no plan.
Planner
n.
• One who plans; a projector.
Planoblast
n.
(Zool.) Any free-swimming gonophore of a hydroid; a hydroid medusa.
Planometer
n.
• An instrument for gauging or testing a plane surface. See Surface gauge, under Surface.
Planometry
n.
(Mech.) The art or process of producing or gauging a plane surface.
Planorbis
n.
(Zool.) Any fresh-water air-breathing mollusk belonging to Planorbis and other allied genera, having shells of a discoidal form.
Plant
n.
• A vegetable; an organized living being, generally without feeling and voluntary motion, and having, when complete, a root, stem, and leaves, though consisting sometimes only of a single leafy expansion, or a series of cellules, or even a single cellule.
• A bush, or young tree; a sapling; hence, a stick or staff.
• The sole of the foot.
(Com.) The whole machinery and apparatus employed in carrying on a trade or mechanical business; also, sometimes including real estate, and whatever represents investment of capital in the means of carrying on a business, but not including material worked upon or finished products; as, the plant of a foundry, a mill, or a railroad.
• A plan; an artifice; a swindle; a trick.
(Zool.) An oyster which has been bedded, in distinction from one of natural growth.
• A young oyster suitable for transplanting.
v. t.
• To put in the ground and cover, as seed for growth; as, to plant maize.
• To set in the ground for growth, as a young tree, or a vegetable with roots.
• To furnish, or fit out, with plants; as, to plant a garden, an orchard, or a forest.
• To engender; to generate; to set the germ of.
• To furnish with a fixed and organized population; to settle; to establish; as, to plant a colony.
• To introduce and establish the principles or seeds of; as, to plant Christianity among the heathen.
• To set firmly; to fix; to set and direct, or point; as, to plant cannon against a fort; to plant a standard in any place; to plant one's feet on solid ground; to plant one's fist in another's face.
• To set up; to install; to instate.
v. i.
• To perform the act of planting.
Plantable
a.
• Capable of being planted; fit to be planted.
Plantage
n.
• A word used once by Shakespeare to designate plants in general, or anything that is planted.
Plantain
n.
(Bot.) A treelike perennial herb (Musa paradisiaca) of tropical regions, bearing immense leaves and large clusters of the fruits called plantains. See Musa.
• The fruit of this plant. It is long and somewhat cylindrical, slightly curved, and, when ripe, soft, fleshy, and covered with a thick but tender yellowish skin. The plantain is a staple article of food in most tropical countries, especially when cooked.
n.
(Bot.) Any plant of the genus Plantago, but especially the P. major, a low herb with broad spreading radical leaves, and slender spikes of minute flowers. It is a native of Europe, but now found near the abode of civilized man in nearly all parts of the world.
Plantal
a.
• Belonging to plants; as, plantal life.
Plantar
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the sole of the foot; as, the plantar arteries.
Plantation
n.
• The act or practice of planting, or setting in the earth for growth.
• The place planted; land brought under cultivation; a piece of ground planted with trees or useful plants; esp., in the United States and West Indies, a large estate appropriated to the production of the more important crops, and cultivated by laborers who live on the estate; as, a cotton plantation; a coffee plantation.
• An original settlement in a new country; a colony.
Planted
a.
(Joinery) Fixed in place, as a projecting member wrought on a separate piece of stuff; as, a planted molding.
Planter
n.
• One who, or that which, plants or sows; as, a planterof corn; a machine planter.
• One who owns or cultivates a plantation; as, a sugar planter; a coffee planter.
• A colonist in a new or uncultivated territory; as, the first planters in Virginia.
Plantership
n.
• The occupation or position of a planter, or the management of a plantation, as in the United States or the West Indies.
Planticle
n.
• A young plant, or plant in embryo.
Plantigrada
n. pl.
(Zool.) A subdivision of Carnivora having plantigrade feet. It includes the bears, raccoons, and allied species.
Plantigrade
a.
(Zool.) Walking on the sole of the foot; pertaining to the plantigrades.
• Having the foot so formed that the heel touches the ground when the leg is upright.
n.
(Zool.) A plantigrade animal, or one that walks or steps on the sole of the foot, as man, and the bears.
Planting
n.
• The act or operation of setting in the ground for propagation, as seeds, trees, shrubs, etc.; the forming of plantations, as of trees; the carrying on of plantations, as of sugar, coffee, etc.
• That which is planted; a plantation.
(Arch.) The laying of the first courses of stone in a foundation.
Plantless
a.
• Without plants; barren of vegetation.
Plantlet
n.
• A little plant.
Plantocracy
n.
• Government by planters; planters, collectively.
Plantule
n.
(Bot.) The embryo which has begun its development in the act of germination.
Planula
n.
(Biol.) In embryonic development, a vesicle filled with fluid, formed from the morula by the divergence of its cells in such a manner as to give rise to a central space, around which the cells arrange themselves as an envelope; an embryonic form intermediate between the morula and gastrula. Sometimes used as synonymous with gastrula.
(Zool.) The very young, free-swimming larva of the coelenterates. It usually has a flattened oval or oblong form, and is entirely covered with cilia.
Planxty
n.
(Mus.) An Irish or Welsh melody for the harp, sometimes of a mournful character.
Plaque
n.
• Any flat, thin piece of metal, clay, ivory, or the like, used for ornament, or for painting pictures upon, as a slab, plate, dish, or the like, hung upon a wall; also, a smaller decoration worn on the person, as a brooch.
Plash
n.
• A small pool of standing water; a puddle.
• A dash of water; a splash.
v. i.
• To dabble in water; to splash.
v. t.
• To splash, as water.
• To splash or sprinkle with coloring matter; as, to plash a wall in imitation of granite.
v. t.
• To cut partly, or to bend and intertwine the branches of; as, to plash a hedge.
n.
• The branch of a tree partly cut or bent, and bound to, or intertwined with, other branches.
Plashet
n.
• A small pond or pool; a puddle.
Plashing
n.
• The cutting or bending and intertwining the branches of small trees, as in hedges.
• The dashing or sprinkling of coloring matter on the walls of buildings, to imitate granite, etc.
Plashoot
n.
• A hedge or fence formed of branches of trees interlaced, or plashed.
Plashy
a.
• Watery; abounding with puddles; splashy.
• Specked, as if plashed with color.
Plasm
n.
• A mold or matrix in which anything is cast or formed to a particular shape.
(Biol.) Same as Plasma.
Plasma
n.
(Min.) A variety of quartz, of a color between grass green and leek green, which is found associated with common chalcedony. It was much esteemed by the ancients for making engraved ornaments.
(Biol.) The viscous material of an animal or vegetable cell, out of which the various tissues are formed by a process of differentiation; protoplasm.
• Unorganized material; elementary matter.
(Med.) A mixture of starch and glycerin, used as a substitute for ointments.
Plasmation
n.
• The act of forming or molding.
Plasmator
n.
• A former; a fashioner.
Plasmature
n.
• Form; mold.
Plasmic
a.
• Of, pertaining to, or connected with, plasma; plasmatic.
• A piece of DNA, usually circular, functioning as part of the genetic material of a cell, not integrated with the chromosome and replicating independently of the chromosome, but transferred, like the chromosome, to subsequent generations. In bacteria, plasmids often carry the genes for antibiotic resistance; they are exploited in genetic engineering as the vehicles for introduction of extraneous DNA into cells, to alter the genetic makeup of the cell. The cells thus altered may produce desirable proteins which are extracted and used; in the case of genetically altered plant cells, the altered cells may grow into complete plants with changed properties, as for example, increased resistance to disease.
Plasmin
n.
(Physiol. Chem.) A proteid body, separated by some physiologists from blood plasma. It is probably identical with fibrinogen.
Plasmodial
a.
(Biol.) Of or pertaining to, or like, a plasmodium; as, the plasmodial form of a life cycle.
Plasmodium
n.
(Biol.) A jellylike mass of free protoplasm, without any union of amoeboid cells, and endowed with life and power of motion.
(Zool.) A naked mobile mass of protoplasm, formed by the union of several amoebalike young, and constituting one of the stages in the life cycle of Mycetozoa and other low organisms.
Plasmogen
n.
(Biol.) The important living portion of protoplasm, considered a chemical substance of the highest elaboration. Germ plasm and idioplasm are forms of plasmogen.
Plasson
n.
(Biol.) The albuminous material composing the body of a cytode.
Plaster
n.
(Med.) An external application of a consistency harder than ointment, prepared for use by spreading it on linen, leather, silk, or other material. It is adhesive at the ordinary temperature of the body, and is used, according to its composition, to produce a medicinal effect, to bind parts together, etc.; as, a porous plaster; sticking plaster.
• A composition of lime, water, and sand, with or without hair as a bond, for coating walls, ceilings, and partitions of houses. See Mortar.
• Calcined gypsum, or plaster of Paris, especially when ground, as used for making ornaments, figures, moldings, etc.; or calcined gypsum used as a fertilizer.
v. t.
• To cover with a plaster, as a wound or sore.
• To overlay or cover with plaster, as the ceilings and walls of a house.
• Fig.: To smooth over; to cover or conceal the defects of; to hide, as with a covering of plaster.
Plasterer
n.
• One who applies plaster or mortar.
• One who makes plaster casts.
Plastering
n.
• Same as Plaster, n., 2.
• The act or process of overlaying with plaster.
• A covering of plaster; plasterwork.
Plasterly
a.
• Resembling plaster of Paris.
Plasterwork
n.
• Plastering used to finish architectural constructions, exterior or interior, especially that used for the lining of rooms. Ordinarly, mortar is used for the greater part of the work, and pure plaster of Paris for the moldings and ornaments.
Plastery
a.
• Of the nature of plaster.
Plastic
a.
• Having the power to give form or fashion to a mass of matter; as, the plastic hand of the Creator.
• Capable of being molded, formed, or modeled, as clay or plaster; — used also figuratively; as, the plastic mind of a child.
• Pertaining or appropriate to, or characteristic of, molding or modeling; produced by, or appearing as if produced by, molding or modeling; — said of sculpture and the kindred arts, in distinction from painting and the graphic arts.
• a substance composed predominantly of a synthetic organic high polymer capable of being cast or molded; many varieties of plastic are used to produce articles of commerce (after 1900). [MW10 gives origin of word as 1905]
Plastical
a.
• See Plastic.
Plastically
adv.
• In a plastic manner.
Plasticity
n.
• The quality or state of being plastic.
(Physiol.) Plastic force.
Plastidozoa
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Protoza.
Plastidule
n.
(Biol.) One of the small particles or organic molecules of protoplasm.
Plastin
n.
(Biol.) A substance associated with nuclein in cell nuclei, and by some considered as the fundamental substance of the nucleus.
Plastography
n.
• The art of forming figures in any plastic material.
• Imitation of handwriting; forgery.
Plastron
n.
• A piece of leather stuffed or padded, worn by fencers to protect the breast.
(Anc. Armor) An iron breastplate, worn under the hauberk.
(Anat.) The ventral shield or shell of tortoises and turtles. See Testudinata.
• A trimming for the front of a woman's dress, made of a different material, and narrowing from the shoulders to the waist.
Plat
v. t.
• To form by interlaying interweaving; to braid; to plait.
n.
• Work done by platting or braiding; a plait.
n.
• A small piece or plot of ground laid out with some design, or for a special use; usually, a portion of flat, even ground.
v. t.
• To lay out in plats or plots, as ground.
a.
• Plain; flat; level.
adv.
• Plainly; flatly; downright.
• Flatly; smoothly; evenly.
n.
• The flat or broad side of a sword.
• A plot; a plan; a design; a diagram; a map; a chart.
Platan
n.
• The plane tree.
Platanist
n.
(Zool.) The soosoo.
Platanus
n.
(Bot.) A genus of trees; the plane tree.
Platband
n.
• A border of flowers in a garden, along a wall or a parterre; hence, a border.
(Arch.) A flat molding, or group of moldings, the width of which much exceeds its projection, as the face of an architrave.
• A list or fillet between the flutings of a column.
Plate
n.
• A flat, or nearly flat, piece of metal, the thickness of which is small in comparison with the other dimensions; a thick sheet of metal; as, a steel plate.
• Metallic armor composed of broad pieces.
• Domestic vessels and utensils, as flagons, dishes, cups, etc., wrought in gold or silver.
• Metallic ware which is plated, in distinction from that which is genuine silver or gold.
• A small, shallow, and usually circular, vessel of metal or wood, or of earth glazed and baked, from which food is eaten at table.
• A piece of money, usually silver money.
• A piece of metal on which anything is engraved for the purpose of being printed; hence, an impression from the engraved metal; as, a book illustrated with plates; a fashion plate.
• A page of stereotype, electrotype, or the like, for printing from; as, publisher's plates.
• That part of an artificial set of teeth which fits to the mouth, and holds the teeth in place. It may be of gold, platinum, silver, rubber, celluloid, etc.
(Arch.) A horizontal timber laid upon a wall, or upon corbels projecting from a wall, and supporting the ends of other timbers; also used specifically of the roof plate which supports the ends of the roof trusses or, in simple work, the feet of the rafters.
(Her.) A roundel of silver or tinctured argent.
(Photog.) A sheet of glass, porcelain, metal, etc., with a coating that is sensitive to light.
• A prize giving to the winner in a contest.
v. t.
• To cover or overlay with gold, silver, or other metals, either by a mechanical process, as hammering, or by a chemical process, as electrotyping.
• To cover or overlay with plates of metal; to arm with metal for defense.
• To adorn with plated metal; as, a plated harness.
• To beat into thin, flat pieces, or laminae.
• To calender; as, to plate paper.
Plateau
n.
• A flat surface; especially, a broad, level, elevated area of land; a table-land.
• An ornamental dish for the table; a tray or salver.
Plateful
n.
• Enough to fill a plate; as much as a plate will hold.
Platel
n.
• A small dish.
Platen
n.
(Mach.) The part of a printing press which presses the paper against the type and by which the impression is made.
• Hence, an analogous part of a typewriter, on which the paper rests to receive an impression.
• The movable table of a machine tool, as a planer, on which the work is fastened, and presented to the action of the tool; — also called table.
Plater
n.
• One who plates or coats articles with gold or silver; as, a silver plater.
• A machine for calendering paper.
Plateresque
a.
(Arch.) Resembling silver plate; — said of certain architectural ornaments.
Platetrope
n.
(Anat.) One of a pair of a paired organs.
Platform
n.
• A plat; a plan; a sketch; a model; a pattern. Used also figuratively.
• A place laid out after a model.
• Any flat or horizontal surface; especially, one that is raised above some particular level, as a framework of timber or boards horizontally joined so as to form a roof, or a raised floor, or portion of a floor; a landing; a dais; a stage, for speakers, performers, or workmen; a standing place.
• A declaration of the principles upon which a person, a sect, or a party proposes to stand; a declared policy or system; as, the Saybrook platform; a political platform.
(Naut.) A light deck, usually placed in a section of the hold or over the floor of the magazine. See Orlop.
v. t.
• To place on a platform.
• To form a plan of; to model; to lay out.
Plathelminth
n.
(Zool.) One of the Platyelminthes.
Plathelminthes
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Platyelminthes.
Platin
n.
(Mach.) See Platen.
Platina
n.
(Chem.) Platinum.
Plating
n.
• The art or process of covering anything with a plate or plates, or with metal, particularly of overlaying a base or dull metal with a thin plate of precious or bright metal, as by mechanical means or by electro-magnetic deposition.
• A thin coating of metal laid upon another metal.
• A coating or defensive armor of metal (usually steel) plates.
Platinic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or containing, platinum; — used specifically to designate those compounds in which the element has a higher valence, as contrasted with the platinous compounds; as, platinic chloride (PtCl4).
Platinichloric
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, an acid consisting of platinic chloride and hydrochloric acid, and obtained as a brownish red crystalline substance, called platinichloric, or chloroplatinic, acid.
Platiniferous
a.
• Yielding platinum; as, platiniferous sand.
Platiniridium
n.
(Chem. & Min.) A natural alloy of platinum and iridium occurring in grayish metallic rounded or cubical grains with platinum.
Platinize
v. t.
• To cover or combine with platinum.
Platinochloric
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or designating, an acid consisting of platinous chloride and hydrochloric acid, called platinochloric, or chloroplatinous, acid.
Platinochloride
n.
(Chem.) A double chloride of platinum and some other metal or radical; a salt of platinochloric acid.
Platinocyanic
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or designating, an acid compound of platinous cyanide and hydrocyanic acid. It is obtained as a cinnaber-red crystalline substance.
Platinocyanide
n.
(Chem.) A double cyanide of platinum and some other metal or radical; a salt of platinocyanic acid.
Platinode
n.
(Physics) A cathode.
Platinoid
a.
• Resembling platinum.
n.
(Chem.) An alloy of German silver containing tungsten; — used for forming electrical resistance coils and standards.
Platinotype
n.
(Photog.) A permanent photographic picture or print in platinum black.
• The process by which such pictures are produced.
Platinous
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or containing, platinum; — used specifically to designate those compounds in which the element has a lower valence, as contrasted with the platinic compounds; as, platinous chloride (PtCl2).
Platinum
n.
(Chem.) A metallic element, intermediate in value between silver and gold, occurring native or alloyed with other metals, also as the platinum arsenide (sperrylite). It is heavy tin-white metal which is ductile and malleable, but very infusible, and characterized by its resistance to strong chemical reagents. It is used for crucibles, for stills for sulphuric acid, rarely for coin, and in the form of foil and wire for many purposes. Specific gravity 21.5. Atomic weight 194.3. Symbol Pt. Formerly called platina.
Platitude
n.
• The quality or state of being flat, thin, or insipid; flat commonness; triteness; staleness of ideas of language.
• A thought or remark which is flat, dull, trite, or weak; a truism; a commonplace.
Platitudinarian
n.
• One addicted to uttering platitudes, or stale and insipid truisms.
Platitudinize
v. i.
• To utter platitudes or truisms.
Platitudinous
a.
• Abounding in platitudes; of the nature of platitudes; uttering platitudes.
Platly
a.
• Flatly. See Plat, a.
Platness
n.
• Flatness.
Platometer
n.
• See Planimeter.
Platonic
n.
• A follower of Plato; a Platonist.
Platonically
adv.
• In a Platonic manner.
Platonism
n.
• The doctrines or philosophy by Plato or of his followers.
• An elevated rational and ethical conception of the laws and forces of the universe; sometimes, imaginative or fantastic philosophical notions.
Platonist
n.
• One who adheres to the philosophy of Plato; a follower of Plato.
Platonize
v. i.
• To adopt the opinion of Plato or his followers.
v. t.
• To explain by, or accomodate to, the Platonic philosophy.
Platonizer
n.
• One who Platonizes.
Platoon
n.
(Mil.) Formerly, a body of men who fired together; also, a small square body of soldiers to strengthen the angles of a hollow square.
• Now, in the United States service, half of a company.
Platt
n.
(Mining) See Lodge, n.
Plattdeutsch
n.
• The modern dialects spoken in the north of Germany, taken collectively; modern Low German. See Low German, under German.
Platten
v. t.
(Glass Making) To flatten and make into sheets or plates; as, to platten cylinder glass.
Platter
n.
• One who plats or braids.
n.
• A large plate or shallow dish on which meat or other food is brought to the table.
Platting
n.
• Plaited strips or bark, cane, straw, etc., used for making hats or the like.
Platy
a.
• Like a plate; consisting of plates.
Platycnemic
a.
(Anat.) Of, relating to, or characterized by, platycnemism.
Platycnemism
n.
(Anat.) Lateral flattening of the tibia.
Platycoelian
a.
(Anat.) Flat at the anterior and concave at the posterior end; — said of the centra of the vertebrae of some extinct dinouaurs.
Platyelminthes
n. pl.
(Zool.) A class of helminthes including the cestodes, or tapeworms, the trematodes, and the turbellarians. Called also flatworms.
Platyhelmia
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Platyelminthes.
Platymeter
n.
(Elec.) An apparatus for measuring the capacity of condensers, or the inductive capacity of dielectrics.
Platypod
n.
(Zool.) An animal having broad feet, or a broad foot.
Platypoda
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Prosobranchiata.
Platyptera
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of Pseudoneuroptera including the species which have four broad, flat wings, as the termites, or white-ants, and the stone flies (Perla).
Platypus
n.
(Zool.) The duck mole. See under Duck.
Platyrhine
a.
(Anat.) Having the nose broad; — opposed to leptorhine.
n.
(Zool.) One of the Platyrhini.
Platyrhini
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of monkeys, including the American species, which have a broad nasal septum, thirty-six teeth, and usually a prehensile tail. See Monkey.
Plaud
v. t.
• To applaud.
Plaudit
n.
• A mark or expression of applause; praise bestowed.
Plauditory
a.
• Applauding; commending.
Plausibility
n.
• Something worthy of praise.
• The quality of being plausible; speciousness.
• Anything plausible or specious.
Plausible
a.
• Worthy of being applauded; praiseworthy; commendable; ready.
• Obtaining approbation; specifically pleasing; apparently right; specious; as, a plausible pretext; plausible manners; a plausible delusion.
• Using specious arguments or discourse; as, a plausible speaker.
Plausibleize
v. t.
• To render plausible.
Plausibleness
n.
• Quality of being plausible.
Plausibly
adv.
• In a plausible manner.
• Contentedly, readily.
Plausive
a.
• Applauding; manifesting praise.
• Plausible, specious.
Play
v. i.
• To engage in sport or lively recreation; to exercise for the sake of amusement; to frolic; to spot.
• To act with levity or thoughtlessness; to trifle; to be careless.
• To contend, or take part, in a game; as, to play ball; hence, to gamble; as, he played for heavy stakes.
• To perform on an instrument of music; as, to play on a flute.
• To act; to behave; to practice deception.
• To move in any manner; especially, to move regularly with alternate or reciprocating motion; to operate; to act; as, the fountain plays.
• To move gayly; to wanton; to disport.
• To act on the stage; to personate a character.
v. t.
• To put in action or motion; as, to play cannon upon a fortification; to play a trump.
• To perform music upon; as, to play the flute or the organ.
• To perform, as a piece of music, on an instrument; as, to play a waltz on the violin.
• To bring into sportive or wanton action; to exhibit in action; to execute; as, to play tricks.
• To act or perform (a play); to represent in music action; as, to play a comedy; also, to act in the character of; to represent by acting; to simulate; to behave like; as, to play King Lear; to play the woman.
• To engage in, or go together with, as a contest for amusement or for a wager or prize; as, to play a game at baseball.
• To keep in play, as a hooked fish, in order to land it.
n.
• Amusement; sport; frolic; gambols.
• Any exercise, or series of actions, intended for amusement or diversion; a game.
• The act or practice of contending for victory, amusement, or a prize, as at dice, cards, or billiards; gaming; as, to lose a fortune in play.
• Action; use; employment; exercise; practice; as, fair play; sword play; a play of wit.
• A dramatic composition; a comedy or tragedy; a composition in which characters are represented by dialogue and action.
• The representation or exhibition of a comedy or tragedy; as, he attends ever play.
• Performance on an instrument of music.
• Motion; movement, regular or irregular; as, the play of a wheel or piston; hence, also, room for motion; free and easy action.
• Hence, liberty of acting; room for enlargement or display; scope; as, to give full play to mirth.
Playa
n.
• A beach; a strand; in the plains and deserts of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, a broad, level spot, on which subsequently becomes dry by evaporation.
Playbill
n.
• A printed programme of a play, with the parts assigned to the actors.
Playbook
n.
• A book of dramatic compositions; a book of the play.
Playday
n.
• A day given to play or diversion; a holiday.
Player
n.
• One who plays, or amuses himself; one without serious aims; an idler; a trifler.
• One who plays any game.
• A dramatic actor.
• One who plays on an instrument of music.
• A gamester; a gambler.
Playfellow
n.
• A companion in amusements or sports; a playmate.
Playfere
n.
• A playfellow.
Playful
a.
• Sportive; gamboling; frolicsome; indulging a sportive fancy; humorous; merry; as, a playful child; a playful writer.
Playgame
n.
• Play of children.
Playgoer
n.
• One who frequents playhouses, or attends dramatic performances.
Playgoing
a.
• Frequenting playhouses; as, the playgoing public.
n.
• The practice of going to plays.
Playground
n.
• A piece of ground used for recreation; as, the playground of a school.
Playhouse
n.
• A building used for dramatic exhibitions; a theater.
• A house for children to play in; a toyhouse.
Playing
• a. & vb. n. of Play.
Playmaker
n.
• A playwright.
Playmate
n.
• A companion in diversions; a playfellow.
Playsome
a.
• Playful; wanton; sportive.
Playte
n.
(Naut.) See Pleyt.
Plaything
n.
• A thing to play with; a toy; anything that serves to amuse.
Playtime
n.
• Time for play or diversion.
Playwright
n.
• A maker or adapter of plays.
Playwriter
n.
• A writer of plays; a dramatist; a playwright.
Plaza
n.
• A public square in a city or town.
Plea
n.
(Law) That which is alleged by a party in support of his cause; in a stricter sense, an allegation of fact in a cause, as distinguished from a demurrer; in a still more limited sense, and in modern practice, the defendant's answer to the plaintiff's declaration and demand. That which the plaintiff alleges in his declaration is answered and repelled or justified by the defendant's plea. In chancery practice, a plea is a special answer showing or relying upon one or more things as a cause why the suit should be either dismissed, delayed, or barred. In criminal practice, the plea is the defendant's formal answer to the indictment or information presented against him.
(Law) A cause in court; a lawsuit; as, the Court of Common Pleas. See under Common.
• That which is alleged or pleaded, in defense or in justification; an excuse; an apology.
• An urgent prayer or entreaty.
Pleach
v. t.
• To unite by interweaving, as branches of trees; to plash; to interlock.
Plead
v. t.
• To argue in support of a claim, or in defense against the claim of another; to urge reasons for or against a thing; to attempt to persuade one by argument or supplication; to speak by way of persuasion; as, to plead for the life of a criminal; to plead with a judge or with a father.
(Law) To present an answer, by allegation of fact, to the declaration of a plaintiff; to deny the plaintiff's declaration and demand, or to allege facts which show that ought not to recover in the suit; in a less strict sense, to make an allegation of fact in a cause; to carry on the allegations of the respective parties in a cause; to carry on a suit or plea.
• To contend; to struggle.
v. t.
• To discuss, defend, and attempt to maintain by arguments or reasons presented to a tribunal or person having uthority to determine; to argue at the bar; as, to plead a cause before a court or jury.
• To allege or cite in a legal plea or defense, or for repelling a demand in law; to answer to an indictment; as, to plead usury; to plead statute of limitations; to plead not guilty.
• To allege or adduce in proof, support, or vendication; to offer in excuse; as, the law of nations may be pleaded in favor of the rights of ambassadors.
Pleadable
a.
• Capable of being pleaded; capable of being alleged in proof, defense, or vindication; as, a right or privilege pleadable at law.
Pleader
n.
• One who pleads; one who argues for or against; an advotate.
(Law) One who draws up or forms pleas; the draughtsman of pleas or pleadings in the widest sense; as, a special pleader.
Pleading
n.
• The act of advocating, defending, or supporting, a cause by arguments.
Pleadingly
adv.
• In a pleading manner.
Pleadings
n. pl.
(Law) The mutual pleas and replies of the plaintiff and defendant, or written statements of the parties in support of their claims, proceeding from the declaration of the plaintiff, until issue is joined, and the question made to rest on some single point.
Pleasance
n.
• Pleasure; merriment; gayety; delight; kindness.
• A secluded part of a garden.
Pleasant
a.
• Pleasing; grateful to the mind or to the senses; agreeable; as, a pleasant journey; pleasant weather.
• Cheerful; enlivening; gay; sprightly; humorous; sportive; as, pleasant company; a pleasant fellow.
n.
• A wit; a humorist; a buffoon.
Pleasantly
adv.
• In a pleasant manner.
Pleasantness
n.
• The state or quality of being pleasant.
Pleasantry
n.
• That which denotes or promotes pleasure or good humor; cheerfulness; gayety; merriment; especially, an agreeable playfulness in conversation; a jocose or humorous remark; badinage.
Please
v. t.
• To give pleasure to; to excite agreeable sensations or emotions in; to make glad; to gratify; to content; to satisfy.
• To have or take pleasure in; hence, to choose; to wish; to desire; to will.
• To be the will or pleasure of; to seem good to; — used impersonally.
v. i.
• To afford or impart pleasure; to excite agreeable emotions.
• To have pleasure; to be willing, as a matter of affording pleasure or showing favor; to vouchsafe; to consent.
Pleased
a.
• Experiencing pleasure.
Pleaseman
n.
• An officious person who courts favor servilely; a pickthank.
Pleaser
n.
• One who pleases or gratifies.
Pleasing
a.
• Giving pleasure or satisfaction; causing agreeable emotion; agreeable; delightful; as, a pleasing prospect; pleasing manners.
n.
• An object of pleasure.
Pleasurable
a.
• Capable of affording pleasure or satisfaction; gratifying; abounding in pleasantness or pleasantry.
Pleasure
n.
• The gratification of the senses or of the mind; agreeable sensations or emotions; the excitement, relish, or happiness produced by the expectation or the enjoyment of something good, delightful, or satisfying; — opposed to pain, sorrow, etc.
• Amusement; sport; diversion; self-indulgence; frivolous or dissipating enjoyment; hence, sensual gratification; — opposed to labor, service, duty, self-denial, etc.
• What the will dictates or prefers as gratifying or satisfying; hence, will; choice; wish; purpose.
• That which pleases; a favor; a gratification.
v. t.
• To give or afford pleasure to; to please; to gratify.
v. i.
• To take pleasure; to seek pursue pleasure; as, to go pleasuring.
Pleasureful
a.
• Affording pleasure.
Pleasureless
a.
• Devoid of pleasure.
Pleasurer
n.
• A pleasure seeker.
Pleasurist
n.
• A person devoted to worldly pleasure.
Pleat
n. & v. t.
• See Plait.
Plebe
n.
• The common people; the mob.
• A member of the lowest class in the military academy at West Point.
Plebeian
a.
• Of or pertaining to the Roman plebs, or common people.
• Of or pertaining to the common people; vulgar; common; as, plebeian sports; a plebeian throng.
n.
• One of the plebs, or common people of ancient Rome, in distinction from patrician.
• One of the common people, or lower rank of men.
Plebeiance
n.
• Plebeianism.
• Plebeians, collectively.
Plebeianism
n.
• The quality or state of being plebeian.
• The conduct or manners of plebeians; vulgarity.
Plebeianize
v. t.
• To render plebeian, common, or vulgar.
Plebicolist
n.
• One who flatters, or courts the favor of, the common people; a demagogue.
Plebification
n.
• A rendering plebeian; the act of vulgarizing.
Plebiscitary
a.
• Of or pertaining to plebiscite.
Plebiscite
n.
• A vote by universal male suffrage; especially, in France, a popular vote, as first sanctioned by the National Constitution of 1791.
Plebiscitum
n.
(Rom. Antiq.) A law enacted by the common people, under the superintendence of a tribune or some subordinate plebeian magistrate, without the intervention of the senate.
Plectile
a.
• Woven; plaited.
Plectognath
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Plectognathi.
n.
• One of the Plectognathi.
Plectognathi
n. pl.
(Zool.) An order of fishes generally having the maxillary bone united with the premaxillary, and the articular united with the dentary.
Plectospondyli
n. pl.
(Zool.) An extensive suborder of fresh-water physostomous fishes having the anterior vertebrae united and much modified; the Eventognathi.
Plectospondylous
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Plectospondyli.
Plectrum
n.
• A small instrument of ivory, wood, metal, or quill, used in playing upon the lyre and other stringed instruments.
Pled
• imp. & p. p. of Plead
Pledge
n.
(Law) The transfer of possession of personal property from a debtor to a creditor as security for a debt or engagement; also, the contract created between the debtor and creditor by a thing being so delivered or deposited, forming a species of bailment; also, that which is so delivered or deposited; something put in pawn.
(Old Eng. Law) A person who undertook, or became responsible, for another; a bail; a surety; a hostage.
• A hypothecation without transfer of possession.
• Anything given or considered as a security for the performance of an act; a guarantee; as, mutual interest is the best pledge for the performance of treaties.
• A promise or agreement by which one binds one's self to do, or to refrain from doing, something; especially, a solemn promise in writing to refrain from using intoxicating liquors or the like; as, to sign the pledge; the mayor had made no pledges.
• A sentiment to which assent is given by drinking one's health; a toast; a health.
v. t.
• To deposit, as a chattel, in pledge or pawn; to leave in possession of another as security; as, to pledge one's watch.
• To give or pass as a security; to guarantee; to engage; to plight; as, to pledge one's word and honor.
• To secure performance of, as by a pledge.
• To bind or engage by promise or declaration; to engage solemnly; as, to pledge one's self.
• To invite another to drink, by drinking of the cup first, and then handing it to him, as a pledge of good will; hence, to drink the health of; to toast.
Pledgee
n.
• The one to whom a pledge is given, or to whom property pledged is delivered.
Pledgeless
a.
• Having no pledge.
Pledger
n.
• One who pledges.
Pledgery
n.
• A pledging; suretyship.
Pledget
n.
• A small plug.
(Naut.) A string of oakum used in calking.
(Med.) A compress, or small flat tent of lint, laid over a wound, ulcer, or the like, to exclude air, retain dressings, or absorb the matter discharged.
Plegepoda
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Infusoria.
Pleiades
n. pl.
(Myth.) The seven daughters of Atlas and the nymph Pleione, fabled to have been made by Jupiter a constellation in the sky.
(Astron.) A group of small stars in the neck of the constellation Taurus.
Plein
a.
• Plan.
v. i. & t.
• To complain. See Plain.
a.
• Full; complete.
Pleiocene
a.
(Geol.) See Pliocene.
Pleiophyllous
a.
(Bot.) Having several leaves; — used especially when several leaves or leaflets appear where normally there should be only one.
Pleiosaurus
n.
(Paleon.) Same as Pliosaurus.
Pleistocene
a.
(Geol.) Of or pertaining to the epoch, or the deposits, following the Tertiary, and immediately preceding man.
n.
• The Pleistocene epoch, or deposits.
Plelad
n.
• One of the Pleiades.
Plenal
a.
• Full; complete; as, a plenal view or act.
Plenarily
adv.
• In a plenary manner.
Plenariness
n.
• Quality or state of being plenary.
Plenarty
n.
• The state of a benefice when occupied.
Plenary
a.
• Full; entire; complete; absolute; as, a plenary license; plenary authority.
n.
(Law) Decisive procedure.
Plene
ae.
• Full; complete; plenary.
Plenicorn
n.
(Zool.) A ruminant having solid horns or antlers, as the deer.
Plenilunary
a.
• Of or pertaining to the full moon.
Plenilune
n.
• The full moon.
Plenipotent
a.
• Possessing full power.
Plenipotentiary
n.
• A person invested with full power to transact any business; especially, an ambassador or envoy to a foreign court, with full power to negotiate a treaty, or to transact other business.
a.
• Containing or conferring full power; invested with full power; as, plenipotentiary license; plenipotentiary ministers.
Plenish
v. t.
• To replenish.
• To furnish; to stock, as a house or farm.
Plenishing
n.
• Household furniture; stock.
Plenist
n.
• One who holds that all space is full of matter.
Plenitude
n.
• The quality or state of being full or complete; fullness; completeness; abundance; as, the plenitude of space or power.
• Animal fullness; repletion; plethora.
Plenitudinarian
n.
• A plenist.
Plenitudinary
a.
• Having plenitude; full; complete; thorough.
Plenteous
a.
• Containing plenty; abundant; copious; plentiful; sufficient for every purpose; as, a plenteous supply.
• Yielding abundance; productive; fruitful.
• Having plenty; abounding; rich.
Plentevous
a.
• Plenteous.
Plentiful
a.
• Containing plenty; copious; abundant; ample; as, a plentiful harvest; a plentiful supply of water.
• Yielding abundance; prolific; fruitful.
• Lavish; profuse; prodigal.
Plenty
n.
• Full or adequate supply; enough and to spare; sufficiency; specifically, abundant productiveness of the earth; ample supply for human wants; abundance; copiousness.
a.
• Plentiful; abundant.
Plenum
n.
• That state in which every part of space is supposed to be full of matter; — opposed to vacuum.
Pleochroic
a.
• Having the property of pleochroism.
Pleochroism
n.
(Crystallog.) The property possessed by some crystals, of showing different colors when viewed in the direction of different axes.
Pleochromatic
a.
• Pleochroic.
Pleochromatism
n.
• Pleochroism.
Pleochroous
a.
• Pleochroic.
Pleomorphic
a.
• Pertaining to pleomorphism; as, the pleomorphic character of bacteria.
Pleomorphism
n.
(Crystallog.) The property of crystallizing under two or more distinct fundamental forms, including dimorphism and trimorphism.
(Biol.) The theory that the various genera of bacteria are phases or variations of growth of a number of Protean species, each of which may exhibit, according to undetermined conditions, all or some of the forms characteristic of the different genera and species.
Pleomorphous
a.
• Having the property of pleomorphism.
Pleonasm
n.
(Rhet.) Redundancy of language in speaking or writing; the use of more words than are necessary to express the idea; as, I saw it with my own eyes.
Pleonast
n.
• One who is addicted to pleonasm.
Pleonaste
n.
(Min.) A black variety of spinel.
Pleonastically
adv.
• In a pleonastic manner.
Pleopod
n.
(Zool.) One of the abdominal legs of a crustacean. See Illust. under Crustacea.
Plerome
n.
(Bot.) The central column of parenchyma in a growing stem or root.
Plerophory
n.
• Fullness; full persuasion.
Plesance
n.
• Pleasance.
Plesh
n.
• A pool; a plash.
Plesimorphism
n.
(Crystallog.) The property possessed by some substances of crystallizing in closely similar forms while unlike in chemical composition.
Plesiomorphous
a.
• Nearly alike in form.
Plesiosaur
n.
(Paleon.) One of the Plesiosauria.
Plesiosauria
n. pl.
(Paleon.) An extinct order of Mesozoic marine reptiles including the genera Plesiosaurus, and allied forms; — called also Sauropterygia.
Plesiosaurian
n.
(Paleon.) A plesiosaur.
Plesiosaurus
n.
(Paleon.) A genus of large extinct marine reptiles, having a very long neck, a small head, and paddles for swimming. It lived in the Mesozoic age.
Plessimeter
n.
• See Pleximeter.
Plete
v. t. & i.
• To plead.
Plethora
n.
• Overfullness; especially, excessive fullness of the blood vessels; repletion; that state of the blood vessels or of the system when the blood exceeds a healthy standard in quantity; hyperaemia; — opposed to anaemia.
• State of being overfull; excess; superabundance.
Plethoretic
a.
• Plethoric.
Plethoric
a.
• Haeving a full habit of body; characterized by plethora or excess of blood; as, a plethoric constitution; — used also metaphorically.
Plethorical
a.
• Plethoric.
Plethory
n.
• Plethora.
Plethysmograph
n.
(Physiol.) An instrument for determining and registering the variations in the size or volume of a limb, as the arm or leg, and hence the variations in the amount of blood in the limb.
Plethysmography
n.
(Physiol.) The study, by means of the plethysmograph, of the variations in size of a limb, and hence of its blood supply.
Pletinian
a.
• Of pertaining to the Plotinists or their doctrines.
Pleura
n.
• pl. of Pleuron.
n.
(Anat.) The smooth serous membrane which closely covers the lungs and the adjacent surfaces of the thorax; the pleural membrane.
• The closed sac formed by the pleural membrane about each lung, or the fold of membrane connecting each lung with the body wall.
(Zool.) Same as Pleuron.
Pleural
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the pleura or pleurae, or to the sides of the thorax.
Pleuralgia
n.
(Med.) Pain in the side or region of the ribs.
Pleurapophysis
n.
(Anat.) One of the ventral processes of a vertebra, or the dorsal element in each half of a hemal arch, forming, or corresponding to, a vertebral rib.
Pleurenchyma
n.
(Bot.) A tissue consisting of long and slender tubular cells, of which wood is mainly composed.
Pleuric
a.
(Anat.) Pleural.
Pleurisy
n.
(Med.) An inflammation of the pleura, usually accompanied with fever, pain, difficult respiration, and cough, and with exudation into the pleural cavity.
Pleurite
n.
(Zool.) Same as Pleuron.
Pleuritis
n.
(Med.) Pleurisy.
Pleurobrachia
n.
(Zool.) A genus of ctenophores having an ovate body and two long plumose tentacles.
Pleurobranch
n.
(Zool.) Any one of the gills of a crustacean that is attached to the side of the thorax.
Pleurobranchia
n.
(Zool.) Same as Pleurobranch.
Pleurocarp
n.
(Bot.) Any pleurocarpic moss.
Pleurocentrum
n.
(Anat.) One of the lateral elements in the centra of the vertebrae in some fossil batrachians.
Pleurodont
a.
(Anat.) Having the teeth consolidated with the inner edge of the jaw, as in some lizards.
n.
(Zool.) Any lizard having pleurodont teeth.
Pleurodynia
n.
(Med.) A painful affection of the side, simulating pleurisy, usually due to rheumatism.
Pleuron
n.
(Zool.) One of the sides of an animal.
• One of the lateral pieces of a somite of an insect
• One of lateral processes of a somite of a crustacean.
Pleuronectoid
a.
(Zool.) Pertaining to the Pleuronectidae, or Flounder family.
Pleuropericardial
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the pleura and pericardium.
Pleuroperipneumony
n.
(Med.) Pleuropneumonia.
Pleuroperitoneal
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the pleural and peritoneal membranes or cavities, or to the pleuroperitoneum.
Pleuroperitoneum
n.
(Anat.) The pleural and peritoneal membranes, or the membrane lining the body cavity and covering the surface of the inclosed viscera; the peritoneum; — used especially in the case of those animals in which the body cavity is not divided.
Pleuropneumonia
n.
(Med.) Inflammation of the pleura and lungs; a combination of pleurisy and pneumonia, esp. a kind of contagions and fatal lung plague of cattle.
Pleuroptera
n. pl
(Zool.) A group of Isectivora, including the colugo.
Pleurosigma
n.
(Bot.) A genus of diatoms of elongated elliptical shape, but having the sides slightly curved in the form of a letter S. Pleurosigma angulatum has very fine striations, and is a favorite object for testing the high powers of microscopes.
Pleurosteon
n.
(Anat.) The antero-lateral piece which articulates the sternum of birds.
Pleurothotonus
n.
(Med.) A species of tetanus, in which the body is curved laterally.
Pleurotoma
n.
(Zool.) Any marine gastropod belonging to Pleurotoma, and ether allied genera of the family Pleurotmidae. The species are very numerous, especially in tropical seas. The outer lip has usually a posterior notch or slit.
Plevin
n.
• A warrant or assurance.
Plexiform
a.
• Like network; complicated.
Pleximeter
n.
(Med.) A small, hard, elastic plate, as of ivory, bone, or rubber, placed in contact with body to receive the blow, in examination by mediate percussion.
Plexure
n.
• The act or process of weaving together, or interweaving; that which is woven together.
Plexus
n.
(Anat.) A network of vessels, nerves, or fibers.
(Math.) The system of equations required for the complete expression of the relations which exist between a set of quantities.
Pley
v. & n.
• See Play.
a.
• Full See Plein.
Pleyt
n.
(Naut.) An old term for a river boat.
Pliability
n.
• The quality or state of being pliable; flexibility; as, pliability of disposition.
Pliable
a.
• Capable of being plied, turned, or bent; easy to be bent; flexible; pliant; supple; limber; yielding; as, willow is a pliable plant.
• Flexible in disposition; readily yielding to influence, arguments, persuasion, or discipline; easy to be persuaded; — sometimes in a bad sense; as, a pliable youth.
Pliancy
n.
• The quality or state of being pliant in sense; as, the pliancy of a rod.
Pliant
a.
• Capable of plying or bending; readily yielding to force or pressure without breaking; flexible; pliable; lithe; limber; plastic; as, a pliant thread; pliant wax. Also used figuratively: Easily influenced for good or evil; tractable; as, a pliant heart.
• Favorable to pliancy.
Plica
n.
(Med.) A disease of the hair (Plica polonica), in which it becomes twisted and matted together. The disease is of Polish origin, and is hence called also Polish plait.
(Bot.) A diseased state in plants in which there is an excessive development of small entangled twigs, instead of ordinary branches.
(Zool.) The bend of the wing of a bird.
Plication
n.
• A folding or fold; a plait.
Plicature
n.
• A fold; a doubling; a plication.
Plicidentine
n.
(Anat.) A form of dentine which shows sinuous lines of structure in a transverse section of the tooth.
Plied
• imp. & p. p. of Ply.
Pliers
n. pl.
• A kind of small pinchers with long jaws, — used for bending or cutting metal rods or wire, for handling small objects such as the parts of a watch, etc.
Pliform
a
• In the form of a ply, fold, or doubling.
Plight
• imp. & p. p. of Plight, to pledge.
• imp. & p. p. of Pluck.
v. t.
• To weave; to braid; to fold; to plait.
n.
• A network; a plait; a fold; rarely a garment.
n.
• That which is exposed to risk; that which is plighted or pledged; security; a gage; a pledge.
• Condition; state; — risk, or exposure to danger, often being implied; as, a luckless plight.
v. t.
• To pledge; to give as a pledge for the performance of some act; as, to plight faith, honor, word; — never applied to property or goods. " To do them plighte their troth." Piers Plowman. 2. To promise; to engage; to betroth.
Plighter
n.
• One who, or that which, plights.
Plim
v. i.
• To swell, as grain or wood with water.
Plinth
n.
(Arch.) In classical architecture, a vertically faced member immediately below the circular base of a column; also, the lowest member of a pedestal; hence, in general, the lowest member of a base; a sub-base; a block upon which the moldings of an architrave or trim are stopped at the bottom. See Illust. of Column.
Pliocene
a.
(Geol.) Of, pertaining to, or characterizing, the most recent division of the Tertiary age.
n.
(Geol.) The Pliocene period or deposits.
Pliohippus
n.
(Paleon.) An extinct genus of horses from the Pliocene deposits. Each foot had a single toe (or hoof), as in the common horse.
Pliosaurus
n.
(Paleon.) An extinct genus of marine reptiles allied to Plesiosaurus, but having a much shorter neck.
Plitt
n.
• An instrument of punishment or torture resembling the knout, used in Russia.
Ploc
n.
(Naut.) A mixture of hair and tar for covering the bottom of a ship.
Ploce
n.
(Rhet.) A figure in which a word is separated or repeated by way of emphasis, so as not only to signify the individual thing denoted by it, but also its peculiar attribute or quality; as, "His wife's a wife indeed."
Plod
v. i.
• To travel slowly but steadily; to trudge.
• To toil; to drudge; especially, to study laboriously and patiently.
v. t.
• To walk on slowly or heavily.
Plodder
n.
• One who plods; a drudge.
Plodding
a.
• Progressing in a slow, toilsome manner; characterized by laborious diligence; as, a plodding peddler; a plodding student; a man of plodding habits.
Plonge
v. t.
• To cleanse, as open drains which are entered by the tide, by stirring up the sediment when the tide ebbs.
Plongee
n.
(Mil.) A slope or sloping toward the front; as, the plongee of a parapet; the plongee of a shell in its course.
Plot
n.
• A small extent of ground; a plat; as, a garden plot.
• A plantation laid out.
(Surv.) A plan or draught of a field, farm, estate, etc., drawn to a scale.
v. t.
• To make a plot, map, pr plan, of; to mark the position of on a plan; to delineate.
n.
• Any scheme, stratagem, secret design, or plan, of a complicated nature, adapted to the accomplishment of some purpose, usually a treacherous and mischievous one; a conspiracy; an intrigue; as, the Rye-house Plot.
• A share in such a plot or scheme; a participation in any stratagem or conspiracy.
• Contrivance; deep reach thought; ability to plot or intrigue.
• A plan; a purpose.
• In fiction, the story of a play, novel, romance, or poem, comprising a complication of incidents which are gradually unfolded, sometimes by unexpected means.
v. i.
• To form a scheme of mischief against another, especially against a government or those who administer it; to conspire.
• To contrive a plan or stratagem; to scheme.
v. t.
• To plan; to scheme; to devise; to contrive secretly.
Plotful
a.
• Abounding with plots.
Plotinist
n.
(Eccl. Hist.) A disciple of Plotinus, a celebrated Platonic philosopher of the third century, who taught that the human soul emanates from the divine Being, to whom it reunited at death.
Plotter
n.
• One who plots or schemes; a contriver; a conspirator; a schemer.
Plough
n. & v.
• See Plow.
Plover
n.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of limicoline birds belonging to the family Charadridae, and especially those belonging to the subfamily Charadrinsae. They are prized as game birds.
(Zool.) Any grallatorial bird allied to, or resembling, the true plovers, as the crab plover (Dromas ardeola); the American upland, plover (Bartramia longicauda); and other species of sandpipers.
Ploy
n.
• Sport; frolic.
v. i.
(Mil.) To form a column from a line of troops on some designated subdivision; — the opposite of deploy.
Ployment
n.
(Mil.) The act or movement of forming a column from a line of troops on some designated subdivision; — the opposite of deployment.
Pluck
v. t.
• To pull; to draw.
• Especially, to pull with sudden force or effort, or to pull off or out from something, with a twitch; to twitch; also, to gather, to pick; as, to pluck feathers from a fowl; to pluck hair or wool from a skin; to pluck grapes.
• To strip of, or as of, feathers; as, to pluck a fowl.
(Eng. Universities) To reject at an examination for degrees.
v. i.
• To make a motion of pulling or twitching; — usually with at; as, to pluck at one's gown.
n.
• The act of plucking; a pull; a twitch.
• The heart, liver, and lights of an animal.
• Spirit; courage; indomitable resolution; fortitude.
• The act of plucking, or the state of being plucked, at college. See Pluck, v. t., 4.
(Zool.) The lyrie.
Plucked
a.
• Having courage and spirit.
Plucker
n.
• One who, or that which, plucks.
• A machine for straightening and cleaning wool.
Pluckily
adv.
• In a plucky manner.
Pluckiness
n.
• The quality or state of being plucky.
Pluckless
a.
• Without pluck; timid; faint-hearted.
Plucky
a.
• Having pluck or courage; characterized by pluck; displaying pluck; courageous; spirited; as, a plucky race.
Pluff
v. t.
• To throw out, as smoke, dust, etc., in puffs.
n.
• A puff, as of smoke from a pipe, or of dust from a puffball; a slight explosion, as of a small quantity of gunpowder.
• A hairdresser's powder puff; also, the act of using it.
Plug
n.
• Any piece of wood, metal, or other substance used to stop or fill a hole; a stopple.
• A flat oblong cake of pressed tobacco.
• A high, tapering silk hat.
• A worthless horse.
(Building) A block of wood let into a wall, to afford a hold for nails.
v. t.
• To stop with a plug; to make tight by stopping a hole.
Plugger
n.
• One who, or that which, plugs.
Plugging
n.
• The act of stopping with a plug.
• The material of which a plug or stopple is made.
Plum
a.
• Well rounded or filled out; full; fleshy; fat; as, a plump baby; plump cheeks.
n.
• A knot; a cluster; a group; a crowd; a flock; as, a plump of trees, fowls, or spears.
Plum
n.
(Bot.) The edible drupaceous fruit of the Prunus domestica, and of several other species of Prunus; also, the tree itself, usually called plum tree.
• A grape dried in the sun; a raisin.
• A handsome fortune or property; formerly, in cant language, the sum of \'9c100,000 sterling; also, the person possessing it.
Pluma
n.
(Zool.) A feather.
Plumage
n.
(Zool.) The entire clothing of a bird.
Plumassary
n.
• A plume or collection of ornamental feathers.
Plumassier
n.
• One who prepares or deals in ornamental plumes or feathers.
Plumb
n.
• A little mass or weight of lead, or the like, attached to a line, and used by builders, etc., to indicate a vertical direction; a plummet; a plumb bob. See Plumb line, below.
a.
• Perpendicular; vertical; conforming the direction of a line attached to a plumb; as, the wall is plumb.
adv.
• In a plumb direction; perpendicularly.
v. t.
• To adjust by a plumb line; to cause to be perpendicular; as, to plumb a building or a wall.
• To sound with a plumb or plummet, as the depth of water; hence, to examine by test; to ascertain the depth, quality, dimension, etc.; to sound; to fathom; to test.
• To seal with lead; as, to plumb a drainpipe.
• To supply, as a building, with a system of plumbing.
Plumbage
n.
• Leadwork
Plumbagin
n.
(Chem.) A crystalline substance said to be found in the root of a certain plant of the Leadwort (Plumbago) family.
Plumbagineous
a.
(Bot.) Pertaining to natural order (Plumbagineae) of gamopetalous herbs, of which plumbago is the type. The order includes also the marsh rosemary, the thrift, and a few other genera.
Plumbaginous
a.
• Resembling plumbago; consisting of, or containing, plumbago; as, a plumbaginous slate.
Plumbago
n.
(Min.) Same as Graphite.
(Bot.) A genus of herbaceous plants with pretty salver-shaped corollas, usually blue or violet; leadwort.
Plumber
n.
• One who works in lead; esp., one who furnishes, fits, and repairs lead, iron, or glass pipes, and other apparatus for the conveyance of water, gas, or drainage in buildings.
Plumbery
n.
• The business of a plumber.
• A place where plumbing is carried on; lead works.
Plumbic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, resembling, or containing, lead; — used specifically to designate those compounds in which it has a higher valence as contrasted with plumbous compounds; as, plumbic oxide.
Plumbiferous
a.
• Producing or containing lead.
Plumbing
n.
• The art of casting and working in lead, and applying it to building purposes; especially, the business of furnishing, fitting, and repairing pipes for conducting water, sewage, etc.
• The lead or iron pipes, and other apparatus, used in conveying water, sewage, etc., in a building.
Plumbism
n.
(Med.) A diseased condition, produced by the absorption of lead, common among workers in this metal or in its compounds, as among painters, typesetters, etc. It is characterized by various symptoms, as lead colic, lead line, and wrist drop. See under Colic, Lead, and Wrist.
Plumbous
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or containing, lead; — used specifically to designate those compounds in which it has a lower valence as contrasted with plumbic compounds.
Plumbum
n.
(Chem.) The technical name of lead. See Lead.
Plume
n.
• A feather; esp., a soft, downy feather, or a long, conspicuous, or handsome feather.
(Zool.) An ornamental tuft of feathers.
• A feather, or group of feathers, worn as an ornament; a waving ornament of hair, or other material resembling feathers.
• A token of honor or prowess; that on which one prides himself; a prize or reward.
(Bot.) A large and flexible panicle of inflorescence resembling a feather, such as is seen in certain large ornamental grasses.
v. t.
• To pick and adjust the plumes or feathers of; to dress or prink.
• To strip of feathers; to pluck; to strip; to pillage; also, to peel.
• To adorn with feathers or plumes.
• To pride; to vaunt; to boast; — used reflexively; as, he plumes himself on his skill.
Plumeless
a.
• Without plumes.
Plumelet
n.
• A small plume.
Plumery
n.
• Plumes, collectively or in general; plumage.
Plumicorn
n.
(Zool.) An ear tuft of feathers, as in the horned owls.
Plumigerous
a.
• Feathered; having feathers.
Plumiliform
a.
• Having the of a plume or feather.
Plumiped
a.
(Zool.) Having feet covered with feathers.
n.
• A plumiped bird.
Plummet
n.
• A piece of lead attached to a line, used in sounding the depth of water.
• A plumb bob or a plumb line. See under Plumb, n.
• Hence, any weight.
• A piece of lead formerly used by school children to rule paper for writing.
Plumming
n.
(Min.) The operation of finding, by means of a mine dial, the place where to sink an air shaft, or to bring an adit to the work, or to find which way the lode inclines.
Plummy
a.
• Of the nature of a plum; desirable; profitable; advantageous.
Plumosite
n.
(Min.) Same as Jamesonite.
Plumosity
n.
• The quality or state of being plumose.
Plump
v. i.
• To grow plump; to swell out; as, her cheeks have plumped.
• To drop or fall suddenly or heavily, all at once.
• To give a plumper. See Plumper, 2.
v. t.
• To make plump; to fill (out) or support; — often with up.
• To cast or let drop all at once, suddenly and heavily; as, to plump a stone into water.
• To give (a vote), as a plumper. See Plumper, 2.
adv.
• Directly; suddenly; perpendicularly.
Plumper
n.
• One who, or that which, plumps or swells out something else; hence, something carried in the mouth to distend the cheeks.
(English Elections) A vote given to one candidate only, when two or more are to be elected, thus giving him the advantage over the others. A person who gives his vote thus is said to plump, or to plump his vote.
• A voter who plumps his vote.
• A downright, unqualified lie.
Plumply
adv.
• Fully; roundly; plainly; without reserve.
Plumpness
n.
• The quality or state of being plump.
Plumpy
a.
• Plump; fat; sleek.
Plumula
n.
(Bot.) A plumule.
(Zool.) A down feather.
Plumulaceous
a.
(Zool.) Downy; bearing down.
Plumular
a.
(Bot.) Relating to a plumule.
Plumularia
n.
(Zool.) Any hydroid belonging to Plumularia and other genera of the family Plumularidae. They generally grow in plumelike forms.
Plumularian
n.
(Zool.) Any Plumularia. Also used adjectively.
Plumule
n.
(Bot.) The first bud, or gemmule, of a young plant; the bud, or growing point, of the embryo, above the cotyledons. See Illust. of Radicle.
(Zool.) A down feather.
• The aftershaft of a feather. See Illust. under Feather.
• One of the featherlike scales of certain male butterflies.
Plumulose
a.
• Having hairs branching out laterally, like the parts of a feather.
Plumy
a.
• Covered or adorned with plumes, or as with plumes; feathery.
Plunder
v. t.
• To take the goods of by force, or without right; to pillage; to spoil; to sack; to strip; to rob; as, to plunder travelers.
• To take by pillage; to appropriate forcibly; as, the enemy plundered all the goods they found.
n.
• The act of plundering or pillaging; robbery. See Syn. of Pillage.
• That which is taken by open force from an enemy; pillage; spoil; booty; also, that which is taken by theft or fraud.
• Personal property and effects; baggage or luggage.
Plunderage
n.
(Mar. Law) The embezzlement of goods on shipboard.
Plunderer
n.
• One who plunders or pillages.
Plunge
v. t.
• To thrust into water, or into any substance that is penetrable; to immerse; to cause to penetrate or enter quickly and forcibly; to thrust; as, to plunge the body into water; to plunge a dagger into the breast. Also used figuratively; as, to plunge a nation into war.
• To baptize by immersion.
• To entangle; to embarrass; to overcome.
v. i.
• To thrust or cast one's self into water or other fluid; to submerge one's self; to dive, or to rush in; as, he plunged into the river. Also used figuratively; as, to plunge into debt.
• To pitch or throw one's self headlong or violently forward, as a horse does.
• To bet heavily and with seeming recklessness on a race, or other contest; in an extended sense, to risk large sums in hazardous speculations.
n.
• The act of thrusting into or submerging; a dive, leap, rush, or pitch into, or as into, water; as, to take the water with a plunge.
• Hence, a desperate hazard or act; a state of being submerged or overwhelmed with difficulties.
• The act of pitching or throwing one's self headlong or violently forward, like an unruly horse.
• Heavy and reckless betting in horse racing; hazardous speculation.
Plunger
n.
• One who, or that which, plunges; a diver.
• A long solid cylinder, used, instead of a piston or bucket, as a forcer in pumps.
• One who bets heavily and recklessly on a race; a reckless speculator.
(Pottery) A boiler in which clay is beaten by a wheel to a creamy consistence.
(Gun.) The firing pin of a breechloader.
Plunket
n.
• A kind of blue color; also, anciently, a kind of cloth, generally blue.
Pluperfect
a.
• More than perfect; past perfect; — said of the tense which denotes that an action or event was completed at or before the time of another past action or event.
n.
• The pluperfect tense; also, a verb in the pluperfect tense.
Plural
a
• Relating to, or containing, more than one; designating two or more; as, a plural word.
n.
(Gram.) The plural number; that form of a word which expresses or denotes more than one; a word in the plural form.
Pluralism
n.
• The quality or state of being plural, or in the plural number.
(Eccl.) The state of a pluralist; the holding of more than one ecclesiastical living at a time.
Pluralist
n.
(Eccl.) A clerk or clergyman who holds more than one ecclesiastical benefice.
Plurality
n.
• The state of being plural, or consisting of more than one; a number consisting of two or more of the same kind; as, a plurality of worlds; the plurality of a verb.
• The greater number; a majority; also, the greatest of several numbers; in elections, the excess of the votes given for one candidate over those given for another, or for any other, candidate. When there are more than two candidates, the one who receives the plurality of votes may have less than a majority. See Majority.
(Eccl.) See Plurality of benefices, below.
Pluralization
n.
• The act of pluralizing.
Pluralize
v. t.
• To make plural by using the plural termination; to attribute plurality to; to express in the plural form.
• To multiply; to make manifold.
v. i.
• To take a plural; to assume a plural form; as, a noun pluralizes.
(Eccl.) To hold more than one benefice at the same time.
Pluralizer
n.
(Eccl.) A pluralist.
Plurally
adv.
• In a plural manner or sense.
Pluries
n.
(Law) A writ issued in the third place, after two former writs have been disregarded.
Plurifarious
a.
• Of many kinds or fashions; multifarious.
Plurifoliolate
a.
(Bot.) Having several or many leaflets.
Pluriliteral
a.
• Consisting of more letters than three.
n.
• A pluriliteral word.
Plurilocular
a.
• Having several cells or loculi
(Bot.) having several divisions containing seeds; as, the lemon and the orange are plurilocular fruits.
Pluriparous
a.
• Producing several young at a birth; as, a pluriparous animal.
Pluripartite
a.
(Bot.) Deeply divided into several portions.
Pluripresence
n.
• Presence in more places than one.
Plurisy
n.
• Superabundance; excess; plethora.
Pluroderes
n. pl.
(Zool.) A group of fresh-water turtles in which the neck can not be retracted, but is bent to one side, for protection. The matamata is an example.
Plus
a.
(Math.) More, required to be added; positive, as distinguished from negative; — opposed to minus.
• Hence, in a literary sense, additional; real; actual.
Plush
n.
• A textile fabric with a nap or shag on one side, longer and softer than the nap of velvet.
Plushy
a.
• Like plush; soft and shaggy.
Plutarchy
n.
• Plutocracy; the rule of wealth.
Pluteal
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to a pluteus.
Pluteus
n.
(Zool.) The free-swimming larva of sea urchins and ophiurans, having several long stiff processes inclosing calcareous rods.
Pluto
n.
(Class. Myth.) The son of Saturn and Rhea, brother of Jupiter and Neptune; the dark and gloomy god of the Lower World.
Plutocracy
n.
• A form of government in which the supreme power is lodged in the hands of the wealthy classes; government by the rich; also, a controlling or influential class of rich men.
Plutocrat
n.
• One whose wealth gives him power or influence; one of the plutocracy.
Plutocratic
a.
• Of or pertaining to plutocracy; as, plutocratic ideas.
Plutology
n.
• The science which treats of wealth.
Plutonian
a.
• Plutonic.
n.
(Geol.) A Plutonist.
Plutonic
a.
• Of or pertaining to Pluto; Plutonian; hence, pertaining to the interior of the earth; subterranean.
• Of, pertaining to, or designating, the system of the Plutonists; igneous; as, the Plutonic theory.
Plutonism
n.
• The theory, early advanced in geology, that the successive rocks of the earth\'b6s crust were formed by igneous fusion; — opposed to the Neptunian theory.
Plutonist
n.
• One who adopts the geological theory of igneous fusion; a Plutonian. See Plutonism.
Plutus
n.
(Class. Myth.) The son of Jason and Ceres, and the god of wealth. He was represented as bearing a cornucopia, and as blind, because his gifts were bestowed without discrimination of merit.
Pluvial
a.
• Of or pertaining to rain; rainy.
(Geol.) Produced by the action of rain.
n.
• A priest's cope.
Pluviameter
n.
• See Pluviometer.
Pluviametrical
a.
• See Pluviometrical.
Pluvian
n.
(Zool.) The crocodile bird.
Pluviometer
n.
• An instrument for ascertaining the amount of rainfall at any place in a given time; a rain gauge.
Pluviometrical
a.
• Of or pertaining to a pluviometer; determined by a pluviometer.
Pluviose
n.
• The fifth month of the French republican calendar adopted in 1793. It began January 20, and ended February 18. See Vendemiaire.
Pluvious
a.
• Abounding in rain; rainy; pluvial.
Ply
v. t.
• To bend.
• To lay on closely, or in folds; to work upon steadily, or with repeated acts; to press upon; to urge importunately; as, to ply one with questions, with solicitations, or with drink.
• To employ diligently; to use steadily.
• To practice or perform with diligence; to work at.
v. i.
• To bend; to yield.
• To act, go, or work diligently and steadily; especially, to do something by repeated actions; to go back and forth; as, a steamer plies between certain ports.
(Naut.) To work to windward; to beat.
n.
• A fold; a plait; a turn or twist, as of a cord.
• Bent; turn; direction; bias.
Plyer
n.
• One who, or that which, plies
• A kind of balance used in raising and letting down a drawbridge. It consists of timbers joined in the form of a St. Andrew's cross.
• See Pliers.
Plyght
v. & n.
• See Plight.
Pneometer
n.
(Physiol.) A spirometer.
Pneumaticity
n.
(Biol.) The state of being pneumatic, or of having a cavity or cavities filled with air; as, the pneumaticity of the bones of birds.
Pneumatics
n.
• That branch of science which treats of the mechanical properties of air and other elastic fluids, as of their weight, pressure, elasticity, etc. See Mechanics.
(Philos. & Theol.) The scientific study or knowledge of spiritual beings and their relations to God, angels, and men.
Pneumatocele
n.
(Med.) A distention of the scrotum by air; also, hernia of the lungs.
Pneumatocyst
n.
(Zool.) A cyst or sac of a siphonophore, containing air, and serving as a float, as in Physalia.
Pneumatogarm
n.
(Physiol.) A tracing of the respiratory movements, obtained by a pneumatograph or stethograph.
Pneumatograph
n.
(Physiol.) An instrument for recording the movements of the thorax or chest wall during respiration; — also called stethograph.
Pneumatological
a.
• Of or pertaining to pneumatology.
Pneumatologist
n.
• One versed in pneumatology.
Pneumatology
n.
• The doctrine of, or a treatise on, air and other elastic fluids. See Pneumatics, 1.
(Philos. & Theol.) The science of spiritual being or phenomena of any description.
Pneumatometer
n.
(Physiol.) An instrument for measuring the amount of force exerted by the lungs in respiration.
Pneumatometry
n.
• See Spirometry.
Pneumatophore
n.
(Zool.) One of the Pneumonophora.
Pneumatothorax
n.
(Med.) See Pneumothorax.
Pneumococcus
n.
(Biol.) A form of micrococcus found in the sputum (and elsewhere) of persons suffering with pneumonia, and thought to be the cause of this disease.
Pneumogastric
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the lungs and the stomach.
n.
• The pneumogastric nerve.
Pneumograph
n.
• Same as Pneumatograph.
Pneumography
n
• A description of the lungs.
Pneumology
n.
(Anat.) The science which treats of the lungs.
Pneumometer
n.
(Physiol.) A spirometer.
Pneumometry
n.
• Measurement of the capacity of the lungs for air.
Pneumonia
n.
(Med.) Inflammation of the lungs.
Pneumonic
a.
• Of or pertaining to the lungs; pulmonic.
• Of or pertaining to pneumonia; as, pneumonic symptoms.
n.
(Med.) A medicine for affections of the lungs.
Pneumonitic
a.
(Med.) Of or pertaining to pneumonitis.
Pneumonitis
n.
(Med.) Inflammation of the lungs; pneumonia.
Pneumonometer
n.
(Physiol.) A spirometer; a pneumometer.
Pneumonophora
n. pl.
(Zool.) The division of Siphonophora which includes the Physalia and allied genera; — called also Pneumatophorae.
Pneumony
n.
• See Pneumonia.
Pneumootoka
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Sauropsida.
Pneumophora
n. pl.
(Zool.)(Zool.) A division of holothurians having an internal gill, or respiratory tree.
Pneumoskeleton
n.
(Zool.) A chitinous structure which supports the gill in some invertebrates.
Pneumotherapy
n.
(Med.) The treatment of disease by inhalations of compressed or rarefied air.
Pneumothorax
n.
(Med.) A condition in which air or other gas is present in the cavity of the chest; — called also pneumatothorax.
Pnigalion
n.
(Med.) Nightmare.
Pnyx
n.
(Gr. Antiq.) The place at Athens where the meetings of the people were held for making decrees, etc.
Poa
n.
(Bot.) A genus of grasses, including a great number of species, as the kinds called meadow grass, Kentucky blue grass, June grass, and spear grass (which see).
Poach
v. t.
• To cook, as eggs, by breaking them into boiling water; also, to cook with butter after breaking in a vessel.
• To rob of game; to pocket and convey away by stealth, as game; hence, to plunder.
v. i.
• To steal or pocket game, or to carry it away privately, as in a bag; to kill or destroy game contrary to law, especially by night; to hunt or fish unlawfully; as, to poach for rabbits or for salmon.
v. t.
• To stab; to pierce; to spear, \as fish.
• To force, drive, or plunge into anything.
• To make soft or muddy by trampling
• To begin and not complete.
v. i.
• To become soft or muddy.
Poachard
n.
(Zool.) A common European duck (Aythya ferina); — called also goldhead, poker, and fresh-water, or red-headed, widgeon.
• The American redhead, which is closely allied to the European poachard.
Poacher
n.
• One who poaches; one who kills or catches game or fish contrary to law.
(Zool.) The American widgeon.
Poachiness
n.
• The state of being poachy; marshiness.
Poachy
a.
• Wet and soft; easily penetrated by the feet of cattle; — said of land
Pocan
n.
(Bot.) The poke (Phytolacca decandra); — called also pocan bush.
Pochard
n.
(Zool.) See Poachard.
Pock
n.
(Med.) A pustule raised on the surface of the body in variolous and vaccine diseases.
Pockarred
a.
• See Pockmarked.
Pocket
n.
• A bag or pouch; especially; a small bag inserted in a garment for carrying small articles, particularly money; hence, figuratively, money; wealth.
• One of several bags attached to a billiard table, into which the balls are driven.
• A large bag or sack used in packing various articles, as ginger, hops, cowries, etc.
(Arch.) A hole or space covered by a movable piece of board, as in a floor, boxing, partitions, or the like.
(Mining.) A cavity in a rock containing a nugget of gold, or other mineral; a small body of ore contained in such a cavity.
• A hole containing water.
(Nat.) A strip of canvas, sewn upon a sail so that a batten or a light spar can placed in the interspace.
(Zool.) Same as Pouch.
v. t.
• To put, or conceal, in the pocket; as, to pocket the change.
• To take clandestinely or fraudulently.
Pocketbook
n.
• A small book or case for carrying papers, money, etc., in the pocket; also, a notebook for the pocket.
Pocketful
n.
• As much as a pocket will hold; enough to fill a pocket; as, pocketfuls of chestnuts.
Pocketknife
n.
• A knife with one or more blades, which fold into the handle so as to admit of being carried in the pocket.
Pockiness
n.
• The state of being pocky.
Pockmark
n.
• A mark or pit made by smallpox.
Pockmarked
a.
• Marked by smallpox; pitted.
Pockwood
n.
(Bot.) Lignum-vitae.
Pocky
a.
• Full of pocks; affected with smallpox or other eruptive disease.
Poco
adv.
(Mus.) A little; — used chiefly in phrases indicating the time or movement; as, poco pi\'97 allegro, a little faster; poco largo, rather slow.
Pocock
n.
• Peacock.
Pococurante
n.
• A careless person; a trifler.
Pococurantism
n.
• Carelessness; apathy; indifference.
Pocoson
n.
• Low, wooded grounds or swamps in Eastern Maryland and Virginia.
Poculent
a.
• Fit for drink.
Poculiform
a.
• Having the shape of a goblet or drinking cup.
Pod
n.
• A bag; a pouch.
(Bot.) A capsule of plant, especially a legume; a dry dehiscent fruit. See Illust. of Angiospermous.
(Zool.) A considerable number of animals closely clustered together; — said of seals.
v. i.
• To swell; to fill; also, to produce pods.
Podagra
n.
(Med.) Gout in the joints of the foot; — applied also to gout in other parts of body.
Podagrous
a.
• Gouty; podagric.
Podalgia
n.
(Med.) pain in the foot, due to gout, rheumatism, etc.
Podarthrum
n.
(Anat.) The foot joint; in birds, the joint between the metatarsus and the toes.
Podded
a.
• Having pods.
Podder
n.
• One who collects pods or pulse.
Podesta
n.
• One of the chief magistrates of the Italian republics in the Middle Ages.
• A mayor, alderman, or other magistrate, in some towns of Italy.
Podetium
n.
(Bot.) A stalk which bears the fructification in some lichens, as in the so-called reindeer moss.
Podge
n.
• A puddle; a plash.
• Porridge.
Podgy
a.
• Fat and short; pudgy.
Podical
a.
(Zool.) Anal; — applied to certain organs of insects.
Podiceps
n.
(Zool.) See Grebe.
Podium
n.
(Arch.) A low wall, serving as a foundation, a substructure, or a terrace wall.
• The dwarf wall surrounding the arena of an amphitheater, from the top of which the seats began
• The masonry under the stylobate of a temple, sometimes a mere foundation, sometimes containing chambers
(Zool.) The foot.
Podley
n.
(Zool.) A young coalfish.
Podobranch
n.
(Zool.) One of branchiae attached to the bases of the legs in Crustacea.
Podobranchia
n.
(Zool.) Same as Podobranch.
Podocarp
n.
(Bot.) A stem, or footstalk, supporting the fruit.
Podocephalous
a.
(Bot.) Having a head of flowers on a long peduncle, or footstalk.
Podogynium
n.
(Bot.) Same as Basigynium
Podophthalmia
n. pl.
(Zool.) The stalk-eyed Crustacea, — an order of Crustacea having the eyes supported on movable stalks. It includes the crabs, lobsters, and prawns. Called also Podophthalmata, and Decapoda.
Podophthalmite
n.
(Zool.) The eyestalk of a crustacean.
Podophyllin
n.
(Chem.) A brown bitter gum extracted from the rootstalk of the May apple (Podophyllum peltatum). It is a complex mixture of several substances.
Podophyllous
a.
(Zool.) Having thin, flat, leaflike locomotive organs.
(Anat.) Pertaining to, or composing, the layer of tissue, made up of laminae, beneath a horse's hoof.
Podophyllum
n.
(Bot.) A genus of herbs of the Barberry family, having large palmately lobed peltate leaves and solitary flower. There are two species, the American Podohyllum peltatum, or May apple, the Himalayan P. Emodi.
(Med.) The rhizome and rootlet of the May apple (Podophyllum peltatum), — used as a cathartic drug.
Podoscaph
n.
• A canoe-shaped float attached to the foot, for walking on water.
Podosperm
n.
(Bot.) The stalk of a seed or ovule.
Podostomata
n. pl.
(Zool.) An order of Bryozoa of which Rhabdopleura is the type. See Rhabdopleura.
Podotheca
n.
(Zool.) The scaly covering of the foot of a bird or reptile.
Podrida
n.
• A miscellaneous dish of meats. See Olla-podrida.
Podura
n.
• Any small leaping thysanurous insect of the genus Podura and related genera; a springtail.
Podurid
n.
(Zool.) Any species of Podura or allied genera.
a.
• Pertaining to the poduras.
Poe
n.
• Same as Pol.
Poebird
n.
(Zool.) The parson bird.
Poecile
n.
• Same as Poicile.
Poecilitic
a.
(Geol.) Mottled with various colors; variegated; spotted; — said of certain rocks.
• Specifically: Of or pertaining to, or characterizing, Triassic and Permian sandstones of red and other colors.
Poecilopod
n.
(Zool.) One of the Poecilopoda. Also used adjectively.
Poecilopoda
n. pl.
(Zool.) Originally, an artificial group including many parasitic Entomostraca, together with the horseshoe crabs (Limuloidea).
• By some recent writers applied to the Merostomata.
Poem
n.
• A metrical composition; a composition in verse written in certain measures, whether in blank verse or in rhyme, and characterized by imagination and poetic diction; — contradistinguished from prose; as, the poems of Homer or of Milton.
• A composition, not in verse, of which the language is highly imaginative or impassioned; as, a prose poem; the poems of Ossian.
Poematic
a.
• Pertaining to a poem, or to poetry; poetical.
Poenamu
n.
(Min.) A variety of jade or nephrite, — used in New Zealand for the manufacture of axes and weapons.
Poephaga
n. pl.
(Zool.) A group of herbivorous marsupials including the kangaroos and their allies.
Poesy
n.
• The art of composing poems; poetical skill or faculty; as, the heavenly gift of poesy.
• Poetry; metrical composition; poems.
• A short conceit or motto engraved on a ring or other thing; a posy.
Poet
n.
• One skilled in making poetry; one who has a particular genius for metrical composition; the author of a poem; an imaginative thinker or writer.
Poetaster
n.
• An inferior rhymer, or writer of verses; a dabbler in poetic art.
Poetastry
n.
• The works of a poetaster.
Poetess
n.
• A female poet.
Poetically
adv.
• In a poetic manner.
Poetics
n.
• The principles and rules of the art of poetry.
Poeticule
n.
• A poetaster.
Poetize
v. i.
• To write as a poet; to compose verse; to idealize.
Poetry
n.
• The art of apprehending and interpreting ideas by the faculty of imagination; the art of idealizing in thought and in expression.
• Imaginative language or composition, whether expressed rhythmically or in prose. Specifically: Metrical composition; verse; rhyme; poems collectively; as, heroic poetry; dramatic poetry; lyric or Pindaric poetry.
Poetship
n.
• The state or personality of a poet.
Poggy
n.
(Zool.) See Porgy.
• A small whale.
Pogy
n.
(Zool.) The menhaden.
Poh
interj.
• An exclamation expressing contempt or disgust; bah !
Pohagen
n.
(Zool.) See Pauhaugen.
Poi
n.
• A national food of the Hawaiians, made by baking and pounding the kalo (or taro) root, and reducing it to a thin paste, which is allowed to ferment.
Poignancy
n.
• The quality or state of being poignant; as, the poignancy of satire; the poignancy of grief.
Poignant
a.
• Pricking; piercing; sharp; pungent.
• Fig.: Pointed; keen; satirical.
Poignantly
adv.
• In a poignant manner.
Poikilitic
a.
(Geol.) See Poecilitic.
Poikilocyte
n.
(Physiol.) An irregular form of corpuscle found in the blood in cases of profound anaemia, probably a degenerated red blood corpuscle.
Poikilothermous
a.
(Physiol.) Poikilothermal.
Poinciana
n.
(Bot.) A prickly tropical shrub (Caesalpinia, formerly Poinciana, pulcherrima), with bipinnate leaves, and racemes of showy orange-red flowers with long crimson filaments.
Poind
v. t.
• To impound, as cattle.
• To distrain.
Poinder
n.
• The keeper of a cattle pound; a pinder.
• One who distrains property.
Poinsettia
n.
(Bot.) A Mexican shrub (Euphorbia pulcherrima) with very large and conspicuous vermilion bracts below the yellowish flowers.
Point
v. t. & i.
• To appoint.
n.
• That which pricks or pierces; the sharp end of anything, esp. the sharp end of a piercing instrument, as a needle or a pin.
• An instrument which pricks or pierces, as a sort of needle used by engravers, etchers, lace workers, and others; also, a pointed cutting tool, as a stone cutter's point; — called also pointer.
• Anything which tapers to a sharp, well-defined termination. Specifically: A small promontory or cape; a tract of land extending into the water beyond the common shore line.
• The mark made by the end of a sharp, piercing instrument, as a needle; a prick.
• An indefinitely small space; a mere spot indicated or supposed. Specifically: (Geom.) That which has neither parts nor magnitude; that which has position, but has neither length, breadth, nor thickness, — sometimes conceived of as the limit of a line; that by the motion of which a line is conceived to be produced.
• An indivisible portion of time; a moment; an instant; hence, the verge.
• A mark of punctuation; a character used to mark the divisions of a composition, or the pauses to be observed in reading, or to point off groups of figures, etc.; a stop, as a comma, a semicolon, and esp. a period; hence, figuratively, an end, or conclusion.
• Whatever serves to mark progress, rank, or relative position, or to indicate a transition from one state or position to another, degree; step; stage; hence, position or condition attained; as, a point of elevation, or of depression; the stock fell off five points; he won by tenpoints.
• That which arrests attention, or indicates qualities or character; a salient feature; a characteristic; a peculiarity; hence, a particular; an item; a detail; as, the good or bad points of a man, a horse, a book, a story, etc.
• Hence, the most prominent or important feature, as of an argument, discourse, etc.; the essential matter; esp., the proposition to be established; as, the point of an anecdote.
• A small matter; a trifle; a least consideration; a punctilio.
(Mus.) A dot or mark used to designate certain tones or time
(Anc. Mus.) A dot or mark distinguishing or characterizing certain tones or styles; as, points of perfection, of augmentation, etc.; hence, a note; a tune.
(Mod. Mus.) A dot placed at the right hand of a note, to raise its value, or prolong its time, by one half, as to make a whole note equal to three half notes, a half note equal to three quarter notes.
(Astron.) A fixed conventional place for reference, or zero of reckoning, in the heavens, usually the intersection of two or more great circles of the sphere, and named specifically in each case according to the position intended; as, the equinoctial points; the solstitial points; the nodal points; vertical points, etc. See Equinoctial Nodal.
(Her.) One of the several different parts of the escutcheon. See Escutcheon.
(Naut.) One of the points of the compass (see Points of the compass, below); also, the difference between two points of the compass; as, to fall off a point.
• A short piece of cordage used in reefing sails. See Reef point, under Reef.
(Anc. Costume) A a string or lace used to tie together certain parts of the dress.
• Lace wrought the needle; as, point de Venise; Brussels point. See Point lace, below.
(Railways) A switch.
• An item of private information; a hint; a tip; a pointer.
(Cricket) A fielder who is stationed on the off side, about twelve or fifteen yards from, and a little in advance of, the batsman.
• The attitude assumed by a pointer dog when he finds game; as, the dog came to a point. See Pointer.
(Type Making) A standard unit of measure for the size of type bodies, being one twelfth of the thickness of pica type. See Point system of type, under Type.
• A tyne or snag of an antler.
• One of the spaces on a backgammon board.
(Fencing) A movement executed with the saber or foil; as, tierce point.
v. t.
• To give a point to; to sharpen; to cut, forge, grind, or file to an acute end; as, to point a dart, or a pencil. Used also figuratively; as, to point a moral.
• To direct toward an abject; to aim; as, to point a gun at a wolf, or a cannon at a fort.
• Hence, to direct the attention or notice of.
• To supply with punctuation marks; to punctuate; as, to point a composition.
• To mark (as Hebrew) with vowel points.
• To give particular prominence to; to designate in a special manner; to indicate, as if by pointing; as, the error was pointed out.
• To indicate or discover by a fixed look, as game.
(Masonry) To fill up and finish the joints of (a wall), by introducing additional cement or mortar, and bringing it to a smooth surface.
(Stone Cutting) To cut, as a surface, with a pointed tool.
v. i.
• To direct the point of something, as of a finger, for the purpose of designating an object, and attracting attention to it; — with at.
• To indicate the presence of game by fixed and steady look, as certain hunting dogs do.
(Med.) To approximate to the surface; to head; — said of an abscess.
Pointal
n.
(Bot.) The pistil of a plant.
• A kind of pencil or style used with the tablets of the Middle Ages.
(Arch.) See Poyntel.
Pointed
a.
• Sharp; having a sharp point; as, a pointed rock.
• Characterized by sharpness, directness, or pithiness of expression; terse; epigrammatic; especially, directed to a particular person or thing.
Pointel
n.
• See Pointal.
Pointer
n.
• One who, or that which, points.
• The hand of a timepiece
(Zool.) One of a breed of dogs trained to stop at scent of game, and with the nose point it out to sportsmen
(Astron.) The two stars (Merak and Dubhe) in the Great Bear, the line between which points nearly in the direction of the north star
(Naut.) Diagonal braces sometimes fixed across the hold.
Pointing
n.
• The act of sharpening.
• The act of designating, as a position or direction, by means of something pointed, as a finger or a rod.
• The act or art of punctuating; punctuation.
• The act of filling and finishing the joints in masonry with mortar, cement, etc.; also, the material so used.
• The rubbing off of the point of the wheat grain in the first process of high milling.
(Sculpt.) The act or process of measuring, at the various distances from the surface of a block of marble, the surface of a future piece of statuary; also, a process used in cutting the statue from the artist's model.
Pointingstock
n.
• An object of ridicule or scorn; a laughingstock.
Pointless
a.
• Having no point; blunt; wanting keenness; obtuse; as, a pointless sword; a pointless remark.
Pointlessly
adv.
• Without point.
Pointleted
a.
(Bot.) Having a small, distinct point; apiculate.
Pointrel
n.
• A graving tool.
Pointsman
n.
• A man who has charge of railroad points or switches.
Poise
n.
• Weight; gravity; that which causes a body to descend; heaviness.
• The weight, or mass of metal, used in weighing, to balance the substance weighed.
• The state of being balanced by equal weight or power; equipoise; balance; equilibrium; rest.
• That which causes a balance; a counterweight.
v. t.
• To balance; to make of equal weight; as, to poise the scales of a balance.
• To hold or place in equilibrium or equiponderance.
• To counterpoise; to counterbalance.
• To ascertain, as by the balance; to weigh.
• To weigh (down); to oppress.
v. i.
• To hang in equilibrium; to be balanced or suspended; hence, to be in suspense or doubt.
Poiser
n.
(Zool.) The balancer of dipterous insects.
Poison
n.
• Any agent which, when introduced into the animal organism, is capable of producing a morbid, noxious, or deadly effect upon it; as, morphine is a deadly poison; the poison of pestilential diseases.
• That which taints or destroys moral purity or health; as, the poison of evil example; the poison of sin.
v. t.
• To put poison upon or into; to infect with poison; as, to poison an arrow; to poison food or drink.
• To injure or kill by poison; to administer poison to.
• To taint; to corrupt; to vitiate; as, vice poisons happiness; slander poisoned his mind.
v. i.
• To act as, or convey, a poison.
Poisonable
a.
• Capable of poisoning; poisonous.
• Capable of being poisoned.
Poisoner
n.
• One who poisons.
Poisonous
a.
• Having the qualities or effects of poison; venomous; baneful; corrupting; noxious.
Poisonsome
a.
• Poisonous. Holland.
Poisure
n.
• Weight.
Poitrel
n.
(Anc. Armor) The breastplate of the armor of a horse. See Peytrel.
Poize
n.
• See Poise.
Pokal
n.
• A tall drinking cup.
Poke
n.
(Bot.) A large North American herb of the genus Phytolacca (P. decandra), bearing dark purple juicy berries; — called also garget, pigeon berry, pocan, and pokeweed. The root and berries have emetic and purgative properties, and are used in medicine. The young shoots are sometimes eaten as a substitute for asparagus, and the berries are said to be used in Europe to color wine.
n.
• A bag; a sack; a pocket.
• A long, wide sleeve; — called also poke sleeve
v. t.
• To thrust or push against or into with anything pointed; hence, to stir up; to excite; as, to poke a fire.
• To thrust with the horns; to gore.
• To put a poke on; as, to poke an ox.
v. i.
• To search; to feel one's way, as in the dark; to grope; as, to poke about.
n.
• The act of poking; a thrust; a jog; as, a poke in the ribs.
• A lazy person; a dawdler; also, a stupid or uninteresting person.
• A contrivance to prevent an animal from leaping or breaking through fences. It consists of a yoke with a pole inserted, pointed forward.
Pokebag
n.
(Zool.) The European long-tailed titmouse; — called also poke-pudding.
Poker
n.
• One who pokes.
• That which pokes or is used in poking, especially a metal bar or rod used in stirring a fire of coals.
• A poking-stick.
(Zool.) The poachard.
n.
• A game at cards derived from brag, and first played about 1835 in the Southwestern United States.
n.
• Any imagined frightful object, especially one supposed to haunt the darkness; a bugbear.
Pokerish
a.
• Infested by pokers; adapted to excite fear; as, a pokerish place.
a.
• Stiff like a poker.
Poket
n.
• A pocket.
Pokeweed
n.
(Bot.) See Poke, the plant.
Pokey
a.
• See Poky.
Poking
a.
• Drudging; servile.
Poky
a.
• Confined; cramped.
• Dull; tedious; uninteresting.
Polacca
n.
(Naut.) A vessel with two or three masts, used in the Mediterranean. The masts are usually of one piece, and without tops, caps, or crosstrees.
(Mus.) See Polonaise.
Polack
n.
• A Polander.
Polacre
n.
• Same as Polacca, 1.
Polander
n.
• A native or inhabitant of Poland; a Pole.
Polar
a.
• Of or pertaining to one of the poles of the earth, or of a sphere; situated near, or proceeding from, one of the poles; as, polar regions; polar seas; polar winds.
• Of or pertaining to the magnetic pole, or to the point to which the magnetic needle is directed.
(Geom.) Pertaining to, reckoned from, or having a common radiating point; as, polar coordinates.
n.
(Conic Sections) The right line drawn through the two points of contact of the two tangents drawn from a given point to a given conic section. The given point is called the pole of the line. If the given point lies within the curve so that the two tangents become imaginary, there is still a real polar line which does not meet the curve, but which possesses other properties of the polar. Thus the focus and directrix are pole and polar. There are also poles and polar curves to curves of higher degree than the second, and poles and polar planes to surfaces of the second degree.
Polarchy
n.
• See Polyarchy.
Polaric
a.
• See Polar.
Polarily
adv.
• In a polary manner; with polarity.
Polarimeter
n.
(Opt.) An instrument for determining the amount of polarization of light, or the proportion of polarized light, in a partially polarized ray.
Polarimetry
n.
(Opt.) The art or process of measuring the polarization of light.
Polaris
n.
(Astron.) The polestar. See North star, under North.
Polariscope
n.
(Opt.) An instrument consisting essentially of a polarizer and an analyzer, used for polarizing light, and analyzing its properties.
Polariscopic
a.
(Opt.) Of or pertaining to the polariscope; obtained by the use of a polariscope; as, polariscopic observations.
Polariscopy
n.
(Opt.) The art or rocess of making observations with the polariscope.
Polaristic
a.
• Pertaining to, or exhibiting, poles; having a polar arrangement or disposition; arising from, or dependent upon, the possession of poles or polar characteristics; as, polaristic antagonism.
Polarity
n.
(Physics) That quality or condition of a body in virtue of which it exhibits opposite, or contrasted, properties or powers, in opposite, or contrasted, parts or directions; or a condition giving rise to a contrast of properties corresponding to a contrast of positions, as, for example, attraction and repulsion in the opposite parts of a magnet, the dissimilar phenomena corresponding to the different sides of a polarized ray of light, etc.
(Geom.) A property of the conic sections by virtue of which a given point determines a corresponding right line and a given right line determines a corresponding point. See Polar, n.
Polarizable
a.
• Susceptible of polarization.
Polarization
n.
• The act of polarizing; the state of being polarized, or of having polarity.
(Opt.) A peculiar affection or condition of the rays of light or heat, in consequence of which they exhibit different properties in different directions.
(Elec.) An effect produced upon the plates of a voltaic battery, or the electrodes in an electrolytic cell, by the deposition upon them of the gases liberated by the action of the current. It is chiefly due to the hydrogen, and results in an increase of the resistance, and the setting up of an opposing electro-motive force, both of which tend materially to weaken the current of the battery, or that passing through the cell.
Polarize
v. t.
• To communicate polarity to.
Polarizer
n.
(Physics) That which polarizes; especially, the part of a polariscope which receives and polarizes the light. It is usually a reflecting plate, or a plate of some crystal, as tourmaline, or a doubly refracting crystal.
Polary
a.
• Tending to a pole; having a direction toward a pole.
Polatouche
n.
(Zool.) A flying squirrel (Sciuropterus volans) native of Northern Europe and Siberia; — called also minene.
Polder
n.
• A tract of low land reclaimed from the sea by of high embankments.
Poldway
n.
• A kind of coarse bagging, — used for coal sacks.
Pole
n.
• A native or inhabitant of Poland; a Polander.
n.
• A long, slender piece of wood; a tall, slender piece of timber; the stem of a small tree whose branches have been removed; as, specifically: (a) A carriage pole, a wooden bar extending from the front axle of a carriage between the wheel horses, by which the carriage is guided and held back. (b) A flag pole, a pole on which a flag is supported. (c) A Maypole. See Maypole. (d) A barber's pole, a pole painted in stripes, used as a sign by barbers and hairdressers. (e) A pole on which climbing beans, hops, or other vines, are trained.
• A measuring stick; also, a measure of length equal to 5 yards, or a square measure equal to 30 square yards; a rod; a perch.
v. t.
• To furnish with poles for support; as, to pole beans or hops.
• To convey on poles; as, to pole hay into a barn.
• To impel by a pole or poles, as a boat.
• To stir, as molten glass, with a pole.
n.
• Either extremity of an axis of a sphere; especially, one of the extremities of the earth's axis; as, the north pole.
(Spherics) A point upon the surface of a sphere equally distant from every part of the circumference of a great circle; or the point in which a diameter of the sphere perpendicular to the plane of such circle meets the surface. Such a point is called the pole of that circle; as, the pole of the horizon; the pole of the ecliptic; the pole of a given meridian.
(Physics) One of the opposite or contrasted parts or directions in which a polar force is manifested; a point of maximum intensity of a force which has two such points, or which has polarity; as, the poles of a magnet; the north pole of a needle.
• The firmament; the sky.
(Geom.) See Polarity, and Polar, n.
Polecat
n.
(Zool.) A small European carnivore of the Weasel family (Putorius foetidus). Its scent glands secrete a substance of an exceedingly disagreeable odor. Called also fitchet, foulmart, and European ferret.
• The zorilla. The name is also applied to other allied species.
Poledavy
n.
• A sort of coarse canvas; poldway.
Poleless
a.
• Without a pole; as, a poleless chariot.
Polemarch
n.
(Gr. Antiq.) In Athens, originally, the military commanderin-chief; but, afterward, a civil magistrate who had jurisdiction in respect of strangers and sojourners. In other Grecian cities, a high military and civil officer.
Polemic
a.
• Of or pertaining to controversy; maintaining, or involving, controversy; controversial; disputative; as, a polemic discourse or essay; polemic theology.
• Engaged in, or addicted to, polemics, or to controversy; disputations; as, a polemic writer.
n.
• One who writes in support of one opinion, doctrine, or system, in opposition to another; one skilled in polemics; a controversialist; a disputant.
• A polemic argument or controversy.
Polemical
a.
• Polemic; controversial; disputatious.
Polemicist
n.
• A polemic.
Polemics
n.
• The art or practice of disputation or controversy, especially on religious subjects; that branch of theological science which pertains to the history or conduct of ecclesiastical controversy.
Polemist
n.
• A polemic.
Polemoniaceous
a.
(Bot.) Of or pertaining to a natural order of plants (Polemoniaceae), which includes Polemonium, Phlox, Gilia, and a few other genera.
Polemonium
n.
(Bot.) A genus of gamopetalous perennial herbs, including the Jacob's ladder and the Greek valerian.
Polemoscope
n.
• An opera glass or field glass with an oblique mirror arranged for seeing objects do not lie directly before the eye; — called also diagonal, or side, opera glass.
Polemy
n.
• Warfare; war; hence, contention; opposition.
Polenta
n.
• Pudding made of Indian meal; also, porridge made of chestnut meal.
Poler
n.
• One who poles.
n.
• An extortioner. See Poller.
Polestar
n.
• Polaris, or the north star. See North star, under North.
• A guide or director.
Polewards
adv.
• Toward a pole of the earth.
Polewig
n.
(Zool.) The European spotted goby (Gobius minutus); — called also pollybait.
Poley
n.
(Bot.) See Poly.
a.
• Without horns; polled.
Polianite
n.
(Min.) Manganese dioxide, occurring in tetragonal crystals nearly as hard as quartz.
Policate
a.
(Zool.) Same as Pollicate.
Police
n.
• A judicial and executive system, for the government of a city, town, or district, for the preservation of rights, order, cleanliness, health, etc., and for the enforcement of the laws and prevention of crime; the administration of the laws and regulations of a city, incorporated town, or borough.
• That which concerns the order of the community; the internal regulation of a state.
• The organized body of civil officers in a city, town, or district, whose particular duties are the preservation of good order, the prevention and detection of crime, and the enforcement of the laws.
(Mil.) Military police, the body of soldiers detailed to preserve civil order and attend to sanitary arrangements in a camp or garrison.
• The cleaning of a camp or garrison, or the state a camp as to cleanliness.
v. t.
• To keep in order by police.
(Mil.) To make clean; as, to police a camp.
Policed
a.
• Regulated by laws for the maintenance of peace and order, enforced by organized administration.
Policeman
n.
• A member of a body of police; a constable.
Policial
a.
• Relating to the police
Policied
a.
• Policed.
Policy
n.
• Civil polity.
• The settled method by which the government and affairs of a nation are, or may be, administered; a system of public or official administration, as designed to promote the external or internal prosperity of a state.
• The method by which any institution is administered; system of management; course.
• Management or administration based on temporal or material interest, rather than on principles of equity or honor; hence, worldly wisdom; dexterity of management; cunning; stratagem.
• Prudence or wisdom in the management of public and private affairs; wisdom; sagacity; wit.
• Motive; object; inducement.
v. t.
• To regulate by laws; to reduce to order.
n.
• A ticket or warrant for money in the public funds.
• The writing or instrument in which a contract of insurance is embodied; an instrument in writing containing the terms and conditions on which one party engages to indemnify another against loss arising from certain hazards, perils, or risks to which his person or property may be exposed. See Insurance.
• A method of gambling by betting as to what numbers will be drawn in a lottery; as, to play policy.
Poling
n.
• The act of supporting or of propelling by means of a pole or poles; as, the poling of beans; the poling of a boat.
(Gardening) The operation of dispersing worm casts over the walks with poles.
• One of the poles or planks used in upholding the side earth in excavating a tunnel, ditch, etc.
Polish
a.
• Of or pertaining to Poland or its inhabitants.
n.
• The language of the Poles.
v. t.
• To make smooth and glossy, usually by friction; to burnish; to overspread with luster; as, to polish glass, marble, metals, etc.
• Hence, to refine; to wear off the rudeness, coarseness, or rusticity of; to make elegant and polite; as, to polish life or manners.
v. i.
• To become smooth, as from friction; to receive a gloss; to take a smooth and glossy surface; as, steel polishes well.
n.
• A smooth, glossy surface, usually produced by friction; a gloss or luster.
• Anything used to produce a gloss.
• Fig.: Refinement; elegance of manners.
Polishable
a.
• Capable of being polished.
Polished
a.
• Made smooth and glossy, as by friction; hence, highly finished; refined; polite; as, polished plate; polished manners; polished verse.
Polishedness
n.
• The quality of being polished.
Polisher
n.
• One who, or that which, polishes; also, that which is used in polishing.
Polishing
• a. & n. from Polish.
Polishment
n.
• The act of polishing, or the state of being polished.
Polite
a.
• Smooth; polished.
• Smooth and refined in behavior or manners; well bred; courteous; complaisant; obliging; civil.
• Characterized by refinement, or a high degree of finish; as, polite literature.
v. t.
• To polish; to refine; to render polite.
Politely
adv.
• In a polished manner; so as to be smooth or glossy.
• In a polite manner; with politeness.
Politeness
n.
• High finish; smoothness; burnished elegance.
• The quality or state of being polite; refinement of manners; urbanity; courteous behavior; complaisance; obliging attentions.
Politesse
n.
• Politeness.
Politic
a.
• Of or pertaining to polity, or civil government; political; as, the body politic. See under Body.
• Pertaining to, or promoting, a policy, especially a national policy; well-devised; adapted to its end, whether right or wrong; — said of things; as, a politic treaty.
• Sagacious in promoting a policy; ingenious in devising and advancing a system of management; devoted to a scheme or system rather than to a principle; hence, in a good sense, wise; prudent; sagacious; and in a bad sense, artful; unscrupulous; cunning; — said of persons.
n.
• A politician.
Political
a.
• Having, or conforming to, a settled system of administration.
• Of or pertaining to public policy, or to politics; relating to affairs of state or administration; as, a political writer.
• Of or pertaining to a party, or to parties, in the state; as, his political relations were with the Whigs.
• Politic; wise; also, artful.
Politicalism
n.
• Zeal or party spirit in politics.
Politically
adv.
• In a political manner.
• Politicly; artfully.
Politicaster
n.
• A petty politician; a pretender in politics.
Politician
n.
• One versed or experienced in the science of government; one devoted to politics; a statesman.
• One primarily devoted to his own advancement in public office, or to the success of a political party; — used in a depreciatory sense; one addicted or attached to politics as managed by parties (see Politics, 2); a schemer; an intriguer; as, a mere politician.
a.
• Cunning; using artifice; politic; artful.
Politicist
n.
• A political writer.
Politicly
adv.
• In a politic manner; sagaciously; shrewdly; artfully.
Politics
n.
• The science of government; that part of ethics which has to do with the regulation and government of a nation or state, the preservation of its safety, peace, and prosperity, the defense of its existence and rights against foreign control or conquest, the augmentation of its strength and resources, and the protection of its citizens in their rights, with the preservation and improvement of their morals.
• The management of a political party; the conduct and contests of parties with reference to political measures or the administration of public affairs; the advancement of candidates to office; in a bad sense, artful or dishonest management to secure the success of political candidates or parties; political trickery.
Politize
v. i.
• To play the politician; to dispute as politicians do.
Politure
n.
• Polish; gloss. Donne.
Polity
n.
• The form or constitution of the civil government of a nation or state; the framework or organization by which the various departments of government are combined into a systematic whole.
• Hence: The form or constitution by which any institution is organized; the recognized principles which lie at the foundation of any human institution.
• Policy; art; management.
Politzerization
n.
(Med.) The act of inflating the middle ear by blowing air up the nose during the act of swallowing; — so called from Prof. Politzer of Vienna, who first practiced it.
Polive
n.
• A pulley.
Polka
n.
• A dance of Polish origin, but now common everywhere. It is performed by two persons in common time.
(Mus.) A lively Bohemian or Polish dance tune in 2-4 measure, with the third quaver accented.
Poll
n.
• A parrot; — familiarly so called.
n.
• One who does not try for honors, but is content to take a degree merely; a passman.
n.
• The head; the back part of the head.
• A number or aggregate of heads; a list or register of heads or individuals.
• Specifically, the register of the names of electors who may vote in an election.
• The casting or recording of the votes of registered electors; as, the close of the poll.
• The place where the votes are cast or recorded; as, to go to the polls.
• The broad end of a hammer; the but of an ax.
(Zool.) The European chub. See Pollard, 3 (a).
v. t.
• To remove the poll or head of; hence, to remove the top or end of; to clip; to lop; to shear; as, to poll the head; to poll a tree.
• To cut off; to remove by clipping, shearing, etc.; to mow or crop; — sometimes with off; as, to poll the hair; to poll wool; to poll grass.
• To extort from; to plunder; to strip.
• To impose a tax upon.
• To pay as one's personal tax.
• To enter, as polls or persons, in a list or register; to enroll, esp. for purposes of taxation; to enumerate one by one.
• To register or deposit, as a vote; to elicit or call forth, as votes or voters; as, he polled a hundred votes more than his opponent.
(Law) To cut or shave smooth or even; to cut in a straight line without indentation; as, a polled deed. See Dee poll.
v. i.
• To vote at an election.
Pollack
n.
(Zool.) A marine gadoid food fish of Europe (Pollachius virens). Called also greenfish, greenling, lait, leet, lob, lythe, and whiting pollack.
• The American pollock; the coalfish.
Pollage
n.
• A head or poll tax; hence, extortion.
Pollan
n.
(Zool.) A lake whitefish (Coregonus pollan), native of Ireland. In appearance it resembles a herring.
Pollard
n.
• A tree having its top cut off at some height above the ground, that may throw out branches.
• A clipped coin; also, a counterfeit.
(Zool.) A fish, the chub.
• A stag that has cast its antlers.
• A hornless animal (cow or sheep).
v. t.
• To lop the tops of, as trees; to poll; as, to pollard willows.
Pollax
n.
• A poleax.
Polled
a.
• Deprived of a poll, or of something belonging to the poll. Specifically: (a) Lopped; — said of trees having their tops cut off. (b) Cropped; hence, bald; — said of a person. "The polled bachelor." Beau. & Fl. (c) Having cast the antlers; — said of a stag. (d) Without horns; as, polled cattle; polled sheep.
Pollen
n.
• Fine bran or flour.
(Bot.) The fecundating dustlike cells of the anthers of flowers. See Flower, and Illust. of Filament.
Pollenarious
a.
• Consisting of meal or pollen.
Pollened
a.
• Covered with pollen.
Polleniferous
a.
(Bot.) Producing pollen; polliniferous.
Pollenin
n.
(Chem.) A substance found in the pollen of certain plants.
Pollenize
v. t.
• To supply with pollen; to impregnate with pollen.
Poller
n.
• One who polls; specifically: (a) One who polls or lops trees. (b) One who polls or cuts hair; a barber. (c) One who extorts or plunders. Bacon. (d) One who registers voters, or one who enters his name as a voter.
Pollex
n.
(Anat.) The first, or preaxial, digit of the fore limb, corresponding to the hallux in the hind limb; the thumb. In birds, the pollex is the joint which bears the bastard wing.
Pollicate
a.
(Zool.) Having a curved projection or spine on the inner side of a leg joint; — said of insects.
Pollicitation
n.
• A voluntary engagement, or a paper containing it; a promise.
(Roman Law) A promise without mutuality; a promise which has not been accepted by the person to whom it is made.
Pollinate
a.
(Zool.) Pollinose.
v. t.
(Bot.) To apply pollen to (a stigma).
n.(Bot.)
Pollinctor
n.
(Rom. Antiq.) One who prepared corpses for the funeral.
Polling
n.
• The act of topping, lopping, or cropping, as trees or hedges.
• Plunder, or extortion.
• The act of voting, or of registering a vote.
Polliniferous
a.
(Bot.) Producing pollen; polleniferous.
Pollinium
n.
(Bot.) A coherent mass of pollen, as in the milkweed and most orchids.
Pollinose
a.
(Zool.) Having the surface covered with a fine yellow dust, like pollen.
Pollock
n.
(Zool.) A marine gadoid fish (Pollachius carbonarius), native both of the European and American coasts. It is allied to the cod, and like it is salted and dried. In England it is called coalfish, lob, podley, podling, pollack, etc.
Pollucite
n.
(Min.) A colorless transparent mineral, resembling quartz, occurring with castor or castorite on the island of Elba. It is a silicate of alumina and caesia. Called also pollux.
Pollute
v. t.
• To make foul, impure, or unclean; to defile; to taint; to soil; to desecrate; — used of physical or moral defilement.
• To violate sexually; to debauch; to dishonor.
(Jewish Law) To render ceremonially unclean; to disqualify or unfit for sacred use or service, or for social intercourse.
a.
• Polluted.
Polluted
a.
• Defiled; made unclean or impure; debauched.
Polluter
n.
• One who pollutes.
Polluting
a.
• Adapted or tending to pollute; causing defilement or pollution.
Pollution
n.
• The act of polluting, or the state of being polluted (in any sense of the verb); defilement; uncleanness; impurity.
(Med.) The emission of semen, or sperm, at other times than in sexual intercourse.
Pollux
n.
(Astron.) A fixed star of the second magnitude, in the constellation Gemini. Cf. 3d Castor.
(Min.) Same as Pollucite.
Polly
n.
• A woman's name; also, a popular name for a parrot.
Pollywog
n.
(Zool.) A polliwig.
Polo
n.
• A game of ball of Eastern origin, resembling hockey, with the players on horseback.
• A similar game played on the ice, or on a prepared floor, by players wearing skates.
Polonaise
a.
• Of or pertaining to the Poles, or to Poland.
n.
• The Polish language.
• An article of dress for women, consisting of a body and an outer skirt in one piece.
(Mus.) A stately Polish dance tune, in 3-4 measure, beginning always on the beat with a quaver followed by a crotchet, and closing on the beat after a strong accent on the second beat; also, a dance adapted to such music; a polacca.
Polonese
a. & n.
• See Polonaise.
Polony
n.
• A kind of sausage made of meat partly cooked.
Polron
n.
• See Pauldron.
Polsyntheticism
n.
• Polysynthesis.
Polt
n.
• A blow or thump.
a.
• Distorted.
Poltroon
n.
• An arrant coward; a dastard; a craven; a mean-spirited wretch.
a.
• Base; vile; contemptible; cowardly.
Poltroonery
n.
• Cowardice; want of spirit; pusillanimity.
Poltroonish
a.
• Resembling a poltroon; cowardly.
Poluria
n.
(Med.) A persistently excessive flow of watery urine, with low specific gravity and without the presence of either albumin or sugar. It is generally accompanied with more or less thirst.
Polverine
n.
• Glassmaker's ashes; a kind of potash or pearlash, brought from the Levant and Syria, — used in the manufacture of fine glass.
Polwig
n.
(Zool.) A polliwig. Holland.
Poly
n.
(Bot.) A whitish woolly plant (Teucrium Polium) of the order Labiatae, found throughout the Mediterranean region. The name, with sundry prefixes, is sometimes given to other related species of the same genus.
Polyacid
a.
(Chem.) Capable of neutralizing, or of combining with, several molecules of a monobasic acid; having more than one hydrogen atom capable of being replaced by acid radicals; — said of certain bases; as, calcium hydrate and glycerin are polyacid bases.
Polyacoustic
a.
• Multiplying or magnifying sound.
n.
• A polyacoustic instrument.
Polyacoustics
n.
• The art of multiplying or magnifying sounds.
Polyacron
n.
(Geom.) A solid having many summits or angular points; a polyhedron.
Polyadelphia
n. pl.
(Bot.) A Linnaean class of plants having stamens united in three or more bodies or bundles by the filaments.
Polyandria
n. pl.
(Bot.) A Linnaean class of monoclinous or hermaphrodite plants, having many stamens, or any number above twenty, inserted in the receptacle.
Polyandrian
a.
(Bot.) Polyandrous.
Polyandric
a.
• Pertaining to, or characterized by, polyandry; mating with several males.
Polyandrous
a.
(Bot.) Belonging to the class Polyandria; having many stamens, or any number above twenty, inserted in the receptacle.
Polyandry
n.
• The possession by a woman of more than one husband at the same time; — contrasted with monandry.
Polyanthus
n.
(Bot.) The oxlip. So called because the peduncle bears a many-flowered umbel. See Oxlip. (b) A bulbous flowering plant of the genus Narcissus (N. Tazetta, or N. polyanthus of some authors). See Illust. of Narcissus.
Polyarchist
n.
• One who advocates polyarchy; — opposed to monarchist.
Polyarchy
n.
• A government by many persons, of whatever order or class.
Polyatomic
a.
(Chem.) Having more than one atom in the molecule; consisting of several atoms.
• Having a valence greater than one.
Polyautography
n.
• The act or practice of multiplying copies of one's own handwriting, or of manuscripts, by printing from stone, — a species of lithography.
Polybasic
a.
(Chem.) Capable of neutralizing, or of combining with, several molecules of a monacid base; having several hydrogen atoms capable of being replaced by basic radicals; — said of certain acids; as, sulphuric acid is polybasic.
Polybasite
n.
(Min.) An iron-black ore of silver, consisting of silver, sulphur, and antimony, with some copper and arsenic.
Polybranchia
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of Nudibranchiata including those which have numerous branchiae on the back.
Polybromide
n.
(Chem.) A bromide containing more than one atom of bromine in the molecule.
Polycarpellary
a.
(Bot.) Composed of several or numerous carpels; — said of such fruits as the orange.
Polychaeta
n. pl.
(Zool.) One of the two principal groups of Chaetopoda. It includes those that have prominent parapodia and fascicles of setae. See Illust. under Parapodia.
Polychloride
n.
(Chem.) A chloride containing more than one atom of chlorine in the molecule.
Polychoerany
n.
• A government by many chiefs, princes, or rules.
Polychord
a.
• Having many strings.
n.
(Mus.) A musical instrument of ten strings.
• An apparatus for coupling two octave notes, capable of being attached to a keyed instrument.
Polychrest
n.
(Med.) A medicine that serves for many uses, or that cures many diseases.
Polychroism
n.
• Same as Pleochroism.
Polychroite
n.
(Chem.) The coloring matter of saffron; — formerly so called because of the change of color on treatment with certain acids; — called also crocin, and safranin.
Polychromate
n.
(Chem.) A salt of a polychromic acid.
n.
(Chem.) A compound which exhibits, or from which may be prepared, a variety of colors, as certain solutions derived from vegetables, which display colors by fluorescence.
Polychromatic
a.
• Showing a variety, or a change, of colors.
Polychrome
n.
(Chem.) Esculin; — so called in allusion to its fluorescent solutions.
a.
• Executed in the manner of polychromy; as, polychrome printing.
Polychromic
a.
• Polychromatic.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, any one of several acids (known only in their salts) which contain more than one atom of chromium.
Polychromous
a.
• Of or pertaining to polychromy; many-colored; polychromatic.
Polychromy
n.
(Anc. Art) The art or practice of combining different colors, especially brilliant ones, in an artistic way.
Polychronious
a.
• Enduring through a long time; chronic.
Polyclinic
n.
(Med.) A clinic in which diseases of many sorts are treated; especially, an institution in which clinical instruction is given in all kinds of disease.
Polyconic
a.
• Pertaining to, or based upon, many cones.
Polycotyledon
n.
(Bot.) A plant that has many, or more than two, cotyledons in the seed.
Polycotyledonary
a.
(Anat.) Having the villi of the placenta collected into definite patches, or cotyledons.
Polycracy
n.
• Government by many rulers; polyarchy.
Polycrotic
a.
(Physiol.) Of or pertaining to polycrotism; manifesting polycrotism; as, a polycrotic pulse; a polycrotic pulse curve.
Polycrotism
n.
(Physiol.) That state or condition of the pulse in which the pulse curve, or sphygmogram, shows several secondary crests or elevations; — contrasted with monocrotism and dicrotism.
Polycystid
n.
(Zool.) One of the Polycystidea.
• One of the Polycystina.
a.
• Pertaining to the Polycystidea, or the Polycystina.
Polycystidea
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of Gregarinae including those that have two or more internal divisions of the body.
Polycystina
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of Radiolaria including numerous minute marine species. The skeleton is composed of silica, and is often very elegant in form and sculpture. Many have been found in the fossil state.
Polycystine
a.
(Zool.) Pertaining to the Polycystina.
n.
• One of the Polycystina.
Polycyttaria
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of Radiolaria. It includes those having one more central capsules.
Polydactylism
n.
(Anat.) The possession of more that the normal number of digits.
Polydipsia
n.
(Med.) Excessive and constant thirst occasioned by disease.
Polyedron
n.
• See Polyhedron.
Polyedrous
a.
• See Polyhedral.
Polyeidic
a.
(Zool.) Passing through several distinct larval forms; — having several distinct kinds of young.
Polyeidism
n.
(Zool.) The quality or state of being polyeidic.
Polyembryonate
a.
(Bot.) Consisting of, or having, several embryos; polyembryonic.
Polyembryonic
a.
(Bot.) Polyembryonate.
Polyembryony
n.
(Bot.) The production of two or more embryos in one seed, due either to the existence and fertilization of more than one embryonic sac or to the origination of embryos outside of the embryonic sac.
Polyfoil
n.
(Arch.) Same as Multifoil.
Polygala
n.
• A genus of bitter herbs or shrubs having eight stamens and a two-celled ovary (as the Seneca snakeroot, the flowering wintergreen, etc.); milkwort.
Polygalaceous
a.
• Of or pertaining to a natural order of plants (Polygalaceae) of which Polygala is the type.
Polygalic
a.
(Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or obtained from, Polygala; specifically, designating an acrid glucoside (called polygalic acid, senegin, etc.), resembling, or possibly identical with, saponin.
Polygamia
n. pl.
(Bot.) A Linnaean class of plants, characterized by having both hermaphrodite and unisexual flowers on the same plant.
• A name given by Linnaeus to file orders of plants having syngenesious flowers.
Polygamian
a.
(Bot.) Polygamous.
Polygamist
n.
• One who practices polygamy, or maintains its lawfulness.
Polygamize
v. i.
• To practice polygamy; to marry several wives.
Polygamous
a.
• Of or pertaining to polygamy; characterized by, or involving, polygamy; having a plurality of wives; as, polygamous marriages; — opposed to monogamous.
(Zool.) Pairing with more than one female.
(Bot.) Belonging to the Polygamia; bearing both hermaphrodite and unisexual flowers on the same plant.
Polygamy
n.
• The having of a plurality of wives or husbands at the same time; usually, the marriage of a man to more than one woman, or the practice of having several wives, at the same time; — opposed to monogamy; as, the nations of the East practiced polygamy. See the Note under Bigamy, and cf. Polyandry.
(Zool.) The state or habit of having more than one mate.
(Bot.) The condition or state of a plant which bears both perfect and unisexual flowers.
Polygastrian
n.
(Zool.) One of the Polygastrica.
Polygastric
a.
(Anat.) Having several bellies; — applied to muscles which are made up of several bellies separated by short tendons.
(Zool.) Pertaining to the Polygastrica.
n.
(Zool.) One of the Polygastrica.
Polygastrica
n. pl.
(Zool.) The Infusoria.
Polygenettic
a.
• Having many distinct sources; originating at various places or times.
Polygenic
a.
(Biol.) Of or relating to polygeny; polygenetic.
Polygenism
n.
(Biol.) The doctrine that animals of the same species have sprung from more than one original pair.
Polygenist
n.
(Biol.) One who maintains that animals of the same species have sprung from more than one original pair; — opposed to monogenist.
Polygenous
a.
• Consisting of, or containing, many kinds; as, a polygenous mountain.
Polyglot
a.
• Containing, or made up, of, several languages; as, a polyglot lexicon, Bible.
• Versed in, or speaking, many languages.
n.
• One who speaks several languages.
• A book containing several versions of the same text, or containing the same subject matter in several languages; esp., the Scriptures in several languages.
Polyglottous
a.
• Speaking many languages; polyglot.
Polygon
n.
(Geom.) A plane figure having many angles, and consequently many sides; esp., one whose perimeter consists of more than four sides; any figure having many angles.
Polygonaceous
a.
(Bot.) Of or pertaining to a natural order of apetalous plants (Polygonaceae), of which the knotweeds (species of Polygonum) are the type, and which includes also the docks (Rumex), the buckwheat, rhubarb, sea grape (Coccoloba), and several other genera.
Polygonal
a.
• Having many angles.
Polygoneutic
a.
(Zool.) Having two or more broods in a season.
Polygonometry
n.
• The doctrine of polygons; an extension of some of the principles of trigonometry to the case of polygons.
Polygonous
a.
• Polygonal.
Polygonum
n.
(Bot.) A genus of plants embracing a large number of species, including bistort, knotweed, smartweed, etc.
Polygony
n.
(Bot.) Any plant of the genus Polygonum.
Polygordius
n.
(Zool.) A genus of marine annelids, believed to be an ancient or ancestral type. It is remarkable for its simplicity of structure and want of parapodia. It is the type of the order Archiannelida, or Gymnotoma. See Loeven's larva.
Polygram
n.
• A figure consisting of many lines.
Polygraph
n.
• An instrument for multiplying copies of a writing; a manifold writer; a copying machine.
• In bibliography, a collection of different works, either by one or several authors.
Polygraphy
n.
• Much writing; writing of many books.
• The art of writing in various ciphers, and of deciphering the same.
• The art or practice of using a polygraph.
Polygrooved
a.
• Having many grooves; as, a polygrooved rifle or gun (referring to the rifling).
Polygyn
n.
(Bot.) A plant of the order Polygynia.
Polygynia
n. pl.
(Bot.) A Linnaean order of plants having many styles.
Polygynist
n.
• One who practices or advocates polygyny.
Polygyny
n.
• The state or practice of having several wives at the same time; marriage to several wives.
Polyhalite
n.
(Min.) A mineral usually occurring in fibrous masses, of a brick-red color, being tinged with iron, and consisting chiefly of the sulphates of lime, magnesia, and soda.
Polyhedron
n.
(Geom.) A body or solid contained by many sides or planes.
(Opt.) A polyscope, or multiplying glass.
Polyhedrous
a.
• Polyhedral.
Polyhistor
n.
• One versed in various learning.
Polyhymnia
n.
(Anc. Myth.) The Muse of lyric poetry.
Polyiodide
n.
(Chem.) A iodide having more than one atom of iodine in the molecule.
Polylogy
n.
• Talkativeness.
Polyloquent
a.
• Garrulous; loquacious.
Polymastism
n.
(Anat.) The condition of having more than two mammae, or breasts.
Polymathic
a.
• Pertaining to polymathy; acquainted with many branches of learning.
Polymathist
n.
• One versed in many sciences; a person of various learning.
Polymathy
n.
• The knowledge of many arts and sciences; variety of learning.
Polymeniscous
a.
(Zool.) Having numerous facets; — said of the compound eyes of insects and crustaceans.
Polymer
n.
(Chem.) Any one of two or more substances related to each other by polymerism; specifically, a substance produced from another substance by chemical polymerization.
Polymeric
a.
(Chem.) Having the same percentage composition (that is, having the same elements united in the same proportion by weight), but different molecular weights; — often used with with; thus, cyanic acid (CNOH), fulminic acid (C2N2O2H2), and cyanuric acid (C3N3O3H3), are polymeric with each other.
Polymerism
n.
(Chem.) The state, quality, or relation of two or more polymeric substances.
• The act or process of forming polymers.
Polymerization
n.
(Chem.) The act or process of changing to a polymeric form; the condition resulting from such change.
Polymerize
v. t.
(Chem.) To cause polymerization of; to produce polymers from; to increase the molecular weight of, without changing the atomic proportions; thus, certain acids polymerize aldehyde.
v. i.
(Chem.) To change into another substance having the same atomic proportions, but a higher molecular weight; to undergo polymerization; thus, aldehyde polymerizes in forming paraldehyde.
Polymerous
a.
(Bot.) Having many parts or members in each set.
(Chem.) Polymeric.
Polymnia
n.
• See Polyhymnia.
Polymnite
n.
(Min.) A stone marked with dendrites and black lines, and so disposed as to represent rivers, marshes, etc.
Polymorph
n.
(Crystallog.) A substance capable of crystallizing in several distinct forms; also, any one of these forms. Cf. Allomorph.
Polymorphic
a.
• Polymorphous.
Polymorphism
n.
(Crystallog.) Same as Pleomorphism.
(Biol.) The capability of assuming different forms; the capability of widely varying in form.
• Existence in many forms; the coexistence, in the same locality, of two or more distinct forms independent of sex, not connected by intermediate gradations, but produced from common parents.
Polymorphosis
n.
(Zool.) The assumption of several structural forms without a corresponding difference in function; — said of sponges, etc.
Polymorphous
a.
• Having, or assuming, a variety of forms, characters, or styles; as, a polymorphous author.
(Biol.) Having, or occurring in, several distinct forms; — opposed to monomorphic.
Polymorphy
n.
• Existence in many forms; polymorphism.
Polymyodae
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Oscines.
Polymyodous
a.
(Zool.) Polymyoid.
Polymyoid
a.
(Zool.) Having numerous vocal muscles; of or pertaining to the Polymyodae.
Polyneme
n.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of tropical food fishes of the family Polynemidae. They have several slender filaments, often very long, below the pectoral fin. Some of them yield isinglass of good quality. Called also threadfish.
Polynemoid
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the polynemes, or the family Polynemidae.
Polynesian
a.
• Of or pertaining to Polynesia (the islands of the eastern and central Pacific), or to the Polynesians.
Polynesians
n. pl.
(Ethnol.) The race of men native in Polynesia.
Polynia
n.
• The open sea supposed to surround the north pole.
Polynomial
n.
(Alg.) An expression composed of two or more terms, connected by the signs plus or minus; as, a2 - 2ab + b2.
a.
• Containing many names or terms; multinominal; as, the polynomial theorem.
• Consisting of two or more words; having names consisting of two or more words; as, a polynomial name; polynomial nomenclature.
Polynuclear
a.
(Biol.) Containing many nuclei.
Polynucleolar
a.
(Biol.) Having more than one nucleolus.
Polyommatous
a.
• Having many eyes.
Polyonomous
a.
• Having many names or titles; polyonymous.
Polyonomy
n.
• The use of a variety of names for the same object.
Polyonym
n.
• An object which has a variety of names.
• A polynomial name or term.
Polyonymous
a.
• Polyonomous.
Polyorama
n.
• A view of many objects; also, a sort of panorama with dissolving views.
Polyp
n.
(Zool.) One of the feeding or nutritive zooids of a hydroid or coral.
• One of the Anthozoa.
• Same as Anthozoa. See Anthozoa, Madreporaria, Hydroid.
Polyparous
a.
• Producing or bearing a great number; bringing forth many.
Polypary
n.
(Zool.) Same as Polypidom.
Polype
n.
(Zool.) See Polyp.
Polypean
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to a polyp, or polyps.
Polyperythrin
n.
(Physiol. Chem.) A coloring matter found in many simple Anthozoa and some hydroids.
Polypetalous
a.
(Bot.) Consisting of, or having, several or many separate petals; as, a polypetalous corolla, flower, or plant.
Polyphagous
a.
• Eating, or subsisting on, many kinds of food; as, polyphagous animals.
Polyphagy
n.
• The practice or faculty of subsisting on many kinds of food.
Polypharmacy
n.
(Med.) The act or practice of prescribing too many medicines.
• A prescription made up of many medicines or ingredients.
Polyphemus
n.
(Zool.) A very large American moth (Telea polyphemus) belonging to the Silkworm family (Bombycidae). Its larva, which is very large, bright green, with silvery tubercles, and with oblique white stripes on the sides, feeds on the oak, chestnut, willow, cherry, apple, and other trees. It produces a large amount of strong silk. Called also American silkworm.
Polyphone
n.
• A character or vocal sign representing more than one sound, as read, which is pronounced r\'c7d or r\'cbd.
Polyphonic
a.
• Having a multiplicity of sounds.
• Characterized by polyphony; as, Assyrian polyphonic characters.
(Mus.) Consisting of several tone series, or melodic parts, progressing simultaneously according to the laws of counterpoint; contrapuntal; as, a polyphonic composition; — opposed to homophonic, or monodic.
Polyphonism
n.
• Polyphony.
Polyphonist
n.
• A proficient in the art of multiplying sounds; a ventriloquist.
(Mus.) A master of polyphony; a contrapuntist.
Polyphonous
a.
• Same as Polyphonic.
Polyphony
n.
• Multiplicity of sounds, as in the reverberations of an echo.
• Plurality of sounds and articulations expressed by the same vocal sign.
(Mus.) Composition in mutually related, equally important parts which share the melody among them; contrapuntal composition; — opposed to homophony, in which the melody is given to one part only, the others filling out the harmony. See Counterpoint.
Polyphore
n.
(Bot.) A receptacle which bears many ovaries.
Polyphyletic
a.
(Biol.) Pertaining to, or characterized by, descent from more than one root form, or from many different root forms; polygenetic; — opposed to monophyletic.
Polyphyllous
a.
(Bot.) Many-leaved; as, a polyphyllous calyx or perianth.
Polypi
n. pl.
(Zool.) The Anthozoa.
Polypide
n.
(Zool.) One of the ordinary zooids of the Bryozoa.
Polypidom
n.
(Zool.) A coral, or corallum; also, one of the coral-like structure made by bryozoans and hydroids.
Polypier
n.
• A polypidom.
Polypifera
n. pl.
(Zool.) The Anthozoa.
Polypiferous
a.
(Zool.) Bearing polyps, or polypites.
Polypiparous
a.
(Zool.) Producing polyps.
Polypite
n.
(Zool.) One of the feeding zooids, or polyps, of a coral, hydroid, or siphonophore; a hydranth. See Illust. of Campanularian.
• Sometimes, the manubrium of a hydroid medusa.
(Paleon.) A fossil coral.
Polyplacophora
n. pl.
(Zool.) See Placophora.
Polyplastic
a.
(Biol.) Assuming, or having the power of assuming, many forms; as, a polyplastic element which does not preserve its original shape.
Polypode
n.
(Bot.) A plant of the genus Polypodium; polypody.
n.
(Zool.) An animal having many feet; a myriapod.
Polypodium
n.
(Bot.) A genus of plants of the order Filices or ferns. The fructifications are in uncovered roundish points, called sori, scattered over the inferior surface of the frond or leaf. There are numerous species.
Polypody
n.
(Bot.) Any plant of the genus Polypodium.
Polypoid
a.
(Zool.) Like a polyp; having the nature of a polyp, but lacking the tentacles or other parts.
(Med.) Resembling a polypus in appearance; having a character like that of a polypus.
Polypomedusae
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Hydrozoa.
Polyporous
a.
• Having many pores.
Polyporus
n.
(Bot.) A genus of fungi having the under surface full of minute pores; also, any fungus of this genus.
Polypous
a.
• Of the nature of a polypus; having many feet or roots, like the polypus; affected with polypus.
Polypragmaty
n.
• The state of being overbusy.
Polyprotodonta
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of marsupials in which there are more fore incisor teeth in each jaw.
Polypteroidei
n. pl.
(Zool.) A suborder of existing ganoid fishes having numerous fins along the back. The bichir, or Polypterus, is the type. See Illust. under Crossopterygian.
Polypterus
n.
(Zool.) An African genus of ganoid fishes including the bichir.
Polyptoton
n.
(Rhet.) A figure by which a word is repeated in different forms, cases, numbers, genders, etc., as in Tennyson's line, — "My own heart's heart, and ownest own, farewell."
Polypus
n.
(Zool.) Same as Polyp.
(Med.) A tumor, usually with a narrow base, somewhat resembling a pear, — found in the nose, uterus, etc., and produced by hypertrophy of some portion of the mucous membrane.
Polyrhizous
a.
(Bot.) Having numerous roots, or rootlets.
Polyschematist
a.
• Having, or existing in, many different forms or fashions; multiform.
Polyscope
n.
(Opt.) A glass which makes a single object appear as many; a multiplying glass.
(Med.) An apparatus for affording a view of the different cavities of the body.
Polysepalous
a.
(Bot.) Having the sepals separate from each other.
Polysilicic
a.
(Chem.) Of or pertaining to compounds formed by the condensation of two or more molecules of silicic acid.
Polyspast
n.
(Surg.) A machine consisting of many pulleys; specifically, an apparatus formerly used for reducing luxations.
Polyspermous
a.
(Bot.) Containing many seeds; as, a polyspermous capsule or berry.
Polyspermy
n.
(Biol.) Fullness of sperm, or seed; the passage of more than one spermatozoon into the vitellus in the impregnation of the ovum.
Polysporous
a.
(Bot.) Containing many spores.
Polystomata
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of trematode worms having more two suckers. Called also Polystomea and Polystoma.
Polystome
a.
(Zool.) Having many mouths.
n.
(Zool.) An animal having many mouths; — applied to Protozoa.
Polystyle
a.
(Arch.) Having many columns; — said of a building, especially of an interior part or court; as, a polystyle hall.
n.
• A polystyle hall or edifice.
Polysulphide
n.
(Chem.) A sulphide having more than one atom of sulphur in the molecule; — contrasted with monosulphide.
Polysulphuret
n.
(Chem.) A polysulphide.
Polysyllabicism
n.
• Polysyllabism.
Polysyllabicity
n.
• Polysyllabism.
Polysyllabism
n.
• The quality or state of being polysyllabic.
Polysyllable
n.
• A word of many syllables, or consisting of more syllables than three; — words of less than four syllables being called monosyllables, dissyllables, and trisyllables.
Polysyndetic
a.
• Characterized by polysyndeton, or the multiplication of conjunctions.
Polysyndeton
n.
(Rhet.) A figure by which the conjunction is often repeated, as in the sentence, "We have ships and men and money and stores." Opposed to asyndeton.
Polysynthesis
n.
• The act or process of combining many separate elements into a whole.
(Philol.) The formation of a word by the combination of several simple words, as in the aboriginal languages of America; agglutination.
Polysynthetic
a.
• Characterized by polysynthesis; agglutinative.
Polytechnic
a.
• Comprehending, or relating to, many arts and sciences; — applied particularly to schools in which many branches of art and science are taught with especial reference to their practical application; also to exhibitions of machinery and industrial products.
Polytechnical
a.
• Polytechnic.
Polytechnics
n.
• The science of the mechanic arts.
Polythalamia
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of Foraminifera including those having a manychambered shell.
Polythalamous
a.
(Zool.) Many-chambered; — applied to shells of Foraminifera and cephalopods. See Illust. of Nautilus.
Polytheism
n.
• The doctrine of, or belief in, a plurality of gods.
Polytheist
n.
• One who believes in, or maintains the doctrine of, a plurality of gods.
Polytheize
v. i.
• To adhere to, advocate, or inculcate, the doctrine of polytheism.
Polythelism
n.
(Anat.) The condition of having more than two teats, or nipples.
Polytocous
a.
(Bot.) Bearing fruit repeatedly, as most perennial plants; polycarpic.
(Zool.) Producing many or young.
Polytomous
a.
(Bot.) Subdivided into many distinct subordinate parts, which, however, not being jointed to the petiole, are not true leaflets; — said of leaves.
Polytomy
n.
(Logic) A division into many members.
Polytungstate
n.
• A salt of polytungstic acid.
Polytungstic
a.
(Chem.) Containing several tungsten atoms or radicals; as, polytungstic acid.
Polytype
n.
(Print.) A cast, or facsimile copy, of an engraved block, matter in type, etc. (see citation); as, a polytype in relief.
a.
(Print.) Of or pertaining to polytypes; obtained by polytyping; as, a polytype plate.
v. t.
(Print.) To produce a polytype of; as, to polytype an engraving.
Polyvalent
a.
(Chem.) Multivalent.
Polyve
n.
• A pulley.
Polyzoa
n. pl.
(Zool.) Same as Bryozoa. See Illust. under Bryozoa, and Phylactolaemata.
Polyzoan
n.
(Zool.) Any species of Polyzoa; one of the Polyzoa.
• A polyzoon.
Polyzoarium
n.
(Zool.) Same as Polyzoary.
Polyzoary
n.
(Zool.) The compound organism of a polyzoan.
Polyzonal
a.
• Consisting of many zones or rings.
Polyzoon
n.
(Zool.) One of the individual zooids forming the compound organism of a polyzoan.
Pomace
n.
• The substance of apples, or of similar fruit, crushed by grinding.
Pomacentroid
a.
(Zool.) Pertaining to the Pomacentridae, a family of bright-colored tropical fishes having spiny opercula; — often called coral fishes.
Pomaceous
a.
(Bot.) Like an apple or pear; producing pomes.
• Of or pertaining to a suborder (Pomeae) of rosaceous plants, which includes the true thorn trees, the quinces, service berries, medlars, and loquats, as well as the apples, pears, crabs, etc.
• Like pomace.
Pomade
n.
• Cider.
• Perfumed ointment; esp., a fragrant unguent for the hair; pomatum; — originally made from apples.
Pomander
n.
• A perfume to be carried with one, often in the form of a ball.
• A box to contain such perfume, formerly carried by ladies, as at the end of a chain; — more properly pomander box.
Pomarine
a.
(Zool.) Having the nostril covered with a scale.
Pomatum
n.
• A perfumed unguent or composition, chiefly used in dressing the hair; pomade.
v. t.
• To dress with pomatum.
Pome
n.
(Bot.) A fruit composed of several cartilaginous or bony carpels inclosed in an adherent fleshy mass, which is partly receptacle and partly calyx, as an apple, quince, or pear.
(R. C. Ch.) A ball of silver or other metal, which is filled with hot water, and used by the priest in cold weather to warm his hands during the service.
v. i.
• To grow to a head, or form a head in growing.
Pomegranate
n.
(Bot.) The fruit of the tree Punica Granatum; also, the tree itself (see Balaustine), which is native in the Orient, but is successfully cultivated in many warm countries, and as a house plant in colder climates. The fruit is as large as an orange, and has a hard rind containing many rather large seeds, each one separately covered with crimson, acid pulp.
• A carved or embroidered ornament resembling a pomegranate.
Pomel
n.
• A pommel.
Pomelo
n.
• A variety of shaddock, called also grape fruit.
Pomely
a.
• Dappled.
Pomeranian
a.
• Of or pertaining to Pomerania, a province of Prussia on the Baltic Sea.
n.
• A native or inhabitant of Pomerania.
Pomewater
n.
• A kind of sweet, juicy apple.
Pomey
n.
(Her.) A figure supposed to resemble an apple; a roundel, — always of a green color.
Pomfret
n.
(Zool.) One of two or more species of marine food fishes of the genus Stromateus (S. niger, S. argenteus) native of Southern Europe and Asia.
• A marine food fish of Bermuda (Brama Raji).
Pomiferous
a.
(Bot.) Bearing pomes, or applelike fruits.
• Bearing fruits, or excrescences, more or less resembling an apple.
Pommage
n.
• See Pomage.
Pomme
a.
(Her.) Having the ends terminating in rounded protuberances or single balls; — said of a cross.
Pommel
n.
• A knob or ball; an object resembling a ball in form
• The knob on the hilt of a sword
• The knob or protuberant part of a saddlebow
• The top (of the head)
• A knob forming the finial of a turret or pavilion.
v. t.
• To beat soundly, as with the pommel of a sword, or with something knoblike; hence, to beat with the fists.
Pommelion
n.
(Mil.) The cascabel, or hindmost knob, of a cannon.
Pommette
a.
• Having two balls or protuberances at each end; — said of a cross.
Pomological
a.
• Of or pertaining to pomology.
Pomologist
n.
• One versed in pomology; one who culticvates fruit trees.
Pomology
n.
• The science of fruits; a treatise on fruits; the cultivation of fruits and fruit trees.
Pomona
n.
(Class. Myth.) The goddess of fruits and fruit trees.
Pomp
n.
• A procession distinguished by ostentation and splendor; a pageant.
• Show of magnificence; parade; display; power.
v. i.
• To make a pompons display; to conduct.
Pompadour
n.
• A crimson or pink color; also, a style of dress cut low and square in the neck; also, a mode of dressing the hair by drawing it straight back from the forehead over a roll; — so called after the Marchioness de Pompadour of France. Also much used adjectively.
Pompano
n.
(Zool.) Any one of several species of marine fishes of the genus Trachynotus, of which four species are found on the Atlantic coast of the United States; — called also palometa.
• A California harvest fish (Stromateus simillimus), highly valued as a food fish.
Pompatic
a.
• Pompous.
Pompelmous
n.
(Bot.) A shaddock, esp. one of large size.
Pompet
n.
(Print.) The ball formerly used to ink the type.
Pompholyx
n.
(Old Chem.) Impure zinc oxide.
(Med.) A skin disease in which there is an eruption of bullae, without inflammation or fever.
Pompillion
n.
• An ointment or pomatum made of black poplar buds.
Pompion
n.
• See Pumpion.
Pompire
n.
• A pearmain.
Pompoleon
n.
(Bot.) See Pompelmous.
Pompon
n.
• Any trifling ornament for a woman's dress or bonnet.
(Mil.) A tuft or ball of wool, or the like, sometimes worn by soldiers on the front of the hat, instead of a feather.
Pomposity
n.
• The quality or state of being pompous; pompousness.
Pomposo
a. & adv.
(Mus.) Grand and dignified; in grand style.
Pompous
a.
• Displaying pomp; stately; showy with grandeur; magnificent; as, a pompous procession.
• Ostentatious; pretentious; boastful; vainlorious; as, pompous manners; a pompous style.
Pomptine
a.
• See Pontine.
Pomwater
n.
• Same as Pomewater.
Poncho
n.
• A kind of cloak worn by the Spanish Americans, having the form of a blanket, with a slit in the middle for the head to pass through. A kind of poncho made of rubber or painted cloth is used by the mounted troops in the United States service.
• A trade name for camlets, or stout worsteds.
Pond
n.
• A body of water, naturally or artificially confined, and usually of less extent than a lake.
v. t.
• To make into a pond; to collect, as water, in a pond by damming.
v. t.
• To ponder.
Ponder
v. t.
• To weigh.
• To weigh in the mind; to view with deliberation; to examine carefully; to consider attentively.
v. i.
• To think; to deliberate; to muse; — usually followed by on or over.
Ponderability
n.
• The quality or state of being ponderable.
Ponderable
a.
• Capable of being weighed; having appreciable weight.
Ponderal
a.
• Estimated or ascertained by weight; — distinguished from numeral; as, a ponderal drachma.
Ponderance
n.
• Weight; gravity.
Ponderary
a.
• Of or pertaining to weight; as, a ponderary system.
Ponderate
v. t.
• To consider; to ponder.
v. i.
• To have weight or influence.
Ponderation
n.
• The act of weighing.
Ponderer
n.
• One who ponders.
Pondering
a.
• Deliberating.
Ponderosity
n.
• The quality or state of being ponderous; weight; gravity; heaviness, ponderousness; as, the ponderosity of gold.
Ponderous
a.
• Very heavy; weighty; as, a ponderous shield; a ponderous load; the ponderous elephant.
• Important; momentous; forcible.
• Heavy; dull; wanting; lightless or spirit; as, a ponderous style; a ponderous joke.
Ponderously
adv.
• In a ponderous manner.
Ponderousness
n.
• The quality or state of being ponderous; ponderosity.
Pondfish
n.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of American fresh-water fishes belonging to the family Centrarchidae; — called also pond perch, and sunfish.
Pondweed
n.
(Bot.) Any aquatic plant of the genus Potamogeton, of which many species are found in ponds or slow-moving rivers.
Pone
n.
• A kind of johnnycake.
Ponent
a.
• Western; occidental.
Pongee
n.
• A fabric of undyed silk from India and China.
Ponghee
n.
• A Buddhist priest of the higher orders in Burmah.
Pongo
n.
(Zool.) Any large ape; especially, the chimpanzee and the orang-outang.
Poniard
n.
• A kind of dagger, — usually a slender one with a triangular or square blade.
v. t.
• To pierce with a poniard; to stab.
Ponibility
n.
• The capability of being placed or located.
Pons
n.
(Anat.) A bridge; — applied to several parts which connect others, but especially to the pons Varolii, a prominent band of nervous tissue situated on the ventral side of the medulla oblongata and connected at each side with the hemispheres of the cerebellum; the mesocephalon. See Brain.
Pontage
n.
(O. Eng. Law) A duty or tax paid for repairing bridges.
Pontee
n.
(Glass Making) An iron rod used by glass makers for manipulating the hot glass; — called also, puntil, puntel, punty, and ponty. See Fascet.
Pontic
a.
• Of or pertaining to the Pontus, Euxine, or Black Sea.
Pontifex
n.
• A high priest; a pontiff.
Pontiff
n.
• A high priest.
• One of the sacred college, in ancient Rome, which had the supreme jurisdiction over all matters of religion, at the head of which was the Pontifex Maximus
(Jewish Antiq.) The chief priest
(R. C. Ch.) The pope.
Pontific
a.
• Relating to, or consisting of, pontiffs or priests.
• Of or pertaining to the pope; papal.
Pontifical
a.
• Of or pertaining to a pontiff, or high priest; as, pontifical authority; hence, belonging to the pope; papal.
• Of or pertaining to the building of bridges.
n.
• A book containing the offices, or formulas, used by a pontiff.
• The dress and ornaments of a pontiff.
Pontificality
n.
• The state and government of the pope; the papacy.
Pontifically
adv.
• In a pontifical manner.
Pontificate
n.
• The state or dignity of a high priest; specifically, the office of the pope.
• The term of office of a pontiff.
v. i.
(R. C. Ch.) To perform the duty of a pontiff.
Pontifice
n.
• Bridgework; structure or edifice of a bridge.
Pontificial
a.
• Papal; pontifical.
Pontifician
a.
• Of or pertaining to the pontiff or pope.
n.
• One who adheres to the pope or papacy; a papist.
Pontil
n.
• Same as Pontee.
Pontile
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the pons Varolii. See Pons.
Pontine
a.
• Of or pertaining to an extensive marshy district between Rome and Naples.
Pontlevis
n.
(Man.) The action of a horse in rearing repeatedly and dangerously.
Ponton
n.
• See Pontoon.
Pontoon
n.
(Mil.) A wooden flat-bottomed boat, a metallic cylinder, or a frame covered with canvas, India rubber, etc., forming a portable float, used in building bridges quickly for the passage of troops.
(Naut.) A low, flat vessel, resembling a barge, furnished with cranes, capstans, and other machinery, used in careening ships, raising weights, drawing piles, etc., chiefly in the Mediterranean; a lighter.
Pontooning
n.
• The act, art, or process of constructing pontoon bridges.
Ponty
n.
(Class Making) See Pontee.
Ponvolant
n.
(Mil.) A kind of light bridge, used in sieges, for surprising a post or outwork which has but a narrow moat; a flying bridge.
Pony
n.
• A small horse.
• Twenty-five pounds sterling.
• A translation or a key used to avoid study in getting lessons; a crib.
• A small glass of beer.
Pood
n.
• A Russian weight, equal to forty Russian pounds or about thirty-six English pounds avoirdupois.
Poodle
n.
(Zool.) A breed of dogs having curly hair, and often showing remarkable intelligence in the performance of tricks.
Pooh
interj.
• Pshaw! pish! nonsense! — an expression of scorn, dislike, or contempt.
Pookoo
n.
(Zool.) A red African antelope (Kobus Vardoni) allied to the water buck.
Pool
n.
• A small and rather deep collection of (usually) fresh water, as one supplied by a spring, or occurring in the course of a stream; a reservoir for water; as, the pools of Solomon.
• A small body of standing or stagnant water; a puddle.
n.
• The stake played for in certain games of cards, billiards, etc.; an aggregated stake to which each player has contributed a snare; also, the receptacle for the stakes.
• A game at billiards, in which each of the players stakes a certain sum, the winner taking the whole; also, in public billiard rooms, a game in which the loser pays the entrance fee for all who engage in the game; a game of skill in pocketing the balls on a pool table.
• In rifle shooting, a contest in which each competitor pays a certain sum for every shot he makes, the net proceeds being divided among the winners.
• Any gambling or commercial venture in which several persons join.
• A combination of persons contributing money to be used for the purpose of increasing or depressing the market price of stocks, grain, or other commodities; also, the aggregate of the sums so contributed; as, the pool took all the wheat offered below the limit; he put $10,000 into the pool.
(Railroads) A mutual arrangement between competing lines, by which the receipts of all are aggregated, and then distributed pro rata according to agreement.
(Law) An aggregation of properties or rights, belonging to different people in a community, in a common fund, to be charged with common liabilities.
v. t.
• To put together; to contribute to a common fund, on the basis of a mutual division of profits or losses; to make a common interest of; as, the companies pooled their traffic.
v. i.
• To combine or contribute with others, as for a commercial, speculative, or gambling transaction.
Pooler
n.
• A stick for stirring a tan vat.
Pooling
n.
(Law) The act of uniting, or an agreement to unite, an aggregation of properties belonging to different persons, with a view to common liabilities or profits.
Poon
n.
• A name for several East Indian, or their wood, used for the masts and spars of vessels, as Calophyllum angustifolium, C. inophullum, and Sterculia foetida; — called also peon.
Poonac
n.
• A kind of oil cake prepared from the cocoanut. See Oil cake, under Cake.
Poop
n.
(Arch.) See 2d Poppy.
v. i.
• To make a noise; to pop; also, to break wind.
n.
(Naut.) A deck raised above the after part of a vessel; the hindmost or after part of a vessel's hull; also, a cabin covered by such a deck. See Poop deck, under Deck. See also Roundhouse.
v. t.
(Naut.) To break over the poop or stern, as a wave.
• To strike in the stern, as by collision.
Pooped
p. p. & a.
(Naut.) Having a poop; furnished with a poop.
• Struck on the poop.
Pooping
n.
(Naut.) The act or shock of striking a vessel's stern by a following wave or vessel.
Poor
a.
• Destitute of property; wanting in material riches or goods; needy; indigent.
(Law) So completely destitute of property as to be entitled to maintenance from the public.
• Destitute of such qualities as are desirable, or might naturally be expected
• Wanting in fat, plumpness, or fleshiness; lean; emaciated; meager; as, a poor horse, ox, dog, etc.
• Wanting in strength or vigor; feeble; dejected; as, poor health; poor spirits.
• Of little value or worth; not good; inferior; shabby; mean; as, poor clothes; poor lodgings.
• Destitute of fertility; exhausted; barren; sterile; — said of land; as, poor soil.
• Destitute of beauty, fitness, or merit; as, a poor discourse; a poor picture.
• Without prosperous conditions or good results; unfavorable; unfortunate; unconformable; as, a poor business; the sick man had a poor night.
• Inadequate; insufficient; insignificant; as, a poor excuse.
• Worthy of pity or sympathy; — used also sometimes as a term of endearment, or as an expression of modesty, and sometimes as a word of contempt.
• Free from self-assertion; not proud or arrogant; meek.
n.
(Zool.) A small European codfish (Gadus minutus); — called also power cod.
Poorbox
n.
• A receptacle in which money given for the poor is placed.
Poorhouse
n.
• A dwelling for a number of paupers maintained at public expense; an almshouse; a workhouse.
Poorliness
n.
• The quality or state of being poorly; ill health.
Poorly
adv.
• In a poor manner or condition; without plenty, or sufficiency, or suitable provision for comfort; as, to live poorly.
• With little or no success; indifferently; with little profit or advantage; as, to do poorly in business.
• Meanly; without spirit.
• Without skill or merit; as, he performs poorly.
a.
• Somewhat ill; indisposed; not in health.
Poorness
n.
• The quality or state of being poor (in any of the senses of the adjective).
Pop
n.
• A small, sharp, quick explosive sound or report; as, to go off with a pop.
• An unintoxicating beverage which expels the cork with a pop from the bottle containing it; as, ginger pop; lemon pop, etc.
(Zool.) The European redwing.
v. i.
• To make a pop, or sharp, quick sound; as, the muskets popped away on all sides.
• To enter, or issue forth, with a quick, sudden movement; to move from place to place suddenly; to dart; — with in, out, upon, off, etc.
• To burst open with a pop, when heated over a fire; as, this corn pops well.
v. t.
• To thrust or push suddenly; to offer suddenly; to bring suddenly and unexpectedly to notice; as, to pop one's head in at the door.
• To cause to pop; to cause to burst open by heat, as grains of Indian corn; as, to pop corn or chestnuts.
adv.
• Like a pop; suddenly; unexpectedly.
Pope
n.
• Any ecclesiastic, esp. a bishop.
• The bishop of Rome, the head of the Roman Catholic Church. See Note under Cardinal.
• A parish priest, or a chaplain, of the Greek Church.
(Zool.) A fish; the ruff.
Popedom
n.
• The place, office, or dignity of the pope; papal dignity.
• The jurisdiction of the pope.
Popeling
n.
• A petty or deputy pope.
• An adherent of the pope.
Popelote
n.
• A word variously explained as "a little puppet," "a little doll," or "a young butterfly." Cf. Popet.
Popery
n.
• The religion of the Roman Catholic Church, comprehending doctrines and practices; — generally used in an opprobrious sense.
Popet
n.
• A puppet.
Popgun
n.
• A child's gun; a tube and rammer for shooting pellets, with a popping noise, by compression of air.
Popied
a.
• Mingled or interspersed with poppies.
• Affected with poppy juice; hence, figuratively, drugged; drowsy; listless; inactive.
Popinjay
n.
(Zool.) The green woodpecker.
• A parrot.
• A target in the form of a parrot.
• A trifling, chattering, fop or coxcomb.
Popish
a.
• Of or pertaining to the pope; taught or ordained by the pope; hence, of or pertaining to the Roman Catholic Church; — often used opprobriously.
Poplar
n.
(Bot.) Any tree of the genus Populus; also, the timber, which is soft, and capable of many uses.
• The timber of the tulip tree; — called also white poplar.
Poplexy
n.
• Apoplexy.
Poplin
n.
• A fabric of many varieties, usually made of silk and worsted, — used especially for women's dresses.
Popliteal
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the ham; in the region of the ham, or behind the knee joint; as, the popliteal space.
Poplitic
a.
(Anat.) Popliteal.
Popper
n.
• A utensil for popping corn, usually a wire basket with a long handle.
n.
• A dagger.
Poppet
n.
• See Puppet.
(Naut.) One of certain upright timbers on the bilge ways, used to support a vessel in launching.
(Mach.) An upright support or guide fastened at the bottom only.
Popping
• a. & n. from Pop.
Popple
v. i.
• To move quickly up and down; to bob up and down, as a cork on rough water; also, to bubble.
n.
• The poplar.
• Tares.
Poppy
n.
(Bot.) Any plant or species of the genus Papaver, herbs with showy polypetalous flowers and a milky juice. From one species (Papaver somniferum) opium is obtained, though all the species contain it to some extent; also, a flower of the plant. See Illust. of Capsule.
Populace
n.
• The common people; the vulgar; the multitude, — comprehending all persons not distinguished by rank, office, education, or profession.
Populacy
n.
• Populace.
Popular
a.
• Of or pertaining to the common people, or to the whole body of the people, as distinguished from a select portion; as, the popular voice; popular elections.
• Suitable to common people; easy to be comprehended; not abstruse; familiar; plain.
• Adapted to the means of the common people; possessed or obtainable by the many; hence, cheap; common; ordinary; inferior; as, popular prices; popular amusements.
• Beloved or approved by the people; pleasing to people in general, or to many people; as, a popular preacher; a popular law; a popular administration.
• Devoted to the common people; studious of the favor of the populace.
• Prevailing among the people; epidemic; as, a popular disease.
Populares
n. pl.
• The people or the people's party, in ancient Rome, as opposed to the optimates.
Popularity
n.
• The quality or state of being popular; especially, the state of being esteemed by, or of being in favor with, the people at large; good will or favor proceeding from the people; as, the popularity of a law, statesman, or a book.
• The quality or state of being adapted or pleasing to common, poor, or vulgar people; hence, cheapness; inferiority; vulgarity.
• Something which obtains, or is intended to obtain, the favor of the vulgar; claptrap.
• The act of courting the favor of the people.
• Public sentiment; general passion.
Popularization
n.
• The act of making popular, or of introducing among the people.
Popularize
v. t.
• To make popular; to make suitable or acceptable to the common people; to make generally known; as, to popularize philosophy.
Popularizer
n.
• One who popularizes.
Popularly
adv.
• In a popular manner; so as to be generally favored or accepted by the people; commonly; currently; as, the story was popularity reported.
Popularness
n.
• The quality or state of being popular; popularity.
Populate
a.
• Populous.
v. t.
• To furnish with inhabitants, either by natural increase or by immigration or colonization; to cause to be inhabited; to people.
v. i.
• To propagate.
Population
n.
• The act or process of populating; multiplication of inhabitants.
• The whole number of people, or inhabitants, in a country, or portion of a country; as, a population of ten millions.
Populator
n.
• One who populates.
Populicide
n.
• Slaughter of the people.
Populin
n.
(Chem.) A glycoside, related to salicin, found in the bark of certain species of the poplar (Populus), and extracted as a sweet white crystalline substance.
Populosity
n.
• Populousness.
Populous
a.
• Abounding in people; full of inhabitants; containing many inhabitants in proportion to the extent of the country.
• Popular; famous.
• Common; vulgar.
• Numerous; in large number.
Poraille
n.
• Poor people; the poor.
Porbeagle
n.
(Zool.) A species of shark (Lamna cornubica), about eight feet long, having a pointed nose and a crescent-shaped tail; — called also mackerel shark.
Porcate
a.
(Zool.) Having grooves or furrows broader than the intervening ridges; furrowed.
Porcelain
n.
(Bot.) Purslain.
n.
• A fine translucent or semitransculent kind of earthenware, made first in China and Japan, but now also in Europe and America; — called also China, or China ware.
Porcelainized
a.
(Geol.) Baked like potter's lay; — applied to clay shales that have been converted by heat into a substance resembling porcelain.
Porcelanite
n.
(Min.) A semivitrified clay or shale, somewhat resembling jasper; — called also porcelain jasper.
Porch
n.
(Arch.) A covered and inclosed entrance to a building, whether taken from the interior, and forming a sort of vestibule within the main wall, or projecting without and with a separate roof. Sometimes the porch is large enough to serve as a covered walk. See also Carriage porch, under Carriage, and Loggia.
• A portico; a covered walk.
Porcine
a.
• Of or pertaining to swine; characteristic of the hog.
Porcupine
n.
(Zool.) Any Old Word rodent of the genus Hystrix, having the back covered with long, sharp, erectile spines or quills, sometimes a foot long. The common species of Europe and Asia (Hystrix cristata) is the best known.
(Zool.) Any species of Erethizon and related genera, native of America. They are related to the true porcupines, but have shorter spines, and are arboreal in their habits. The Canada porcupine (Erethizon dorsatus) is a well known species.
Pore
n.
• One of the minute orifices in an animal or vegetable membrane, for transpiration, absorption, etc.
• A minute opening or passageway; an interstice between the constituent particles or molecules of a body; as, the pores of stones.
v. i.
• To look or gaze steadily in reading or studying; to fix the attention; to be absorbed; — often with on or upon, and now usually with over.
Poreblind
a.
• Nearsighted; shortsighted; purblind.
Porer
n.
• One who pores.
Porgy
n.
(Zool.) The scup.
• The sailor's choice, or pinfish.
• The margate fish.
• The spadefish.
• Any one of several species of embiotocoids, or surf fishes, of the Pacific coast. The name is also given locally to several other fishes, as the bur fish.
Porifera
n. pl.
(Zool.) A grand division of the Invertebrata, including the sponges; — called also Spongiae, Spongida, and Spongiozoa. The principal divisions are Calcispongiae, Keratosa or Fibrospongiae, and Silicea.
Poriferan
n.
(Zool.) One of the Polifera.
Poriferata
n. pl.
• The Polifera.
Poriform
a.
• Resembling a pore, or small puncture.
Porime
n.
(Math.) A theorem or proposition so easy of demonstration as to be almost self-evident.
Poriness
n.
• Porosity.
Porism
n.
(Geom.) A proposition affirming the possibility of finding such conditions as will render a certain determinate problem indeterminate or capable of innumerable solutions.
(Gr. Geom.) A corollary.
Porite
n.
(Zool.) Any coral of the genus Porites, or family Poritidae.
Porites
n.
(Zool.) An important genus of reef-building corals having small twelve-rayed calicles, and a very porous coral. Some species are branched, others grow in large massive or globular forms.
Pork
n.
• The flesh of swine, fresh or salted, used for food.
Porker
n.
• A hog.
Porket
n.
• A young hog; a pig.
Porkling
n.
• A pig; a porket.
Porkwood
n.
(Bot.) The coarse-grained brownish yellow wood of a small tree (Pisonia obtusata) of Florida and the West Indies. Also called pigeon wood, beefwood, and corkwood.
Pornerastic
a.
• Lascivious; licentious.
Pornographic
a.
• Of or pertaining to pornography; lascivious; licentious; as, pornographic writing.
Pornography
n.
• Licentious painting or literature; especially, the painting anciently employed to decorate the walls of rooms devoted to bacchanalian orgies.
(Med.) A treatise on prostitutes, or prostitution.
Porosity
n.
• The quality or state of being porous; — opposed to density.
Porotic
n.
(Med.) A medicine supposed to promote the formation of callus.
Porous
a.
• Full of pores; having interstices in the skin or in the substance of the body; having spiracles or passages for fluids; permeable by liquids; as, a porous skin; porous wood.
Porously
adv.
• In a porous manner.
Porousness
n.
• The quality of being porous.
• The open parts; the interstices of anything.
Porpentine
n.
• Porcupine.
Porpesse
n.
• A porpoise.
Porphyraceous
a.
• Porphyritic.
Porphyre
n.
• Porphyry.
Porphyrite
n.
(Min.) A rock with a porphyritic structure; as, augite porphyrite.
Porphyritic
a.
(Min.) Relating to, or resembling, porphyry, that is, characterized by the presence of distinct crystals, as of feldspar, quartz, or augite, in a relatively fine-grained base, often aphanitic or cryptocrystalline.
Porphyrization
n.
• The act of porphyrizing, or the state of being porphyrized.
Porphyrize
v. t.
• To cause to resemble porphyry; to make spotted in composition, like porphyry.
Porphyrogenitism
n.
• The principle of succession in royal families, especially among the Eastern Roman emperors, by which a younger son, if born after the accession of his father to the throne, was preferred to an elder son who was not so born.
Porphyry
n.
(Geol.) A term used somewhat loosely to designate a rock consisting of a fine-grained base (usually feldspathic) through which crystals, as of feldspar or quartz, are disseminated. There are red, purple, and green varieties, which are highly esteemed as marbles.
Porpita
n.
(Zool.) A genus of bright-colored Siphonophora found floating in the warmer parts of the ocean. The individuals are round and disk-shaped, with a large zooid in the center of the under side, surrounded by smaller nutritive and reproductive zooids, and by slender dactylozooids near the margin. The disk contains a central float, or pneumatocyst.
Porpoise
n.
(Zool.) Any small cetacean of the genus Phocaena, especially P. communis, or P. phocaena, of Europe, and the closely allied American species (P. Americana). The color is dusky or blackish above, paler beneath. They are closely allied to the dolphins, but have a shorter snout. Called also harbor porpoise, herring hag, puffing pig, and snuffer.
(Zool.) A true dolphin (Delphinus); — often so called by sailors.
Porporino
n.
• A composition of quicksilver, tin, and sulphur, forming a yellow powder, sometimes used by mediaeval artists, for the sake of economy, instead of gold.
Porpus
n.
• A porpoise.
Porraceous
a.
• Resembling the leek in color; greenish.
Porrect
a.
• Extended horizontally; stretched out.
Porrection
n.
• The act of stretching forth.
Porret
n.
• A scallion; a leek or small onion.
Porridge
n.
• A food made by boiling some leguminous or farinaceous substance, or the meal of it, in water or in milk, making of broth or thin pudding; as, barley porridge, milk porridge, bean porridge, etc.
Porringer
n.
• A porridge dish; esp., a bowl or cup from which children eat or are fed; as, a silver porringer.
Port
n.
• A dark red or purple astringent wine made in Portugal. It contains a large percentage of alcohol.
n.
• A place where ships may ride secure from storms; a sheltered inlet, bay, or cove; a harbor; a haven. Used also figuratively.
• In law and commercial usage, a harbor where vessels are admitted to discharge and receive cargoes, from whence they depart and where they finish their voyages.
n.
• A passageway; an opening or entrance to an inclosed place; a gate; a door; a portal.
(Naut.) An opening in the side of a vessel; an embrasure through which cannon may be discharged; a porthole; also, the shutters which close such an opening.
(Mach.) A passageway in a machine, through which a fluid, as steam, water, etc., may pass, as from a valve to the interior of the cylinder of a steam engine; an opening in a valve seat, or valve face.
v. t.
• To carry; to bear; to transport.
(Mil.) To throw, as a musket, diagonally across the body, with the lock in front, the right hand grasping the small of the stock, and the barrel sloping upward and crossing the point of the left shoulder; as, to port arms.
n.
• The manner in which a person bears himself; deportment; carriage; bearing; demeanor; hence, manner or style of living; as, a proud port.
n.
(Naut.) The larboard or left side of a ship (looking from the stern toward the bow); as, a vessel heels to port. See Note under Larboard. Also used adjectively.
v. t.
(Naut.) To turn or put to the left or larboard side of a ship; — said of the helm, and used chiefly in the imperative, as a command; as, port your helm.
Porta
n.
(Anat.) The part of the liver or other organ where its vessels and nerves enter; the hilus.
• The foramen of Monro.
Portability
n.
• The quality or state of being portable; fitness to be carried.
Portable
a.
• Capable of being borne or carried; easily transported; conveyed without difficulty; as, a portable bed, desk, engine.
• Possible to be endured; supportable.
Portableness
n.
• The quality or state of being portable; portability.
Portace
n.
• See Portass.
Portage
n.
(Naut.) A sailor's wages when in port.
• The amount of a sailor's wages for a voyage.
n.
• A porthole.
n.
• The act of carrying or transporting.
• The price of carriage; porterage.
• Capacity for carrying; tonnage.
• A carry between navigable waters. See 3d Carry.
v. t. & i.
• To carry (goods, boats, etc.) overland between navigable waters.
Portague
n.
• A Portuguese gold coin formerly current, and variously estimated to be worth from three and one half to four and one half pounds sterling.
Portal
n.
• A door or gate; hence, a way of entrance or exit, especially one that is grand and imposing.
(Arch.) The lesser gate, where there are two of different dimensions.
• Formerly, a small square corner in a room separated from the rest of the apartment by wainscoting, forming a short passage to another apartment.
• By analogy with the French portail, used by recent writers for the whole architectural composition which surrounds and includes the doorways and porches of a church.
(Bridge Building) The space, at one end, between opposite trusses when these are terminated by inclined braces.
• A prayer book or breviary; a portass.
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to a porta, especially the porta of the liver; as, the portal vein, which enters the liver at the porta, and divides into capillaries after the manner of an artery.
Portamento
n.
(Mus.) In singing, or in the use of the bow, a gradual carrying or lifting of the voice or sound very smoothly from one note to another; a gliding from tone to tone.
Portance
n.
• See Port, carriage, demeanor.
Portass
n.
• A breviary; a prayer book.
Portate
a.
(Her.) Borne not erect, but diagonally athwart an escutcheon; as, a cross portate.
Portative
a.
• Portable.
(Physics) Capable of holding up or carrying; as, the portative force of a magnet, of atmospheric pressure, or of capillarity.
Portcluse
n.
• A portcullis.
Portcrayon
n.
• A metallic handle with a clasp for holding a crayon.
Portcullis
n.
(Fort.) A grating of iron or of timbers pointed with iron, hung over the gateway of a fortress, to be let down to prevent the entrance of an enemy.
• An English coin of the reign of Elizabeth, struck for the use of the East India Company; — so called from its bearing the figure of a portcullis on the reverse.
v. t.
• To obstruct with, or as with, a portcullis; to shut; to bar.
Porte
n.
• The Ottoman court; the government of the Turkish empire, officially called the Sublime Porte, from the gate (port) of the sultan's palace at which justice was administered.
Ported
a.
• Having gates.
Portegue
n.
• See Portague.
Portemonnaie
n.
• A small pocketbook or wallet for carrying money.
Portension
n.
• The act of foreshowing; foreboding.
Portent
n.
• That which portends, or foretoken; esp., that which portends evil; a sign of coming calamity; an omen; a sign.
Portentive
a.
• Presaging; foreshadowing.
Portentous
a.
• Of the nature of a portent; containing portents; foreschadowing, esp. foreschadowing ill; ominous.
• Hence: Monstrous; prodigious; wonderful; dreadful; as, a beast of portentous size.
Porter
n.
• A man who has charge of a door or gate; a doorkeeper; one who waits at the door to receive messages.
n.
• A carrier; one who carries or conveys burdens, luggage, etc.; for hire.
(Forging) A bar of iron or steel at the end of which a forging is made; esp., a long, large bar, to the end of which a heavy forging is attached, and by means of which the forging is lifted and handled is hammering and heating; — called also porter bar.
• A malt liquor, of a dark color and moderately bitter taste, possessing tonic and intoxicating qualities.
Porterage
n.
• The work of a porter; the occupation of a carrier or of a doorkeeper.
• Money charged or paid for the carriage of burdens or parcels by a porter.
Porteress
n.
• See Portress.
Porterhouse
n.
• A house where porter is sold.
Portesse
n.
• See Porteass.
Portfire
n.
• A case of strong paper filled with a composition of niter, sulphur, and mealed powder, — used principally to ignite the priming in proving guns, and as an incendiary material in shells.
Portfolio
n.
• A portable case for holding loose papers, prints, drawings, etc.
• Hence: The office and functions of a minister of state or member of the cabinet; as, to receive the portfolio of war; to resign the portfolio.
Portglave
n.
• A sword bearer.
Porthole
n.
(Naut.) An embrasure in a ship's side. See 3d Port.
Porthook
n.
(Naut.) One of the iron hooks to which the port hinges are attached.
Porthors
n.
• See Portass.
Portico
n.
(Arch.) A colonnade or covered ambulatory, especially in classical styles of architecture; usually, a colonnade at the entrance of a building.
Porticoed
a.
• Furnished with a portico.
Portiere
n.
• A curtain hanging across a doorway.
Portigue
n.
• See Portague.
Portingal
a.
• Of or pertaining to Portugal; Portuguese.
n.
• A Portuguese.
Portion
n.
• That which is divided off or separated, as a part from a whole; a separated part of anything.
• A part considered by itself, though not actually cut off or separated from the whole.
• A part assigned; allotment; share; fate.
• The part of an estate given to a child or heir, or descending to him by law, and distributed to him in the settlement of the estate; an inheritance.
• A wife's fortune; a dowry.
v. t.
• To separate or divide into portions or shares; to parcel; to distribute.
• To endow with a portion or inheritance.
Portioner
n.
• One who portions.
(Eccl.) See Portionist, 2.
Portionist
n.
• A scholar at Merton College, Oxford, who has a certain academical allowance or portion; — corrupted into postmaster.
(Eccl.) One of the incumbents of a benefice which has two or more rectors or vicars.
Portionless
a.
• Having no portion.
Portise
n.
• See Portass.
Portlast
n.
(Naut.) The portoise. See Portoise.
Portliness
n.
• The quality or state of being portly; dignity of mien or of personal appearance; stateliness.
• Bulkiness; corpulence.
Portly
a.
• Having a dignified port or mien; of a noble appearance; imposing.
• Bulky; corpulent.
Portman
n.
• An inhabitant or burgess of a port, esp. of one of the Cinque Ports.
Portmanteau
n.
• A bag or case, usually of leather, for carrying wearing apparel, etc., on journeys.
Portmantle
n.
• A portmanteau.
Portmote
n.
• In old English law, a court, or mote, held in a port town.
Portoir
n.
• One who, or that which, bears; hence, one who, or that which, produces.
Portoise
n.
(Naut.) The gunwale of a ship.
Portos
n.
• See Portass.
Portpane
n.
• A cloth for carrying bread, so as not to touch it with the hands.
Portrait
n.
• The likeness of a person, painted, drawn, or engraved; commonly, a representation of the human face painted from real life.
• Hence, any graphic or vivid delineation or description of a person; as, a portrait in words.
v. t.
• To portray; to draw.
Portraitist
n.
• A portrait painter.
Portraiture
n.
• A portrait; a likeness; a painted resemblance; hence, that which is copied from some example or model.
• Pictures, collectively; painting.
• The art or practice of making portraits.
v. t.
• To represent by a portrait, or as by a portrait; to portray.
Portray
v. t.
• To paint or draw the likeness of; as, to portray a king on horseback.
• Hence, figuratively, to describe in words.
• To adorn with pictures.
Portrayal
n.
• The act or process of portraying; description; delineation.
Portrayer
n.
• One who portrays.
Portreeve
n.
• A port warden.
Portress
n.
• A female porter.
Portsale
n.
• Public or open sale; auction.
Portuary
n.
(R. C. Ch.) A breviary.
Portuguese
a.
• Of or pertaining to Portugal, or its inhabitants.
n. sing. & pl.
• A native or inhabitant of Portugal; people of Portugal.
Portulaca
n.
(Bot.) A genus of polypetalous plants; also, any plant of the genus.
Portulacaceous
a.
(Bot.) Of or pertaining to a natural order of plants (Portulacaceae), of which Portulaca is the type, and which includes also the spring beauty (Claytonia) and other genera.
Porwigle
n.
• See Polliwig.
Pory
a.
• Porous; as, pory stone. Dryden.
Pose
a.
(Her.) Standing still, with all the feet on the ground; — said of the attitude of a lion, horse, or other beast.
Pose
n.
• A cold in the head; catarrh.
n.
• The attitude or position of a person; the position of the body or of any member of the body; especially, a position formally assumed for the sake of effect; an artificial position; as, the pose of an actor; the pose of an artist's model or of a statue.
v. t.
• To place in an attitude or fixed position, for the sake of effect; to arrange the posture and drapery of (a person) in a studied manner; as, to pose a model for a picture; to pose a sitter for a portrait.
v. i.
• To assume and maintain a studied attitude, with studied arrangement of drapery; to strike an attitude; to attitudinize; figuratively, to assume or affect a certain character; as, she poses as a prude.
v. t.
• To interrogate; to question.
• To question with a view to puzzling; to embarrass by questioning or scrutiny; to bring to a stand.
Posed
a.
• Firm; determined; fixed.
Poser
n.
• One who, or that which, puzzles; a difficult or inexplicable question or fact.
Posied
a.
• Inscribed with a posy.
Posingly
adv.
• So as to pose or puzzle.
Posit
v. t.
• To dispose or set firmly or fixedly; to place or dispose in relation to other objects.
(Logic) To assume as real or conceded; as, to posit a principle.
Position
n.
• The state of being posited, or placed; the manner in which anything is placed; attitude; condition; as, a firm, an inclined, or an upright position.
• The spot where a person or thing is placed or takes a place; site; place; station; situation; as, the position of man in creation; the fleet changed its position.
• Hence: The ground which any one takes in an argument or controversy; the point of view from which any one proceeds to a discussion; also, a principle laid down as the basis of reasoning; a proposition; a thesis; as, to define one's position; to appear in a false position.
• Relative place or standing; social or official rank; as, a person of position; hence, office; post; as, to lose one's position.
(Arith.) A method of solving a problem by one or two suppositions; — called also the rule of trial and error.
v. t.
• To indicate the position of; to place.
Positional
a.
• Of or pertaining to position.
Positive
a.
• Having a real position, existence, or energy; existing in fact; real; actual; — opposed to negative.
• Derived from an object by itself; not dependent on changing circumstances or relations; absolute; — opposed to relative; as, the idea of beauty is not positive, but depends on the different tastes individuals.
• Definitely laid down; explicitly stated; clearly expressed; — opposed to implied; as, a positive declaration or promise.
• Hence: Not admitting of any doubt, condition, qualification, or discretion; not dependent on circumstances or probabilities; not speculative; compelling assent or obedience; peremptory; indisputable; decisive; as, positive instructions; positive truth; positive proof.
• Prescribed by express enactment or institution; settled by arbitrary appointment; said of laws.
• Fully assured; confident; certain; sometimes, overconfident; dogmatic; overbearing; — said of persons.
• Having the power of direct action or influence; as, a positive voice in legislation.
(Photog.) Corresponding with the original in respect to the position of lights and shades, instead of having the lights and shades reversed; as, a positive picture.
(Chem.) Electro-positive.
• Hence, basic; metallic; not acid; — opposed to negative, and said of metals, bases, and basic radicals.
n.
• That which is capable of being affirmed; reality.
• That which settles by absolute appointment.
(Gram.) The positive degree or form.
(Photog.) A picture in which the lights and shades correspond in position with those of the original, instead of being reversed, as in a negative.
(Elec.) The positive plate of a voltaic or electrolytic cell.
Positively
adv.
• In a positive manner; absolutely; really; expressly; with certainty; indubitably; peremptorily; dogmatically; — opposed to negatively.
Positiveness
n.
• The quality or state of being positive; reality; actualness; certainty; confidence; peremptoriness; dogmatism. See Positive, a.
Positivism
n.
• A system of philosophy originated by M. Auguste Comte, which deals only with positives. It excludes from philosophy everything but the natural phenomena or properties of knowable things, together with their invariable relations of coexistence and succession, as occurring in time and space. Such relations are denominated laws, which are to be discovered by observation, experiment, and comparison. This philosophy holds all inquiry into causes, both efficient and final, to be useless and unprofitable.
Positivist
n.
• A believer in positivism.
a.
• Relating to positivism.
Positivity
n.
• Positiveness.
Positure
n.
• See Posture.
Posnet
n.
• A little basin; a porringer; a skillet.
Posology
n.
(Med.) The science or doctrine of doses; dosology.
Pospolite
n.
• A kind of militia in Poland, consisting of the gentry, which, in case of invasion, was summoned to the defense of the country.
Poss
v. t.
• To push; to dash; to throw.
Posse
n.
• See Posse comitatus.
Possess
v. t.
• To occupy in person; to hold or actually have in one's own keeping; to have and to hold.
• To have the legal title to; to have a just right to; to be master of; to own; to have; as, to possess property, an estate, a book.
• To obtain occupation or possession of; to accomplish; to gain; to seize.
• To enter into and influence; to control the will of; to fill; to affect; — said especially of evil spirits, passions, etc.
• To put in possession; to make the owner or holder of property, power, knowledge, etc.; to acquaint; to inform; — followed by of or with before the thing possessed, and now commonly used reflexively.
Possession
n.
• The act or state of possessing, or holding as one's own.
(Law) The having, holding, or detention of property in one's power or command; actual seizin or occupancy; ownership, whether rightful or wrongful.
• The thing possessed; that which any one occupies, owns, or controls; in the plural, property in the aggregate; wealth; dominion; as, foreign possessions.
• The state of being possessed or controlled, as by an evil spirit, or violent passions; madness; frenzy; as, demoniacal possession.
v. t.
• To invest with property.
Possessionary
a.
• Of or pertaining to possession; arising from possession.
Possessioner
n.
• A possessor; a property holder.
• An invidious name for a member of any religious community endowed with property in lands, buildings, etc., as contrasted with mendicant friars.
Possessival
a.
• Of or pertaining to the possessive case; as, a possessival termination.
Possessive
a.
• Of or pertaining to possession; having or indicating possession.
n.
(Gram.) The possessive case.
(Gram.) A possessive pronoun, or a word in the possessive case.
Possessively
adv.
• In a possessive manner.
Possessor
n.
• One who possesses; one who occupies, holds, owns, or controls; one who has actual participation or enjoyment, generally of that which is desirable; a proprietor.
Possessory
a.
• Of or pertaining to possession, either as a fact or a right; of the nature of possession; as, a possessory interest; a possessory lord.
Posset
n.
• A beverage composed of hot milk curdled by some strong infusion, as by wine, etc., — much in favor formerly.
v. t.
• To curdle; to turn, as milk; to coagulate; as, to posset the blood.
• To treat with possets; to pamper.
Possibility
n.
• The quality or state of being possible; the power of happening, being, or existing.
• That which is possible; a contingency; a thing or event that may not happen; a contingent interest, as in real or personal estate.
Possible
a.
• Capable of existing or occurring, or of being conceived or thought of; able to happen; capable of being done; not contrary to the nature of things; — sometimes used to express extreme improbability; barely able to be, or to come to pass; as, possibly he is honest, as it is possible that Judas meant no wrong.
Possibly
adv.
• In a possible manner; by possible means; especially, by extreme, remote, or improbable intervention, change, or exercise of power; by a chance; perhaps; as, possibly he may recover.
Possum
n.
(Zool.) An opossum.
Post
a.
• Hired to do what is wrong; suborned.
n.
• A piece of timber, metal, or other solid substance, fixed, or to be fixed, firmly in an upright position, especially when intended as a stay or support to something else; a pillar; as, a hitching post; a fence post; the posts of a house.
• The doorpost of a victualer's shop or inn, on which were chalked the scores of customers; hence, a score; a debt.
n.
• The place at which anything is stopped, placed, or fixed; a station.
• A station, or one of a series of stations, established for the refreshment and accommodation of travelers on some recognized route; as, a stage or railway post
• A military station; the place at which a soldier or a body of troops is stationed; also, the troops at such a station
• The piece of ground to which a sentinel's walk is limited.
• A messenger who goes from station; an express; especially, one who is employed by the government to carry letters and parcels regularly from one place to another; a letter carrier; a postman.
• An established conveyance for letters from one place or station to another; especially, the governmental system in any country for carrying and distributing letters and parcels; the post office; the mail; hence, the carriage by which the mail is transported.
• Haste or speed, like that of a messenger or mail carrier.
• One who has charge of a station, especially of a postal station.
• A station, office, or position of service, trust, or emolument; as, the post of duty; the post of danger.
• A size of printing and writing paper. See the Table under Paper.
v. t.
• To attach to a post, a wall, or other usual place of affixing public notices; to placard; as, to post a notice; to post playbills.
• To hold up to public blame or reproach; to advertise opprobriously; to denounce by public proclamation; as, to post one for cowardice.
• To enter (a name) on a list, as for service, promotion, or the like.
• To assign to a station; to set; to place; as, to post a sentinel.
(Bookkeeping) To carry, as an account, from the journal to the ledger; as, to post an account; to transfer, as accounts, to the ledger.
• To place in the care of the post; to mail; as, to post a letter.
• To inform; to give the news to; to make (one) acquainted with the details of a subject; — often with up.
v. i.
• To travel with post horses; figuratively, to travel in haste.
(Man.) To rise and sink in the saddle, in accordance with the motion of the horse, esp. in trotting.
adv.
• With post horses; hence, in haste; as, to travel post.
Postable
a.
• Capable of being carried by, or as by, post.
Postact
n.
• An act done afterward.
Postage
n.
• The price established by law to be paid for the conveyance of a letter or other mailable matter by a public post.
Postal
a.
• Belonging to the post office or mail service; as, postal arrangements; postal authorities.
Postanal
a.
(Anat.) Situated behind, or posterior to, the anus.
Postaxial
a.
(Anat.) Situated behind any transverse axis in the body of an animal; caudal; posterior; especially, behind, or on the caudal or posterior (that is, ulnar or fibular) side of, the axis of a vertebrate limb.
Postboy
n.
• One who rides post horses; a position; a courier.
• A boy who carries letters from the post.
Postcava
n.
(Anat.) The inferior vena cava.
Postclavicle
n.
(Anat.) A bone in the pectoral girdle of many fishes projecting backward from the clavicle.
Postcomminion
n.
(Ch. of Eng. & Prot. Epis. Ch.) The concluding portion of the communion service.
(R. C. Ch.) A prayer or prayers which the priest says at Mass, after the ablutions.
Postcommissure
n.
(Anat.) A transverse commisure in the posterior part of the roof of the third ventricle of the brain; the posterior cerebral commisure.
Postcornu
n.
(Anat.) The posterior horn of each lateral ventricle of the brain.
Postdate
v. t.
• To date after the real time; as, to postdate a contract, that is, to date it later than the time when it was in fact made.
• To affix a date to after the event.
a.
• Made or done after the date assigned.
n.
• A date put to a bill of exchange or other paper, later than that when it was actually made.
Postdiluvian
n.
• One who lived after the flood.
Postea
n.
(Law) The return of the judge before whom a cause was tried, after a verdict, of what was done in the cause, which is indorsed on the nisi prius record.
Postel
n.
• Apostle.
Postencephalon
n.
(Anat.) The metencephalon.
Postentry
n.
• A second or subsequent, at the customhouse, of goods which had been omitted by mistake.
(Bookkeeping) An additional or subsequent entry.
Poster
n.
• A large bill or placard intended to be posted in public places.
• One who posts bills; a billposter.
n.
• One who posts, or travels expeditiously; a courier.
• A post horse.
Posteriority
n.
• The state of being later or subsequent; as, posteriority of time, or of an event; — opposed to priority.
Posteriorly
adv.
• Subsequently in time; also, behind in position.
Posteriors
n. pl.
• The hinder parts, as of an animal's body.
Posterity
n.
• The race that proceeds from a progenitor; offspring to the furthest generation; the aggregate number of persons who are descended from an ancestor of a generation; descendants; — contrasted with ancestry; as, the posterity of Abraham.
• Succeeding generations; future times.
Postern
n.
• Originally, a back door or gate; a private entrance; hence, any small door or gate.
(Fort.) A subterraneous passage communicating between the parade and the main ditch, or between the ditches and the interior of the outworks.
a.
• Back; being behind; private.
Postero
• - (). A combining form meaning posterior, back; as, postero-inferior, situated back and below; postero-lateral, situated back and at the side.
Postexist
v. i.
• To exist after; to live subsequently.
Postexistence
n.
• Subsequent existence.
Postexistent
a.
• Existing or living after.
Postfact
a.
• Relating to a fact that occurs after another.
n.
• A fact that occurs after another.
Postfactum
n.
(Rom. & Eng. Law) Same as Postfact.
Postfix
n.
(Gram.) A letter, syllable, or word, added to the end of another word; a suffix.
v. t.
• To annex; specifically (Gram.), to add or annex, as a letter, syllable, or word, to the end of another or principal word; to suffix.
Postfrontal
a.
(Anat.) Situated behind the frontal bone or the frontal region of the skull; — applied especially to a bone back of and below the frontal in many animals.
n.
• A postfrontal bone.
Postfurca
n.
(Zool.) One of the internal thoracic processes of the sternum of an insect.
Postgeniture
n.
• The condition of being born after another in the same family; — distinguished from primogeniture.
Postglenoid
a.
(Anat.) Situated behind the glenoid fossa of the temporal bone.
Posthaste
n.
• Haste or speed in traveling, like that of a post or courier.
adv.
• With speed or expedition; as, he traveled posthaste; to send posthaste.
Posthouse
n.
• A house established for the convenience of the post, where relays of horses can be obtained.
• A house for distributing the malls; a post office.
Posthumous
a.
• Born after the death of the father, or taken from the dead body of the mother; as, a posthumous son or daughter.
• Published after the death of the author; as, posthumous works; a posthumous edition.
• Being or continuing after one's death; as, a posthumous reputation.
Posthumously
adv.
• It a posthumous manner; after one's decease.
Postic
a.
• Backward.
Postil
n.
• Originally, an explanatory note in the margin of the Bible, so called because written after the text; hence, a marginal note; a comment.
(R. C. Ch. & Luth. Ch.) A short homily or commentary on a passage of Scripture; as, the first postils were composed by order of Charlemagne.
v. t.
• To write marginal or explanatory notes on; to gloss.
v. i.
• To write postils, or marginal notes; to comment; to postillate.
Postiler
n.
• One who writers marginal notes; one who illustrates the text of a book by notes in the margin.
Postilion
n.
• One who rides and guides the first pair of horses of a coach or post chaise; also, one who rides one of the horses when one pair only is used.
Postillate
v. t.
• To explain by marginal notes; to postil.
v. i.
• To write postils; to comment.
• To preach by expounding Scripture verse by verse, in regular order.
Postillation
n.
• The act of postillating; exposition of Scripture in preaching.
Postillator
n.
• One who postillates; one who expounds the Scriptures verse by verse.
Posting
n.
• The act of traveling post.
(Bookkeeping) The act of transferring an account, as from the journal to the ledger.
Postliminiar
a.
• Contrived, done, or existing subsequently.
Postliminiary
a.
• Pertaining to, or involving, the right of postliminium.
Postlude
n.
(Med.) A voluntary at the end of a service.
Postman
n.
• A post or courier; a letter carrier.
(Eng. Law) One of the two most experienced barristers in the Court of Exchequer, who have precedence in motions; — so called from the place where he sits. The other of the two is called the tubman.
Postmark
n.
• The mark, or stamp, of a post office on a letter, giving the place and date of mailing or of arrival.
v. t.
• To mark with a post-office stamp; as, to postmark a letter or parcel.
Postmaster
n.
• One who has charge of a station for the accommodation of travelers; one who supplies post horses.
• One who has charge of a post office, and the distribution and forwarding of mails.
Postmastership
n.
• The office of postmaster.
Postmeridian
a.
• Coming after the sun has passed the meridian; being in, or belonging to, the afternoon. (Abbrev. P. M.)
• Fig., belonging to the after portion of life; late.
Postnares
n. pl.
(Anat.) The posterior nares. See Nares.
Postnatal
a.
• After birth; subsequent to birth; as, postnatal infanticide; postnatal diseases.
Postnate
a.
• Subsequent.
Postnuptial
a.
• Being or happening after marriage; as, a postnuptial settlement on a wife.
Postoblongata
n.
(Anat.) The posterior part of the medulla oblongata.
Postocular
a. & n.
(Zool.) Same as Postorbital.
Postoral
a.
(Anat.) Situated behind, or posterior to, the mouth.
Postorbital
a.
(Anat. & Zool.) Situated behind the orbit; as, the postorbital scales of some fishes and reptiles.
n.
• A postorbital bone or scale.
Postpaid
a.
• Having the postage prepaid, as a letter.
Postpalatine
a.
(Anat.) Situated behind the palate, or behind the palatine bones.
Postpliocene
a.
(Geol.) Of or pertaining to the period immediately following the Pliocene; Pleistocene. Also used as a noun. See Quaternary.
Postpone
v. t.
• To defer to a future or later time; to put off; also, to cause to be deferred or put off; to delay; to adjourn; as, to postpone the consideration of a bill to the following day, or indefinitely.
• To place after, behind, or below something, in respect to precedence, preference, value, or importance.
Postponement
n.
• The act of postponing; a deferring, or putting off, to a future time; a temporary delay.
Postponence
n.
• The act of postponing, in sense 2.
Postponer
n.
• One who postpones.
Postpose
v. t.
• To postpone.
Postposit
v. t.
• To postpone.
Postposition
n.
• The act of placing after, or the state of being placed after.
• A word or particle placed after, or at the end of, another word; — distinguished from preposition.
Postpositional
a.
• Of or pertaining to postposition.
Postpositive
a.
• Placed after another word; as, a postpositive conjunction; a postpositive letter.
Postprandial
a.
• Happening, or done, after dinner; after-dinner; as, postprandial speeches.
Postremogeniture
n.
• The right of the youngest born.
Postremote
a.
• More remote in subsequent time or order.
Postrider
n.
• One who rides over a post road to carry the mails.
Postscapula
n.
(Anat.) The part of the scapula behind or below the spine, or mesoscapula.
Postscapular
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the postscapula; infraspinous.
Postscenium
n.
• The part of a theater behind the scenes; the back part of the stage of a theater.
Postscribe
v. t.
• To make a postscript.
Postscript
n.
• A paragraph added to a letter after it is concluded and signed by the writer; an addition made to a book or composition after the main body of the work has been finished, containing something omitted, or something new occurring to the writer.
Postscripted
a.
• Having a postscript; added in a postscript.
Postscutellum
n.
(Zool.) The hindermost dorsal piece of a thoracic somite of an insect; the plate behind the scutellum.
Postsphenoid
a.
(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the posterior part of the sphenoid bone.
Postterior
a.
• Later in time; hence, later in the order of proceeding or moving; coming after; — opposed to prior.
• Situated behind; hinder; — opposed to anterior.
(Anat.) At or toward the caudal extremity; caudal; — in human anatomy often used for dorsal.
(Bot.) On the side next the axis of inflorescence; — said of an axillary flower.
Posttertiary
a.
(Geol.) Following, or more recent than, the Tertiary; Quaternary.
Postthetomy
n.
(Med.) Circumcision.
Postticous
a.
(Bot.) Posterior.
• Situated on the outer side of a filament; — said of an extrorse anther.
Posttiller
n.
• See Postiler.
Postulant
n.
• One who makes a request or demand; hence, a candidate.
Postulate
n.
• Something demanded or asserted; especially, a position or supposition assumed without proof, or one which is considered as self-evident; a truth to which assent may be demanded or challenged, without argument or evidence.
(Geom.) The enunciation of a self-evident problem, in distinction from an axiom, which is the enunciation of a self-evident theorem.
a.
• Postulated.
v. t.
• To beg, or assume without proof; as, to postulate conclusions.
• To take without express consent; to assume.
• To invite earnestly; to solicit.
Postulated
a.
• Assumed without proof; as, a postulated inference.
Postulation
n.
• The act of postulating, or that which is postulated; assumption; solicitation; suit; cause.
Postulatory
a.
• Of the nature of a postulate.
Postulatum
n.
• A postulate.
Postumous
a.
• See Posthumous.
Postural
a.
• Of or pertaining to posture.
Posture
n.
• The position of the body; the situation or disposition of the several parts of the body with respect to each other, or for a particular purpose; especially (Fine Arts), the position of a figure with regard to the several principal members by which action is expressed; attitude.
• Place; position; situation.
• State or condition, whether of external circumstances, or of internal feeling and will; disposition; mood; as, a posture of defense; the posture of affairs.
v. t.
• To place in a particular position or attitude; to dispose the parts of, with reference to a particular purpose; as, to posture one's self; to posture a model.
v. i.
• To assume a particular posture or attitude; to contort the body into artificial attitudes, as an acrobat or contortionist; also, to pose.
• Fig.: To assume a character; as, to posture as a saint.
Posturer
n.
• One who postures.
Postzygapophysis
n.
(Anat.) A posterior zygapophysis.
Posy
n.
• A brief poetical sentiment; hence, any brief sentiment, motto, or legend; especially, one inscribed on a ring.
• A flower; a bouquet; a nosegay.
Pot
n.
• A metallic or earthen vessel, appropriated to any of a great variety of uses, as for boiling meat or vegetables, for holding liquids, for plants, etc.; as, a quart pot; a flower pot; a bean pot.
• An earthen or pewter cup for liquors; a mug.
• The quantity contained in a pot; a potful; as, a pot of ale.
• A metal or earthenware extension of a flue above the top of a chimney; a chimney pot.
• A crucible; as, a graphite pot; a melting pot.
• A wicker vessel for catching fish, eels, etc.
• A perforated cask for draining sugar.
• A size of paper. See Pott.
v. t.
• To place or inclose in pots
• To preserve seasoned in pots
• To set out or cover in pots; as, potted plants or bulbs
• To drain; as, to pot sugar, by taking it from the cooler, and placing it in hogsheads, etc., having perforated heads, through which the molasses drains off.
(Billiards) To pocket.
v. i.
• To tipple; to drink.
Potable
a.
• Fit to be drunk; drinkable.
n.
• A potable liquid; a beverage.
Potableness
n.
• The quality of being drinkable.
Potage
n.
• See Pottage.
Potager
n.
• A porringer.
Potagro
n.
• See Potargo.
Potale
n.
• The refuse from a grain distillery, used to fatten swine.
Potamian
n.
(Zool.) A river tortoise; one of a group of tortoises (Potamites, or Trionychoidea) having a soft shell, webbed feet, and a sharp beak. See Trionyx.
Potamography
n.
• An account or description of rivers; potamology.
Potamology
n.
• A scientific account or discussion of rivers; a treatise on rivers; potamography.
Potamospongiae
n. pl.
(Zool.) The fresh-water sponges. See Spongilla.
Potance
n.
(Watch Making) The stud in which the bearing for the lower pivot of the verge is made.
Potargo
n.
• A kind of sauce or pickle.
Potash
n.
(Chem.) The hydroxide of potassium hydrate, a hard white brittle substance, KOH, having strong caustic and alkaline properties; — hence called also caustic potash.
• The impure potassium carbonate obtained by leaching wood ashes, either as a strong solution (lye), or as a white crystalline (pearlash).
Potashes
n. pl.
(Chem.) Potash.
Potassa
n.
(Chem.) Potassium oxide.
• Potassium hydroxide, commonly called caustic potash.
Potassamide
n.
(Chem.) A yellowish brown substance obtained by heating potassium in ammonia.
Potassium
n.
(Chem.) An Alkali element, occurring abundantly but always combined, as in the chloride, sulphate, carbonate, or silicate, in the minerals sylvite, kainite, orthoclase, muscovite, etc. Atomic weight 39.0. Symbol K (Kalium).
Potassoxyl
n.
(Chem.) The radical KO, derived from, and supposed to exist in, potassium hydroxide and other compounds.
Potation
n.
• The act of drinking.
• A draught.
• Drink; beverage.
Potato
n.
(Bot.) A plant (Solanum tuberosum) of the Nightshade family, and its esculent farinaceous tuber, of which there are numerous varieties used for food. It is native of South America, but a form of the species is found native as far north as New Mexico.
• The sweet potato (see below).
Potator
n.
• A drinker.
Potatory
a.
• Of or pertaining to drinking.
Potboiler
n.
• A term applied derisively to any literary or artistic work, and esp. a painting, done simply for money and the means of living.
Potboy
n.
• A boy who carries pots of ale, beer, etc.; a menial in a public house.
Potch
v. i.
• To thrust; to push.
v. t.
• See Poach, to cook.
Potcher
n.
• One who, or that which, potches.
Potecary
n.
• An apothecary.
Poteen
n.
• Whisky; especially, whisky illicitly distilled by the Irish peasantry.
Potelot
n.
(Old Chem. & Min.) Molybdenum sulphide.
Potence
n.
• Potency; capacity.
Potency
n.
• The quality or state of being potent; physical or moral power; inherent strength; energy; ability to effect a purpose; capability; efficacy; influence.
Potent
a.
• Producing great physical effects; forcible; powerful' efficacious; as, a potent medicine.
• Having great authority, control, or dominion; puissant; mighty; influential; as, a potent prince.
• Powerful, in an intellectual or moral sense; having great influence; as, potent interest; a potent argument.
n.
• A prince; a potentate.
• A staff or crutch.
(Her.) One of the furs; a surface composed of patches which are supposed to represent crutch heads; they are always alternately argent and azure, unless otherwise specially mentioned.
Potentacy
n.
• Sovereignty.
Potentate
n.
• One who is potent; one who possesses great power or sway; a prince, sovereign, or monarch.
Potential
a.
• Being potent; endowed with energy adequate to a result; efficacious; influential.
• Existing in possibility, not in actuality.
n.
• Anything that may be possible; a possibility; potentially.
(Math.) In the theory of gravitation, or of other forces acting in space, a function of the rectangular coordinates which determine the position of a point, such that its differential coefficients with respect to the coordinates are equal to the components of the force at the point considered; — also called potential function, or force function. It is called also Newtonian potential when the force is directed to a fixed center and is inversely as the square of the distance from the center.
(Elec.) The energy of an electrical charge measured by its power to do work; hence, the degree of electrification as referred to some standard, as that of the earth; electro-motive force.
Potentiality
n.
• The quality or state of being potential; possibility, not actuality; inherent capability or disposition, not actually exhibited.
Potentially
adv.
• With power; potently.
• In a potential manner; possibly, not positively.
Potentiate
v. t.
• To render active or potent.
Potentiometer
n.
(Elec.) An instrument for measuring or comparing electrial potentials or electro-motive forces.
Potentize
v. t.
• To render the latent power of (anything) available.
Potently
adv.
• With great force or energy; powerfully; efficaciously.
Potentness
n.
• The quality or state of being potent; powerfulness; potency; efficacy.
Potestate
n.
• A chief ruler; a potentate. Wyclif.
Potestative
a.
• Authoritative.
Potgun
n.
• A pot-shaped cannon; a mortar.
• A popgun.
Pothecary
n.
• An apothecary.
Potheen
n.
• See Poteen.
Pother
n.
• Bustle; confusion; tumult; flutter; bother.
v. i.
• To make a bustle or stir; to be fussy.
v. t.
• To harass and perplex; to worry.
Pothole
n.
• A circular hole formed in the rocky beds of rivers by the grinding action of stones or gravel whirled round by the water in what was at first a natural depression of the rock.
Pothook
n.
• An
• A written character curved like a pothook; (pl.) a scrawled writing.
Pothouse
n.
• An alehouse.
Potion
n.
• A draught; a dose; usually, a draught or dose of a liquid medicine.
v. t.
• To drug.
Potlid
n.
• The lid or cover of a pot.
Potluck
n.
• Whatever may chance to be in the pot, or may be provided for a meal.
Potman
n.
• A pot companion.
• A servant in a public house; a potboy.
Potoo
n.
(Zool.) A large South American goatsucker (Nyctibius grandis).
Potoroo
n.
(Zool.) Any small kangaroo belonging to Hypsiprymnus, Bettongia, and allied genera, native of Australia and Tasmania. Called also kangaroo rat.
Potpie
n.
• A meat pie which is boiled instead of being baked.
Potpourri
n.
• A medley or mixture
• A ragout composed of different sorts of meats, vegetables, etc., cooked together.
• A jar or packet of flower leaves, perfumes, and spices, used to scent a room
• A piece of music made up of different airs strung together; a medley
• A literary production composed of parts brought together without order or bond of connection.
Potsherd
n.
• A piece or fragment of a broken pot.
Potstone
n.
(Min.) A variety of steatite sometimes manufactured into culinary vessels.
Potsure
a.
• Made confident by drink.
Pott
n.
• A size of paper. See under Paper.
Pottage
n.
• A kind of food made by boiling vegetables or meat, or both together, in water, until soft; a thick soup or porridge.
Pottain
n.
• Old pot metal.
Pottassic
a.
(Chem.) Pertaining to, or containing, potassium.
Potteen
n.
• See Poteen.
Potter
n.
• One whose occupation is to make earthen vessels.
• One who hawks crockery or earthenware.
• One who pots meats or other eatables.
(Zool.) The red-bellied terrapin. See Terrapin.
v. i.
• To busy one's self with trifles; to labor with little purpose, energy, of effect; to trifle; to pother.
• To walk lazily or idly; to saunter.
v. t.
• To poke; to push; also, to disturb; to confuse; to bother.
Pottern
a.
• Of or pertaining to potters.
Pottery
n.
• The vessels or ware made by potters; earthenware, glazed and baked.
• The place where earthen vessels are made.
Potting
n.
• Tippling.
• The act of placing in a pot; as, the potting of plants; the potting of meats for preservation.
• The process of putting sugar in casks for cleansing and draining.
Pottle
n.
• A liquid measure of four pints.
• A pot or tankard.
• A vessel or small basket for holding fruit.
Potto
n.
(Zool.) A nocturnal mammal (Perodictius potto) of the Lemur family, found in West Africa. It has rudimentary forefingers. Called also aposoro, and bush dog.
• The kinkajou.
Potulent
a.
• Fit to drink; potable.
• Nearly drunk; tipsy.
Pouch
n.
• A small bag; usually, a leathern bag; as, a pouch for money; a shot pouch; a mail pouch, etc.
• That which is shaped like, or used as, a pouch
• A protuberant belly; a paunch; — so called in ridicule
(Zool.) A sac or bag for carrying food or young; as, the cheek pouches of certain rodents, and the pouch of marsupials
(Med.) A cyst or sac containing fluid
(Bot.) A silicle, or short pod, as of the shepherd's purse
• A bulkhead in the hold of a vessel, to prevent grain, etc., from shifting.
v. t.
• To put or take into a pouch.
• To swallow; — said of fowls.
• To pout.
• To pocket; to put up with.
Pouched
a.
(Zool.) Having a marsupial pouch; as, the pouched badger, or the wombat.
• Having external cheek pouches; as, the pouched gopher.
• Having internal cheek pouches; as, the pouched squirrels.
Pouchong
n.
• A superior kind of souchong tea.
Poudre
n.
• Dust; powder.
Poudrette
n.
• A manure made from night soil, dried and mixed with charcoal, gypsum, etc.
Poulaine
n.
• A long pointed shoe. See Cracowes.
Pouldavis
n.
• Same as Poledavy.
Poulder
n. & v.
• Powder.
Pouldron
n.
• See Pauldron.
Poult
n.
• A young chicken, partridge, grouse, or the like.
Poulter
n.
• A poulterer.
Poulterer
n.
• One who deals in poultry.
Poultice
n.
• A soft composition, as of bread, bran, or a mucilaginous substance, to be applied to sores, inflamed parts of the body, etc.; a cataplasm.
v. t.
• To apply a poultice to; to dress with a poultice.
Poultive
n.
• A poultice.
Poultry
n.
• Domestic fowls reared for the table, or for their eggs or feathers, such as cocks and hens, capons, turkeys, ducks, and geese.
Pounce
n.
• A fine powder, as of sandarac, or cuttlefish bone, — formerly used to prevent ink from spreading on manuscript.
• Charcoal dust, or some other colored powder for making patterns through perforated designs, — used by embroiderers, lace makers, etc.
v. t.
• To sprinkle or rub with pounce; as, to pounce paper, or a pattern.
n.
• The claw or talon of a bird of prey.
• A punch or stamp.
• Cloth worked in eyelet holes.
v. t.
• To strike or seize with the talons; to pierce, as with the talons.
• To punch; to perforate; to stamp holes in, or dots on, by way of ornament.
v. i.
• To fall suddenly and seize with the claws; — with on or upon; as, a hawk pounces upon a chicken. Also used figuratively.
Pounced
a.
• Furnished with claws or talons; as, the pounced young of the eagle.
• Ornamented with perforations or dots.
Pouncing
n.
• The art or practice of transferring a design by means of pounce.
• Decorative perforation of cloth.
Pound/keeper
n.
• The keeper of a pound.
Pound
v. t.
• To strike repeatedly with some heavy instrument; to beat.
• To comminute and pulverize by beating; to bruise or break into fine particles with a pestle or other heavy instrument; as, to pound spice or salt.
v. i.
• To strike heavy blows; to beat.
(Mach.) To make a jarring noise, as in running; as, the engine pounds.
n.
• An inclosure, maintained by public authority, in which cattle or other animals are confined when taken in trespassing, or when going at large in violation of law; a pinfold.
• A level stretch in a canal between locks.
(Fishing) A kind of net, having a large inclosure with a narrow entrance into which fish are directed by wings spreading outward.
v. t.
• To confine in, or as in, a pound; to impound.
n
• A certain specified weight; especially, a legal standard consisting of an established number of ounces.
• A British denomination of money of account, equivalent to twenty shillings sterling, and equal in value to about $4.86. There is no coin known by this name, but the gold sovereign is of the same value.
Poundage
n.
• A sum deducted from a pound, or a certain sum paid for each pound; a commission.
• A subsidy of twelve pence in the pound, formerly granted to the crown on all goods exported or imported, and if by aliens, more.
(Law) The sum allowed to a sheriff or other officer upon the amount realized by an execution; — estimated in England, and formerly in the United States, at so much of the pound.
v. t.
• To collect, as poundage; to assess, or rate, by poundage.
n.
• Confinement of cattle, or other animals, in a public pound.
• A charge paid for the release of impounded cattle.
Poundal
n.
(Physics & Mech.) A unit of force based upon the pound, foot, and second, being the force which, acting on a pound avoirdupois for one second, causes it to acquire by the of that time a velocity of one foot per second. It is about equal to the weight of half an ounce, and is 13,825 dynes.
Poundcake
n.
• A kind of rich, sweet cake; — so called from the ingredients being used by pounds, or in equal quantities.
Pounder
n.
• One who, or that which, pounds, as a stamp in an ore mill.
• An instrument used for pounding; a pestle.
• A person or thing, so called with reference to a certain number of pounds in value, weight, capacity, etc.; as, a cannon carrying a twelve-pound ball is called a twelve pounder.
Pounding
n.
• The act of beating, bruising, or breaking up; a beating.
• A pounded or pulverized substance.
Poundrate
n.
• A rate or proportion estimated at a certain amount for each pound; poundage.
Poup
v. i.
• See Powp.
Poupeton
n.
• A puppet, or little baby.
Pour
a.
• Poor.
v. i.
• To pore.
v. t.
• To cause to flow in a stream, as a liquid or anything flowing like a liquid, either out of a vessel or into it; as, to pour water from a pail; to pour wine into a decanter; to pour oil upon the waters; to pour out sand or dust.
• To send forth as in a stream or a flood; to emit; to let escape freely or wholly.
• To send forth from, as in a stream; to discharge uninterruptedly.
v. i.
• To flow, pass, or issue in a stream, or as a stream; to fall continuously and abundantly; as, the rain pours; the people poured out of the theater.
n.
• A stream, or something like a stream; a flood.
Poureliche
adv.
• Poorly.
Pourer
n.
• One who pours.
Pourlieu
n.
• See Purlieu.
Pourparler
n.
(Diplomacy) A consultation preliminary to a treaty.
Pourparty
n.
(Law) A division; a divided share.
Pourpoint
n.
• A quilted military doublet or gambeson worn in the 14th and 15th centuries; also, a name for the doublet of the 16th and 17th centuries worn by civilians.
Pourpresture
n.
(Law) See Purpresture.
Poursuivant
n.
• See Pursuivant.
Pourtray
v. t.
• See Portray.
Pourveyance
n.
• See Purveyance.
Pousse
n.
• Pulse; pease.
Poussette
n.
• A movement, or part of a figure, in the contradance.
v. i.
• To perform a certain movement in a dance.
Pout
n.
• A sullen protrusion of the lips; a fit of sullenness.
n.
(Zool.) The European whiting pout or bib.
Pout
n.
• The young of some birds, as grouse; a young fowl.
v. i.
• To shoot pouts.
v. i.
• To thrust out the lips, as in sullenness or displeasure; hence, to look sullen.
Pouter
n.
• One who, or that which, pouts.
(Zool.) A variety of the domestic pigeon remarkable for the extent to which it is able to dilate its throat and breast.
Pouting
n.
• Childish sullenness.
Poutingly
adv.
• In a pouting, or a sullen, manner.
Povert
n.
• Poverty.
Poverty
n.
• The quality or state of being poor or indigent; want or scarcity of means of subsistence; indigence; need.
• Any deficiency of elements or resources that are needed or desired, or that constitute richness; as, poverty of soil; poverty of the blood; poverty of ideas.
Powder
n.
• The fine particles to which any dry substance is reduced by pounding, grinding, or triturating, or into which it falls by decay; dust.
• An explosive mixture used in gunnery, blasting, etc.; gunpowder. See Gunpowder.
v. t.
• To reduce to fine particles; to pound, grind, or rub into a powder; to comminute; to pulverize; to triturate.
• To sprinkle with powder, or as with powder; to be sprinkle; as, to powder the hair.
• To sprinkle with salt; to corn, as meat.
v. i.
• To be reduced to powder; to become like powder; as, some salts powder easily.
• To use powder on the hair or skin; as, she paints and powders.
Powdered
a.
• Reduced to a powder; sprinkled with, or as with, powder.
• Sprinkled with salt; salted; corned.
(Her.) Same as Seme.
Powderflask
n.
• A flask in which gunpowder is carried, having a charging tube at the end.
Powderhorn
n.
• A horn in which gunpowder is carried.
Powdering
• a. & n. from Powder, v. t.
Powdermill
n.
• A mill in which gunpowder is made.
Powdery
a.
• Easily crumbling to pieces; friable; loose; as, a powdery spar.
• Sprinkled or covered with powder; dusty; as, the powdery bloom on plums.
• Resembling powder; consisting of powder.
Powdike
n.
• A dike a marsh or fen.
Powdry
a.
• See Powdery.
Power
n.
(Zool.) Same as Poor, the fish.
n.
• Ability to act, regarded as latent or inherent; the faculty of doing or performing something; capacity for action or performance; capability of producing an effect, whether physical or moral: potency; might; as, a man of great power; the power of capillary attraction; money gives power.
• Ability, regarded as put forth or exerted; strength, force, or energy in action; as, the power of steam in moving an engine; the power of truth, or of argument, in producing conviction; the power of enthusiasm.
• Capacity of undergoing or suffering; fitness to be acted upon; susceptibility; — called also passive power; as, great power of endurance.
• The exercise of a faculty; the employment of strength; the exercise of any kind of control; influence; dominion; sway; command; government.
• The agent exercising an ability to act; an individual invested with authority; an institution, or government, which exercises control; as, the great powers of Europe; hence, often, a superhuman agent; a spirit; a divinity.
• A military or naval force; an army or navy; a great host.
• A large quantity; a great number; as, a power o good things.
(Mech.) The rate at which mechanical energy is exerted or mechanical work performed, as by an engine or other machine, or an animal, working continuously; as, an engine of twenty horse power.
• A mechanical agent; that from which useful mechanical energy is derived; as, water power; steam power; hand power, etc.
• Applied force; force producing motion or pressure; as, the power applied at one and of a lever to lift a weight at the other end
• A machine acted upon by an animal, and serving as a motor to drive other machinery; as, a dog power
(Math.) The product arising from the multiplication of a number into itself; as, a square is the second power, and a cube is third power, of a number.
(Metaph.) Mental or moral ability to act; one of the faculties which are possessed by the mind or soul; as, the power of thinking, reasoning, judging, willing, fearing, hoping, etc.
(Optics) The degree to which a lens, mirror, or any optical instrument, magnifies; in the telescope, and usually in the microscope, the number of times it multiplies, or augments, the apparent diameter of an object; sometimes, in microscopes, the number of times it multiplies the apparent surface.
(Law) An authority enabling a person to dispose of an interest vested either in himself or in another person; ownership by appointment.
• Hence, vested authority to act in a given case; as, the business was referred to a committee with power.
Powerable
a.
• Capable of being effected or accomplished by the application of power; possible.
• Capable of exerting power; powerful.
Powerful
a.
• Full of power; capable of producing great effects of any kind; potent; mighty; efficacious; intense; as, a powerful man or beast; a powerful engine; a powerful argument; a powerful light; a powerful vessel.
(Mining) Large; capacious; — said of veins of ore.
Powerless
a.
• Destitute of power, force, or energy; weak; impotent; not able to produce any effect.
Powldron
n.
• Same as Pauldron.
Powp
v. i.
• See Poop, v. i.
Powpow
n.
• A priest, or conjurer, among the North American Indians.
• Conjuration attended with great noise and confusion, and often with feasting, dancing, etc., performed by Indians for the cure of diseases, to procure success in hunting or in war, and for other purposes.
• Hence: Any assembly characterized by noise and confusion; a noisy frolic or gathering.
Powter
n.
(Zool.) See Pouter.
Powwow
v. i.
• To use conjuration, with noise and confusion, for the cure of disease, etc., as among the North American Indians.
• Hence: To hold a noisy, disorderly meeting.
Pox
n.
(Med.) Strictly, a disease by pustules or eruptions of any kind, but chiefly or wholly restricted to three or four diseases, — the smallpox, the chicken pox, and the vaccine and the venereal diseases.
v. t.
• To infect with the pox, or syphilis.
Poy
n.
• A support; — used in composition; as, teapoy.
• A ropedancer's balancing pole.
• A long boat hook by which barges are propelled against the stream.
Poynado
n.
• A poniard.
Poyntel
n.
(Arch.) Paving or flooring made of small squares or lozenges set diagonally.
Poyou
n.
(Zool.) A South American armadillo (Dasypus sexcinctus). Called also sixbanded armadillo.
Poze
v. t.
• See 5th Pose.
Praam
n.
(Naut.) A flat-bottomed boat or lighter, — used in Holland and the Baltic, and sometimes armed in case of war.
Practic
a.
• Practical.
• Artful; deceitful; skillful.
Practicability
n.
• The quality or state of being practicable; practicableness; feasibility.
Practicable
a.
• That may be practiced or performed; capable of being done or accomplished with available means or resources; feasible; as, a practicable method; a practicable aim; a practicable good.
• Capable of being used; passable; as, a practicable weapon; a practicable road.
Practical
a.
• Of or pertaining to practice or action.
• Capable of being turned to use or account; useful, in distinction from ideal or theoretical; as, practical chemistry.
• Evincing practice or skill; capable of applying knowledge to some useful end; as, a practical man; a practical mind.
• Derived from practice; as, practical skill.
Practicality
n.
• The quality or state of being practical; practicalness.
Practicalize
v. t.
• To render practical.
Practically
adv.
• 1. In a practical way; not theoretically; really; as, to look at things practically; practically worthless.
• By means of practice or use; by experience or experiment; as, practically wise or skillful; practically acquainted with a subject.
• In practice or use; as, a medicine practically safe; theoretically wrong, but practically right.
• Almost.
Practicalness
n.
• Same as Practicality.
Practice
n.
• Frequently repeated or customary action; habitual performance; a succession of acts of a similar kind; usage; habit; custom; as, the practice of rising early; the practice of making regular entries of accounts; the practice of daily exercise.
• Customary or constant use; state of being used.
• Skill or dexterity acquired by use; expertness.
• Actual performance; application of knowledge; — opposed to theory.
• Systematic exercise for instruction or discipline; as, the troops are called out for practice; she neglected practice in music.
• Application of science to the wants of men; the exercise of any profession; professional business; as, the practice of medicine or law; a large or lucrative practice.
• Skillful or artful management; dexterity in contrivance or the use of means; art; stratagem; artifice; plot; — usually in a bad sense.
(Math.) A easy and concise method of applying the rules of arithmetic to questions which occur in trade and business.
(Law) The form, manner, and order of conducting and carrying on suits and prosecutions through their various stages, according to the principles of law and the rules laid down by the courts.
v. t.
• To do or perform frequently, customarily, or habitually; to make a practice of; as, to practice gaming.
• To exercise, or follow, as a profession, trade, art, etc., as, to practice law or medicine.
• To exercise one's self in, for instruction or improvement, or to acquire discipline or dexterity; as, to practice gunnery; to practice music.
• To put into practice; to carry out; to act upon; to commit; to execute; to do.
• To make use of; to employ.
• To teach or accustom by practice; to train.
v. i.
• To perform certain acts frequently or customarily, either for instruction, profit, or amusement; as, to practice with the broadsword or with the rifle; to practice on the piano.
• To learn by practice; to form a habit.
• To try artifices or stratagems.
• To apply theoretical science or knowledge, esp. by way of experiment; to exercise or pursue an employment or profession, esp. that of medicine or of law.
Practiced
a.
• Experienced; expert; skilled; as, a practiced marksman.
• Used habitually; learned by practice.
Practicer
n.
• One who practices, or puts in practice; one who customarily performs certain acts.
• One who exercises a profession; a practitioner.
• One who uses art or stratagem.
Practician
n.
• One who is acquainted with, or skilled in, anything by practice; a practitioner.
Practick
n.
• Practice.
Practisant
n.
• An agent or confederate in treachery.
Practise
v. t. & i.
• See Practice.
Practisour
n.
• A practitioner.
Practitioner
n.
• One who is engaged in the actual use or exercise of any art or profession, particularly that of law or medicine.
• One who does anything customarily or habitually.
• A sly or artful person.
Practive
a.
• Doing; active.
Prad
n.
• A horse.
Praecava
n.
(Anat.) The superior vena cava.
Praecipe
n.
(Law) A writ commanding something to be done, or requiring a reason for neglecting it.
• A paper containing the particulars of a writ, lodged in the office out of which the writ is to be issued.
Praecoces
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of birds including those whose young are able to run about when first hatched.
Praecocial
a.
(Zool.) Of or pertaining to the Praecoces.
Praecognita
n. pl.
• This previously known, or which should be known in order to understand something else.
Praecommissure
n.
(Anat.) A transverse commissure in the anterior part of the third ventricle of the brain; the anterior cerebral commissure.
Praecoracoid
n.
(Anat.) See Precoracoid.
Praecordia
n.
(Anat.) The front part of the thoracic region; the epigastrium.
Praecordial
a.
(Anat.) Same as Precordial.
Praecornu
n.
(Anat.) The anterior horn of each lateral ventricle of the brain.
Praedial
a.
• See Predial.
Praefloration
n.
• Same as Prefloration.
Praefoliation
n.
• Same as Prefoliation.
Praemaxilla
n.
• See Premaxilla.
Praemnire
v. t.
• The subject to the penalties of praemunire.
Praemolar
a.
• See Premolar.
Praemorse
a.
• Same as Premorse.
Praemunire
n.
(Eng. Law) The offense of introducing foreign authority into England, the penalties for which were originally intended to depress the civil power of the pope in the kingdom.
• The writ grounded on that offense.
• The penalty ascribed for the offense of praemunire.
Praemunitory
a.
• See Premunitory.
Praenares
n. pl.
(Anat.) The anterior nares. See Nares.
Praenasal
a.
(Anat.) Same as Prenasal.
Praenomen
n.
(Rom. Antiq.) The first name of a person, by which individuals of the same family were distinguished, answering to our Christian name, as Caius, Lucius, Marcus, etc.
Praenominical
a.
• Of or pertaining to a praenomen.
Praeoperculum
n.
(Anat.) Same as Preoperculum.
Praeterist
n.
(Theol.) See Preterist.
Praetermit
v. t.
• See Pretermit.
Praetexta
n.
(Rom. Antiq.) A white robe with a purple border, worn by a Roman boy before he was entitled to wear the toga virilis, or until about the completion of his fourteenth year, and by girls until their marriage. It was also worn by magistrates and priests.
Praetor
n.
• See Pretor.
Praetores
n. pl.
(Zool.) A division of butterflies including the satyrs.
Praetorian
a.
• See Pretorian.
Praetorium
n.
• See Pretorium.
Praezygapophysis
n.
(Anat.) Same as Prezygapophysis.
Pragmatic
n.
• One skilled in affairs.
• A solemn public ordinance or decree.
Pragmatically
adv.
• In a pragmatical manner.
Pragmaticalness
n.
• The quality or state of being pragmatical.
Pragmatism
n.
• The quality or state of being pragmatic; in literature, the pragmatic, or philosophical, method.
Pragmatist
n.
• One who is pragmatic.
Pragmatize
v. t.
• To consider, represent, or embody (something unreal) as fact; to materialize.
Prairial
n.
• The ninth month of the French Republican calendar, which dated from September 22, 1792. It began May, 20, and ended June 18. See Vendemiaire.
Prairie
n.
• An extensive tract of level or rolling land, destitute of trees, covered with coarse grass, and usually characterized by a deep, fertile soil. They abound throughout the Mississippi valley, between the Alleghanies and the Rocky mountains.
• A meadow or tract of grass; especially, a so called natural meadow.
Praisable
a.
• Fit to be praised; praise-worthy; laudable; commendable.
Praisably
adv.
• In a praisable manner.
Praise
v. t.
• To commend; to applaud; to express approbation of; to laud; — applied to a person or his acts.
• To extol in words or song; to magnify; to glorify on account of perfections or excellent works; to do honor to; to display the excellence of; — applied especially to the Divine Being.
• To value; to appraise.
n.
• Commendation for worth; approval expressed; honor rendered because of excellence or worth; laudation; approbation.
• Especially, the joyful tribute of gratitude or homage rendered to the Divine Being; the act of glorifying or extolling the Creator; worship, particularly worship by song, distinction from prayer and other acts of worship; as, a service of praise.
• The object, ground, or reason of praise.
Praiseer
n.
• One who praises.
• An appraiser; a valuator.
Praiseful
a.
• Praiseworthy.
a.
• Praiseworthy.
Praiseless
a.
• Without praise or approbation.
Praisement
n.
• Appraisement.
Praiseworthily
adv.
• In a praiseworthy manner.
Praiseworthiness
n.
• The quality or state of being praiseworthy.
Praiseworthy
a.
• Worthy of praise or applause; commendable; as, praiseworthy action; he was praiseworthy.
Prakrit
n.
• Any one of the popular dialects descended from, or akin to, Sanskrit; — in distinction from the Sanskrit, which was used as a literary and learned language when no longer spoken by the people. Pali is one of the Prakrit dialects.
Prakritic
a.
• Pertaining to Prakrit.
Prance
v. i.
• To spring or bound, as a horse in high mettle.
• To ride on a prancing horse; to ride in an ostentatious manner.
• To walk or strut about in a pompous, showy manner, or with warlike parade.
Prancer
n.
• A horse which prances.
Prandial
a.
• Of or pertaining to a repast, especially to dinner.
Prangos
n.
(Bot.) A genus of umbelliferous plants, one species of which (P. pabularia), found in Thibet, Cashmere, Afghanistan, etc., has been used as fodder for cattle. It has decompound leaves with very long narrow divisions, and a highly fragrant smell resembling that of new clover hay.
Prank
v. t.
• To adorn in a showy manner; to dress or equip ostentatiously; — often followed by up; as, to prank up the body. See Prink.
v. i.
• To make ostentatious show.
n.
• A gay or sportive action; a ludicrous, merry, or mischievous trick; a caper; a frolic.
a.
• Full of gambols or tricks.
Pranker
n.
• One who dresses showily; a prinker.
Prankish
a.
• Full of pranks; frolicsome.
Prase
n.
(Min.) A variety of cryptocrystalline of a leek-green color.
Praseodymium
n.
(Chem.) An elementary substance, one of the constituents of didymium; — so called from the green color of its salts. Symbol Ps. Atomic weight 143.6.
Praseolite
n.
(Min.) A variety of altered iolite of a green color and greasy luster.
Prasinous
a.
• Grass-green; clear, lively green, without any mixture.
Prasoid
a.
(Min.) Resembling prase.
Prate
v. i.
• To talk much and to little purpose; to be loquacious; to speak foolishly; to babble.
v. t.
• To utter foolishly; to speak without reason or purpose; to chatter, or babble.
n.
• Talk to little purpose; trifling talk; unmeaning loquacity.
Prateful
a.
• Talkative.
Prater
n.
• One who prates.
Pratic
n.
• See Pratique.
Pratincole
n.
(Zool.) Any bird of the Old World genus Glareola, or family Glareolidae, allied to the plovers. They have long, pointed wings and a forked tail.
Pratingly
adv.
• With idle talk; with loquacity.
Pratique
n.
(Com.) Primarily, liberty of converse; intercourse; hence, a certificate, given after compliance with quarantine regulations, permitting a ship to land passengers and crew; — a term used particularly in the south of Europe.
• Practice; habits.
Prattle
v. i.
• To talk much and idly; to prate; hence, to talk lightly and artlessly, like a child; to utter child's talk.
v. t.
• To utter as prattle; to babble; as, to prattle treason.
n.
• Trifling or childish tattle; empty talk; loquacity on trivial subjects; prate; babble.
Prattlement
n.
• Prattle.
Prattler
n.
• One who prattles.
Pravity
n.
• Deterioration; degeneracy; corruption; especially, moral crookedness; moral perversion; perverseness; depravity; as, the pravity of human nature.
Prawn
n.
(Zool.) Any one of numerous species of large shrimplike Crustacea having slender legs and long antennae. They mostly belong to the genera Pandalus, Palaemon, Palaemonetes, and Peneus, and are much used as food. The common English prawn in Palaemon serratus.
Praxinoscope
n.
(Opt.) An instrument, similar to the phenakistoscope, for presenting to view, or projecting upon a screen, images the natural motions of real objects.
Praxis
n.
• Use; practice; especially, exercise or discipline for a specific purpose or object.
• An example or form of exercise, or a collection of such examples, for practice.
Pray
n. & v.
• See Pry.
v. i.
• To make request with earnestness or zeal, as for something desired; to make entreaty or supplication; to offer prayer to a deity or divine being as a religious act; specifically, to address the Supreme Being with adoration, confession, supplication, and thanksgiving.
v. t.
• To address earnest request to; to supplicate; to entreat; to implore; to beseech.
• To ask earnestly for; to seek to obtain by supplication; to entreat for.
• To effect or accomplish by praying; as, to pray a soul out of purgatory.
Prayer
n.
• One who prays; a supplicant.
n.
• The act of praying, or of asking a favor; earnest request or entreaty; hence, a petition or memorial addressed to a court or a legislative body.
• The act of addressing supplication to a divinity, especially to the true God; the offering of adoration, confession, supplication, and thanksgiving to the Supreme Being; as, public prayer; secret prayer.
• The form of words used in praying; a formula of supplication; an expressed petition; especially, a supplication addressed to God; as, a written or extemporaneous prayer; to repeat one's prayers.
Prayerful
a.
• Given to prayer; praying much or often; devotional.
Prayerless
a.
• Not using prayer; habitually neglecting prayer to God; without prayer.
Praying
• a. & n. from Pray, v.
Prayingly
adv.
• With supplication to God.

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